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Accounting Principles

Thirteenth Edition
Weygandt Kimmel Kieso

Chapter 9

Accounting for Receivables


Prepared by
Coby Harmon
University of California, Santa Barbara
Westmont College
Chapter Outline
Learning Objectives
LO 1 Explain how companies recognize accounts
receivable.
LO 2 Describe how companies value accounts receivable
and record their disposition.
LO 3 Explain how companies recognize, value, and
dispose of notes receivable.
LO 4 Describe the statement presentation and analysis
of receivables.

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 2


Recognition of Accounts Receivable
Amounts due from individuals and companies that are
expected to be collected in cash.

Amounts Written promise for Nontrade receivables


customers owe on amounts to be such as interest,
account that result received. Normally loans to officers,
from the sale of requires the advances to
goods and services. collection of employees, and
interest. income taxes.
Accounts Notes Other
Receivable Receivable Receivables

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 3


Recognition of Accounts Receivable
Amounts due from individuals and companies that are
expected to be collected in cash.

Receivables as a
Percentage of
Company Total Assets
Ford Motor Company 43.2%
General Electric 41.5
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) 12.7
DuPont Co. 11.7
Intel Corporation 3.9
ILLUSTRATION 9.1
Receivables as a percentage of assets
LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 4
Recognizing Accounts Receivable
• Service organizations record a receivable when it
performs service on account
• Merchandisers record accounts receivable at point of
sale of merchandise on account
• Companies report receivables from employees
separately in financial statements

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 5


Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Illustration: Assume that Jordache Co. on July 1, 2020, sells
merchandise on account to Polo Company for $1,000, terms
2/10, n/30. On July 5, Polo returns merchandise with a sales
price of $100 to Jordache Co. Prepare the journal entries to
record these transactions.
July 1 Accounts Receivable 1,000
Sales Revenue 1,000
July 5 Sales Returns and Allowances 100
Accounts Receivable 100

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 6


Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Illustration: On July 11, Jordache receives payment from Polo
Company for the balance due. Prepare the journal entire to
record this transaction.
July 11 Cash ($900 − $18) 882
Sales Discounts ($900 × .02) 18
Accounts Receivable 900

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 7


Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Some retailers issue their own credit cards. When you use a
retailer’s credit card (JCPenney, for example), the retailer
charges interest on the balance due if not paid within a
specified period (usually 25–30 days).
Illustration: Assume you use your JCPenney credit card to
purchase clothing with a sales price of $300 on June 1, 2020.
The entry is recorded as follows.
June 1 Accounts Receivable 300
Sales Revenue 300

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 8


Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Illustration: Assuming that you owe $300 at the end of the
month and JCPenney charges 1.5% per month on the balance
due, the adjusting entry that JCPenney makes to record
interest revenue of $4.50 ($300 × 1.5%) on June 30 is as
follows.
June 30 Accounts Receivable 4.50
Interest Revenue 4.50

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 9


ANATOMY OF A FRAUD

Tasanee was the accounts receivable clerk for a large non-profit foundation that provided
performance and exhibition space for the performing and visual arts. Her responsibilities included
activities normally assigned to an accounts receivable clerk, such as recording revenues from
various sources that included donations, facility rental fees, ticket revenue, and bar receipts.
However, she was also responsible for handling all cash and checks from the time they were
received until the time she deposited them, as well as preparing the bank reconciliation. Tasanee
took advantage of her situation by falsifying bank deposits and bank reconciliations so that she
could steal cash from the bar receipts. Since nobody else logged the donations or matched the
donation receipts to pledges prior to Tasanee receiving them, she was able to offset the cash that
was stolen against donations that she received but didn’t record. Her crime was made easier by the
fact that her boss, the company’s controller, only did a very superficial review of the bank
reconciliation and thus didn’t notice that some numbers had been cut out from other documents
and taped onto the bank reconciliation.

Total take: $1.5 million

THE MISSING CONTROL


Segregation of duties. The foundation should not have allowed an accounts receivable clerk, whose
job was to record receivables, to also handle cash, record cash, make deposits, and especially
prepare the bank reconciliation.
Independent internal verification. The controller was supposed to perform a thorough review of
the bank reconciliation. Because he did not, he was terminated from his position.

LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 10


DO IT! 1 Recognizing Receivables
On May 1, Wilton sold merchandise on account to Bates for $50,000,
terms 3/15, net 45. On May 4, Bates returns merchandise with a sales
price of $2,000. On May 16, Wilton receives payment from Bates for
the balance due. Prepare journal entries to record the May
transactions on Wilton’s books.
May 1 Accounts Receivable 50,000
Sales Revenue 50,000
May 4 Sales Returns and Allowances 2,000
Accounts Receivable 2,000
May 16 Cash ($48,000 − $1,440) 46,560
Sales Discounts ($48,000 × .03) 1,440
Accounts Receivable 48,000
LO 1 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 11
Valuation and Disposition of Accounts
Receivable
Valuing Accounts Receivables
• Current asset
• Valuation (cash realizable value)
Uncollectible Accounts Receivable
• Sales on account raise the possibility of accounts not
being collected
• Companies record credit losses as debits to Bad Debt
Expense
LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 12
Valuing Accounts Receivable
Methods of Accounting for Uncollectible Accounts

Direct Write-Off Allowance Method


Theoretically undesirable: Losses are estimated:
 No matching  Better matching
 Receivable not stated at  Receivable stated at cash
cash realizable value realizable value
 Not acceptable for  Required by GAAP
financial reporting

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 13


Valuing Accounts Receivable
How are these accounts presented on the Balance Sheet?

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Bal. 500 25 Bal.

Bal. Bal.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 14


Valuing Accounts Receivable
ABC Corporation
Balance Sheet (partial)
Current Assets
Cash $ 330
Accounts receivable $500
Allowance for doubtful accounts 25 475
Inventory 812
Prepaid expense 40
Total current assets $1,657

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 15


Valuing Accounts Receivable
ABC Corporation Alternate
Balance Sheet (partial) Presentation

Current Assets
Cash $ 330
Accounts receivable, net of $25 allowance 475
Inventory 812
Prepaid expense 40
Total current assets $1,657

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 16


Valuing Accounts Receivable
Journal entry for credit sale of $100
Accounts Receivable 100
Sales Revenue 100

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Bal. 500 25 Bal.
Sale 100

Bal. 600 25 Bal.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 17


Valuing Accounts Receivable
Collect $333 on account?
Cash 333
Accounts Receivable 333

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Bal. 500 25 Bal.
Sale 100 333 Coll.

Bal. 267 25 Bal.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 18


Valuing Accounts Receivable
Adjustment of $15 for estimated bad debts?
Bad Debt Expense 15
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 15

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Bal. 500 25 Bal.
Sale 100 333 Coll. 15 Exp.

Bal. 267 40 Bal.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 19


Valuing Accounts Receivable
Write-off of uncollectible accounts of $10?
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 10
Accounts Receivable 10

Allowance for
Accounts Receivable Doubtful Accounts
Bal. 500 25 Bal.
Sale 100 333 Coll. 15 Exp.
10 w/o w/o 10
Bal. 257 30 Bal.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 20


Valuing Accounts Receivable
ABC Corporation
Balance Sheet (partial)
Current Assets
Cash $ 330
Accounts receivable, net of $30 allowance 227
Inventory 812
Prepaid expense 40
Total current assets $1,409

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 21


Direct Write-Off Method For
Uncollectible Accounts
Illustration: Assume that Warden Co. writes off M. E. Doran’s
$200 balance as uncollectible on December 12. Warden’s
entry is:
Dec. 12 Bad Debt Expense 200
Accounts Receivable 200
Theoretically undesirable:
• No matching
• Receivable not stated at cash realizable value
• Not acceptable for financial reporting
LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 22
Allowance Method For Uncollectible
Accounts
1. Companies estimate uncollectible accounts
receivable.
2. Debit Bad Debt Expense and credit Allowance for
Doubtful Accounts (a contra-asset account).
3. Companies debit Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
and credit Accounts Receivable at the time the
specific account is written off as uncollectible.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 23


