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Genetic Theory(Origin of State)

• State is the product of natural expansion of family-

natural process of expansion means one family gave
rise to several and they united (kinship) to form
village. Villages expanded to several settlements,
which then united to form the state./ There are
two versions of this theory
Genetic Theory

Patriarchal Matriarchal
Patriarchal Theory
• Sir Henry Maine was the chief exponent of this theory
even the idea originated from Aristotle.
• The chief exponents of this theory says that the state is
the natural expansion of the original family unit in
which the descent was traced through males and the
eldest living male
• They believed in family the father is the head, when
the family expanded into clans-clan into tribe – the
tribe constitute the commonwealth that is state.
• or the aggregation of houses and tribes constitute the
commonwealth and father became the natural chief.
• Father regarded as the king and priest in early
societies- it reflected in Roman law and Indian , Greek
or Hebrew traditional societies. The members of the
family were under the control of the father
• He is the beholder of absolute power which extended
to life and death of his subjects( children and slaves)
• Father is the absolute owner of property, despotic
authority. He can sell, transfer and adopt his properties
• On his death the authority will be passed to the eldest
male descendant
• Here tribes united by ties of blood, acted together for
common purpose, defended themselves against
external foes.
• The system of permanent marriage prevailed
in primitive society
• The des cent was traced only through eldest
male member
• Blood relationship played an important role.
• Expansion of family led creation of civil society
• Lacks of historical proof to substantiate this theory( based on
• Male may be the head of family when it comes to social
organisation he may not be a leader
• Even it is proved that in early societies there existed
polyandry- there maternity was fact- paternity was just an
• This theory also reverse the historical fact- there are theories
states that tribe is the earliest form of social organistion not
• The existence of permanent marriage in primitive societies is
also held to be invalid
• This theory gives emphasis on the origin of family rather than
the state
• It draw the attention to the significant role of
kinship in the growth of state
• Logically, kinship groups may be considered to
the basis of all forms of social union
• No doubt the first lessons of command and
obedience are earned from family
• Followed conclusion