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Fungsi dan Struktur Sel

Manusia
Seri antropobiologi
Departemen Antropologi, FISIP
Universitas Airlangga
Pengantar
• Level Organisasi Tubuh Manusia
• Gen  Proteins  Struktur dan Fungsi Sel  Struktur Jaringan  Struktur dan
Fungsi Organ  Organisme Manusia (clinical medicine)  Lingkungan dan Populasi
Pengantar
• Sel adalah unit struktur dasar dan fungsional dalam tubuh manusia
• Terdapat banyak tipe sel dalam tubuh manusia, yaitu sel otot, rangka, darah,
saraf dsb
Pengantar
• Jaringan adalah sekelompok sel
yang membentuk fungsi khusus.
Tipe dasar jaringan tubuh
manusia adalah epitel, otot, dan
saraf
• Sebuah organ terdiri dari 2 atau
lebih jaraingan yang membentuk
fungsi khusus seperti jantung,
lever, lambung dsb
Pengantar
• Gabungan dari organ yang mempunyai fungsi kurang lebih sama, ada 11
system mayor pada tubuh manusia yaitu system pencernaan, system saraf,
system endocrine, system pernafasan, system urinary, system reproduksi,
system peredaran darah, siste, otot, system limphe, system rangka dan system
intergumentar.
Plasma Membrane

Dua bagian plasma membrane adalah


protein (60% dari membran) dan lipid, atau
lemak (40% dari membrane). lipid disebut
phospholipid, molekul phospholipid
membentuk 'phospholipid bilayer' (dua lapis
dari molekul phospholipid). Dua lapisan ini
membentuk dua ujung molekul phospolid
yang berbeda karakteristiknya. Satu ujung
adalah hydrophilic, sedangkan ujung yang
lain disebut hydrophobic (non polar).
Membran sel
Fungsi:
• membantu/mempertahankan sitoplasm
• a selective barrier
• The cell is separated from its environment and needs to get nutrients in and
waste products out. Some molecules can cross the membrane without assistance,
most cannot. Water, non-polar molecules and some small polar molecules can cross.
Non-polar molecules penetrate by actually dissolving into the lipid bilayer. Most
polar compounds such as amino acids, organic acids and inorganic salts are not
allowed entry, but instead must be specifically transported across the membrane by
proteins.
Cytoplasma

Cytoplasma terdiri dari solusi gelatin dan


microtubes (yang mendukung cytoskeleton)
dan organela (organ kecil)
Cytoskeleton
The cyotoskeleton represents the cell's skeleton.
Like the bony skeletons that give us stability,
the cytoskeleton gives our cells shape, strength,
and the ability to move, but it does much more
than that. The cytoskeleton is made up of three
types of fibers that constantly shrink and grow
to meet the needs of the cell: microtubules,
microfilaments, and actin filaments. Each type
of fiber looks, feels, and functions differently.
Blue: microtubules, Green: actin, Red:
intermediate filaments
Sel

Cells also contain a nucleus within which is


found DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in the
form of chromatin (or chromosomes during
cell division) plus nucleoli (within which
ribosomes are formed)
Endoplasmic reticulum

comes in 2 forms: smooth and


rough; the surface of rough ER is coated
with ribosomes; the surface of smooth ER
is not
functions include: mechanical
support, synthesis (especially proteins by
rough ER), and transport
Reticulum Endoplasma
• The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a special membrane structure found only in
eukaryotic cells. Some ER has ribosomes on the surface (rough endoplasmic
reticulum) --the cell's protein-making machinery. Proteins that require special
conditions or are destined to become part of the cell membrane are processed in
the ER and then handed off to another organelle called the Golgi apparatus. The
Golgi functions as a cellular post office. Proteins that arrive there are sorted,
packaged and transported to various destinations in the cell. Scientists are studying
many aspects of the ER and Golgi apparatus, including a built-in quality control
mechanism cells use to ensure that proteins are properly made before leaving
Organela sel
• Badan golgi terdiri dari rangkaian rongga gepeng (cisternae) yang berfungsi:
• synthesis (dari substans seperti phospholipids), mengemas bahan untuk transport
(dalam vesicles), dan produksi lisosom
Organela sel

• Lisosom adalah membrane yang berisi enzyme pencerna yang sangat


kuat, yang berfungsi: merusak sel (disebut juga suicide bag) dan pencerna
material phagositosis (missal bacteria)
Mitokondria

Mitochondria are found exclusively in


eukaryotic cells. These organelles are often
called the "power plants" of the cell because
their main job is to make energy (ATP).
Mitochondria are highly unusual--they contain
their own genetic material and protein-making
machinery enwrapped in a double membrane.
Many scientists believe mitochondria were once
free-living bacteria that colonized complex cells
sometime during evolution.
Organela sel

• Ribosomes terdiri dari rRNA (ribosomal RNA) & protein, tersebar


secara random dalam cytoplasma atau menempel secara kasar pada reticulum
endoplasma. Seringkali terangkai dalam polyribosomes atau polysomes, yang
berfungsi sebagai produsen protein
• Centrioles adalah sepasang struktur silinder yang terletak dekat nucleus yang
berfungsi penting dalam pembelahan sel
Tugas Diskusi
• Lengkapi seluruh organela sel dan fungsinya
• Bagaimana sel berfungsi dalam tubuh?