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 Problem = is a situation that confronts the learner , that
requires resolution, and for which the path to the answer is
not immediately known.
 Drill/Exercise = a situation that requires resolution but the
method is clear and the way to the answer is easily seen.
Problem Solving
 There is an obstacle that prevents one from seeing a clear
path to the answer
Methods of Solving Problems
1. Inductive Method
2. Deductive Method
3. Using a Pattern
4. Polya’s Problem Solving Strategies
Inductive Reasoning
 Is a process of reaching a general conclusion(conjecture) by
examining specific examples.
Deductive Reasoning
 Is the process of reaching to a conclusion(conjecture) by
applying general assumptions, procedures or principles
Problem Solving with Pattern
= is a method that applies certain pattern to solve for the
unknown value.
Polya’s Problem Solving Strategy
 Understand the Problem
 Devise a plan
 Carry out the plan
 Review the solution
Example Problem Solving
 Pat has red tiles and black tiles. Pat uses the tiles to make a
square shapes. He made the following :

Pat made a shape with 64 tiles. How many were black?

How many were red?
 28 Red tiles and 36 Black tiles (inductive reasoning)
Example Problem - Solving
A sequence of four figures is shown below.
Fig2 Fig 3

Fig 1

If the figures were

continued, how many circles
Fig 4
would be there in figure 10?
Answer :
19 circles (inductive reasoning)
Example Problem-Solving
1. Each of four neighbors, Sean, Maria, Sarah and Brian has a
different occupation(editor, banker ,chef or dentist). From
the following clues, determine the occupation of each
a. Maria gets home from work after the banker but before the
b. Sarah, who is the last to get home from work, is not an
c. The dentist and Sarah leave for work at the same time
d. The banker lives next door to Brian.
 Sean is the Banker
 Maria is the Editor
 Sarah is the Chef
 Brian is the dentist

(Deductive Reasoning)
Example Problem-Solving
 Find the 20th term of the fibonacci sequence.
Example Problem-Solving
Answer :
6765 (by pattern)
Example Problem-Solving
• Find the product of (x + y)5
Example Problem-Solving
Answer :
X5 + 5x 4 y +10 x 3y 2+ 10 x 2y 3+ 5xy4 + y5
(by pattern)