Recording Estimated Uncollectibles
Illustration: Hampson Furniture has credit sales of $1,200,000
in 2020. Of this amount, $200,000 of receivables remains
uncollected at December 31. The credit manager estimates
that $12,000 of these receivables will be uncollectible. The
adjusting entry to record estimated uncollectibles is as
follows.
Bad Debt Expense 12,000
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 12,000

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 24


Recording Estimated Uncollectibles
Hampson Furniture
Balance Sheet (partial)
Current Assets
Cash $ 14,800
Accounts receivable $200,000
Allowance for doubtful accounts 12,000 188,000
Inventory 310,000
Supplies 25,000
Total current assets $537,800
ILLUSTRATION 9.3
Presentation of allowance for doubtful accounts

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 25


Recording the Write-Off of Uncollectible
Accounts
Illustration: The financial vice president of Hampson Furniture
authorizes a write-off of the $500 balance owed by R. A. Ware
on March 1, 2021. The entry to record the write-off is as
follows.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 500
Accounts Receivable 500

Accounts Receivable Allowance for Doubtful Accounts


Jan. 1 Bal. 200,000 Mar. 1 500 Mar. 1 500 Jan. 1 Bal. 12,000
Mar. 1 Bal. 199,500 Mar. 1 Bal. 11,500
ILLUSTRATION 9.4
LO 2 Balances after write-off Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 26
Recovery of an Uncollectible Account
Illustration: On July 1, R. A. Ware pays the $500 amount that
Hampson had written off on March 1. Hampson makes these
entries.
Accounts Receivable 500
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 500
Cash 500
Accounts Receivable 500

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 27


Estimating the Allowance ILLUSTRATION 9.6
Nike’s allowance method
disclosure

Nike, Inc.
Notes to the Financial Statements
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts Receivable
We make ongoing estimates relating to the ability to collect our
accounts receivable and maintain an allowance for estimated losses
resulting from the inability of our customers to make required
payments. In determining the amount of the allowance, we consider
our historical level of credit losses and make judgments about the
creditworthiness of significant customers based on ongoing credit
evaluations. Since we cannot predict future changes in the financial
stability of our customers, actual future losses from uncollectible
accounts may differ from our estimates.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 28


Estimating the Allowance
Frequently, companies estimate the allowance as a
percentage of the outstanding receivables.
Under the percentage-of-receivables basis, management
establishes a percentage relationship between the
amount of receivables and expected losses from
uncollectible accounts.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 29


Estimating the Allowance ILLUSTRATION 9.7

Accounts Receivable Aging Schedule


Number of Days Past Due
Not yet
Customer Total Due 1-30 31-60 61-90 Over 90
T.E. Adert 600 300 200 100
R.C. Bortz 300 300
B.A. Carl 450 200 250
O.L. Diker 700 500 200
T.O. Ebbet 600 300 300
Others 36,950 26,200 5,200 2,450 1,600 1,500
$39,600 $27,000 $5,700 $3,000 $2,000 $1,900
Estimated %
uncollectible 2% 4% 10% 20% 40%
Total estimated
uncollectible $2,228 $540 $228 $300 $400 $760
LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 30
Estimating the Allowance
Illustration: Assume the unadjusted trial balance shows
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts with a credit balance of
$528. Prepare the adjusting entry assuming $2,228 is the
estimate of uncollectible receivables from the aging schedule.
Bad Debt Expense 1,700
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 1,700

Bad Debt Expense Allowance for Doubtful Accounts


Dec. 31 Adj. 1,700 Dec.31 Bal. 528
Dec. 31 Adj. 1,700
Dec. 31 Bal. 2,228
ILLUSTRATION 9.8
Bad debt accounts after posting
LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 31
Estimating the Allowance
Illustration: Assume now the unadjusted trial balance shows
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts with a debit balance of
$500. Prepare the adjusting entry assuming $2,228 is the
estimate of uncollectible receivables from the aging schedule.
Bad Debt Expense 2,728
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 2,728

Bad Debt Expense Allowance for Doubtful Accounts


Dec. 31 Adj. 2,728 Dec. 31 Bal. 500
Dec. 31 Adj. 2,728
Dec. 31 Bal. 2,228
ILLUSTRATION 9.9
Bad debt accounts after posting
LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 32
DO IT! 2a Bad Debt Expense
Brule Corporation has been in business for 5 years. The
unadjusted trial balance at the end of the current year shows
Accounts Receivable $30,000, Sales Revenue $180,000, and
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts with a debit balance of
$2,000. Brule estimates bad debts to be 10% of accounts
receivable. Prepare the entry necessary to adjust Allowance
for Doubtful Accounts.
Bad Debt Expense 5,000
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 5,000
[(0.1 x $30,000) + $2,000]

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 33


Disposing of Accounts Receivable
Companies sell receivables for two major reasons.
1. Receivables may be the only reasonable source of
cash.
2. Billing and collection are often time-consuming and
costly.

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 34


Disposing of Accounts Receivable
Sale of Receivables to a Factor
• Finance company or bank
• Buys receivables from businesses and then collects
payments directly from customers
• Typically charges a commission to company that is
selling receivables
• Fee ranges from 1-3% of receivables purchased

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 35


Sale of Receivables to a Factor
Illustration: Assume that Hendredon Furniture factors
$600,000 of receivables to Federal Factors. Federal Factors
assesses a service charge of 2% of the amount of receivables
sold. The journal entry to record the sale by Hendredon
Furniture is as follows.
Cash 588,000
Service Charge Expense (2% × $600,000) 12,000
Accounts Receivable 600,000

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 36


Disposing of Accounts Receivable
National Credit Card Sales
• Recorded same as cash sales
• Retailer pays card issuer a fee of 2 to 4% for
processing the transactions

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 37


Accounting for Credit Card Sales
Illustration: Anita Ferreri purchases $1,000 of compact discs
for her restaurant from Karen Kerr Music Co., using her Visa
First Bank Card. First Bank charges a service fee of 3%. The
entry to record this transaction by Karen Kerr Music is as
follows.
Cash 970
Service Charge Expense 30
Sales Revenue 1,000

LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 38


DO IT! 2b Factoring
Peter M. Kell Wholesalers Co. needs to raise $120,000 in cash
to safely cover next Friday’s employee payroll. Kell has
reached its debt ceiling. Kell’s present balance of outstanding
receivables totals $750,000. Kell decides to factor $125,000 of
its receivables on September 7, 2020, to alleviate this cash
crunch. Record the entry that Kell would make when it raises
the needed cash. (Assume a 1% service charge.) Assuming
that Kell Co. factors $125,000 of its accounts receivable at a
1% service charge, it would make this entry:
Cash 123,750
Service Charge Expense (1% × $125,000) 1,250
Accounts Receivable 125,000
LO 2 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 39
Notes Receivable
Companies may grant credit in exchange for a promissory
note. A promissory note is a written promise to pay a
specified amount of money on demand or at a definite
time.
Promissory notes may be used
1. when individuals and companies lend or borrow
money,
2. when amount of transaction and credit period
exceed normal limits, or
3. in settlement of accounts receivable.

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 40


Notes Receivable
To the Payee, the promissory note is a note receivable.
To the Maker, the promissory note is a note payable.

ILLUSTRATION 9.12
LO 3 Promissory note Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 41
Notes Receivable
Determining the Maturity Date
• On demand
• At the end of a stated period of time
• On a stated date
Computing Interest ILLUSTRATION 9.15
Formula for computing interest

Face Annual Time in


Value of x Interest x Terms of = Interest
Note Rate One Year

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 42


Notes Receivable
Computing Interest
When counting days, omit the date the note is issued,
but include the due date.

Terms of Note Interest Computation


Face x Rate x Time = Interest
$ 750, 12%, 120 days $ 730 x 12% x 120/360 = $ 29.20
$1,000, 9%, 6 months $1,000 x 9% x 6/12 = $ 45.00
$2,000, 6%, 1 year $2,000 x 6% x 1/1 = $120.00
ILLUSTRATION 9.16
Computation of interest

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 43


Recognizing Notes Receivable
Illustration: Calhoun Company wrote a $1,000, two-month,
12% promissory note dated May 1, to settle an open account.
Prepare entry would Wilma Company makes for the receipt of
the note.
May 1 Notes Receivable 1,000
Accounts Receivable 1,000

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 44


Valuing Notes Receivable
• Report short-term notes receivable at their cash (net)
realizable value
• Estimation of cash realizable value and bad debt
expense are done similarly to accounts receivable
• Allowance for Doubtful Accounts is used

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 45


Disposing of Notes Receivable
1. Notes may be held to their maturity date.
2. Maker may default and payee must make an
adjustment to the account.
3. Holder speeds up conversion to cash by selling the
note receivable.

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 46


Disposing of Notes Receivable
Honor of Notes Receivable
• Maker pays it in full at its maturity date
Dishonor of Notes Receivable
• Not paid in full at maturity
• No longer negotiable

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 47


Honor of Notes Receivable
Illustration: Wolder Co. lends Higley Co. $10,000 on June 1,
accepting a five-month, 9% interest note. To obtain payment,
Wolder (the payee) must present the note either to Higley Co.
(the maker) or to the maker’s agent, such as a bank. If Wolder
presents the note to Higley Co. on November 1, the maturity
date, Wolder’s entry to record the collection is as follows.
Nov. 1 Cash 10,375
Notes Receivable 10,000
Interest Revenue ($10,000 × 9% × 5/12) 375

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 48


Accrual of Interest Receivable
Illustration: Suppose instead that Wolder Co. prepares
financial statements as of September 30. The adjusting entry
by Wolder is for four months ending Sept. 30.
Sept. 30 Interest Receivable 300
Interest Revenue ($10,000 × 9% × 4/12) 300

ILLUSTRATION 9.17
Timeline of interest earned
LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 49
Accrual of Interest Receivable
Illustration: Prepare the entry Wolder’s would make to record
the honoring of the Higley note on November 1.
Nov. 1 Cash 10,375
Notes Receivable 10,000
Interest Receivable 300
Interest Revenue ($10,000 × 9% × 1/12) 75

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 50


Dishonor of Notes Receivable
Illustration: Assume that Higley Co. on November 1 indicates
that it cannot pay at the present time. If Wolder Co. does
expect eventual collection, it would make the following entry
at the time the note is dishonored (assuming no previous
accrual of interest).
Nov. 1 Accounts Receivable 10,375
Notes Receivable 10,000
Interest Revenue 375

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 51


DO IT! 3 Recognizing Notes Receivable
Gambit Stores accepts from Leonard Co. a $3,400, 90-day, 6% note
dated May 10 in settlement of Leonard’s overdue account. (a) What is
the maturity date of the note? (b) What is the interest payable at the
maturity date? (c) What entry does Gambit make at the maturity
date, assuming Leonard pays the note and interest in full at that time?
a. The maturity date is August 8, computed as follows:

Term of note: 90 days


May (31-10) 21
June 30
July 31 82
Maturity date: August 8

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 52


DO IT! 3 Recognizing Notes Receivable
Gambit Stores accepts from Leonard Co. a $3,400, 90-day, 6% note
dated May 10 in settlement of Leonard’s overdue account. (a) What is
the maturity date of the note? (b) What is the interest payable at the
maturity date? (c) What entry does Gambit make at the maturity
date, assuming Leonard pays the note and interest in full at that time?
b. The interest payable at the maturity date is $51, computed as:

Face x Rate x Time = Interest


$3,400 x 6% x 90/360 = $51.00

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 53


DO IT! 3 Recognizing Notes Receivable
Gambit Stores accepts from Leonard Co. a $3,400, 90-day, 6% note
dated May 10 in settlement of Leonard’s overdue account. (a) What is
the maturity date of the note? (b) What is the interest payable at the
maturity date? (c) What entry does Gambit make at the maturity
date, assuming Leonard pays the note and interest in full at that time?
c. Gambit Stores records this entry at the maturity date:

Cash 3,451
Notes Receivable 3,400
Interest Revenue 51

LO 3 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 54


Presentation and Analysis
Presentation
• Identify in the balance sheet or in the notes
each major type of receivable
B/S • Report short-term receivables as current assets
• Report both gross amount of receivables and
allowance for doubtful account
• Report bad debt expense and service charge
expense as selling expenses
I/S
• Report interest revenue under “Other revenues
and gains”
LO 4 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 55
Presentation ILLUSTRATION 9.18

Deere & Company


Balance Sheet (partial)
(in millions)
Receivables
Receivables from unconsolidated subsidiaries $ 30
Trade accounts and notes receivable 3,278
Financing receivables 27,583
Restricted financing receivables 4,616
Other receivables 1,500
Total receivables 37,007
Less: Allowance for doubtful trade receivables 175
Net receivables $36,832

LO 4 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 56


Analysis
Illustration: Cisco Systems had net sales of $37,750 million for
the year. It had a beginning accounts receivable (net) balance of
$5,157 million and an ending accounts receivable (net) balance
of $5,344 million. Assuming that Cisco’s sales were all on credit,
its accounts receivable turnover is computed as follows.

Net Credit Average Net Accounts Receivable


÷ =
Sales Accounts Receivable Turnover
$5,157 + $5,344
$37,750 ÷ = 7.2 times
2
ILLUSTRATION 9.21
Accounts receivable turnover and computation

LO 4 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 57


Analysis
Illustration: A variant of the accounts receivable turnover ratio
is average collection period in terms of days.
ILLUSTRATION 9.21

Net Credit Average Net Accounts Receivable


÷ =
Sales Accounts Receivable Turnover
$5,157 + $5,344
$37,750 ÷ = 7.2 times
2

Days in Accounts Receivable Average Collection


÷ =
Year Turnover Period in Days
365 days ÷ 7.2 times = 51 days
ILLUSTRATION 9.22

LO 4 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 58


DO IT! 4 Analysis of Receivables
Illustration: In 2020, Phil Mickelson Company has net credit sales of
$923,795 for the year. It had a beginning accounts receivable (net)
balance of $38,275 and an ending accounts receivable (net) balance of 9.21
ILLUSTRATION

$35,988. Compute the company’s (a) accounts receivable turnover and


(b) average collection period in days.
Net Credit Average Net Accounts Accounts Receivable
÷ =
Sales Receivable Turnover
$38,275 + $35,988
$923,795 ÷ = 24.9 times
2
Accounts Receivable Average Collection
Days in Year ÷ =
Turnover Period in Days
365 days ÷ 24.9 times = 14.7 days

LO 4 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 59


A Look at IFRS
Key Points
Similarities
• The recording of receivables, recognition of sales returns and
allowances and sales discounts, and the allowance method to record
bad debts are the same between GAAP and IFRS.
• Both IFRS and GAAP often use the term impairment to indicate that
a receivable or a percentage of receivables may not be collected.
• The FASB and IASB have worked to implement fair value
measurement (the amount they currently could be sold for) for
financial instruments, such as receivables. Both Boards have faced
bitter opposition from various factions.

LO 5 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 60


A Look at IFRS
Key Points
Differences
• Although IFRS implies that receivables with different characteristics
should be reported separately, there is no standard that mandates
this segregation.
• IFRS and GAAP differ in the criteria used to determine how to record
a factoring transaction. IFRS uses a combination approach focused
on risks and rewards and loss of control. GAAP uses loss of control as
the primary criterion. In addition, IFRS permits partial derecognition
of receivables; GAAP does not.

LO 5 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 61


A Look at IFRS
Looking to the Future
The question of recording fair values for financial instruments will
continue to be an important issue to resolve as the Boards work toward
convergence. Both the IASB and the FASB have indicated that they
believe that financial statements would be more transparent and
understandable if companies recorded and reported all financial
instruments at fair value. That said, in IFRS 9, which was issued in 2009,
the IASB created a split model, where some financial instruments are
recorded at fair value, but other financial assets, such as loans and
receivables, can be accounted for at amortized cost if certain criteria are
met. Critics say that this can result in two companies with identical
securities accounting for those securities in different ways. A proposal by
the FASB would require that practically all equity instruments be reported
at fair value, and that debt instruments may or may not be reported at
fair value depending on whether certain criteria are met.

LO 5 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Son, Inc. 62


Copyright
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