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Anda di halaman 1dari 65

Wireless Communications

Week 3

EED SST

UMT Lahore

1

House Rules

Please place your mobiles on silent

and concentrate on the topic if there is

noise and disruption during the lecture

be marked absent or asked to leave

and will be awarded minus five mark

in the next quiz. INDISCIPLINE OF

ANY KIND WILL RECEIVE A MINUS FIVE

MARK PENALTY. 2

2

Function of time

Can also be expressed as a function of frequency

3

Impairments, such as noise, limit data rate that can be

achieved

For digital data, to what extent do impairments limit data

rate?

Channel Capacity

– the maximum rate at which data can be transmitted over

a given communication path, or channel, under given

conditions

Unit?

4

Data rate

- rate at which data can be communicated (bps)

Bandwidth

- the bandwidth of the transmitted signal as constrained

by the transmitter and the nature of the transmission

medium (Hertz)

Noise

- average level of noise over the communications path

Error rate

- rate at which errors occur

◦ Error = transmit 1 and receive 0; transmit 0 and receive 1

5

For binary signals (two voltage levels)

◦C = 2B

With multilevel signaling

◦ C = 2B log2 M

M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels

6

LOG BASE 10 = COMMON LOG

LOG BASE 2

LOG BASE e = LOG BASE 2.7182818258 =

NATURAL LOG = ln

log 2 247.7 [7.9524..]

ln 247.7 = log e247.7 [5.5122..]

7

Ratio of the power in a signal to the power

contained in the noise that’s present at a particular

point in the transmission

Typically measured at a receiver

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, or S/N)

signal power

( SNR) dB 10 log10

noise power

A high SNR means a high-quality signal, low number

of required intermediate repeaters

SNR sets upper bound on achievable data rate

8

SNR is the simple power ratio

SNR(dB) is SNR in decibels

SNR(dB) = 10 x log10SNR

SNR = 10SNR(dB)/10

9

Equation:

C B log 2 1 SNR

Represents theoretical maximum that can be

achieved

In practice, only much lower rates achieved

◦ Impulse noise is not accounted for

◦ Attenuation distortion or delay distortion not accounted for

10

11

White Noise

◦ White noise is a random signal (or process) with a

flat power spectral density.

◦ In other words, the signal contains equal power

within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency.

◦ White noise draws its name from white light in

which the power spectral density of the light is

distributed over the visible band in such a way that

the eye's three color receptors (cones) are

approximately equally stimulated.

12

◦ White Noise ….

◦ An infinite-bandwidth white noise signal is purely

a theoretical construction.

◦ By having power at all frequencies, the total

power of such a signal is infinite and therefore

impossible to generate.

◦ In practice, however, a signal can be "white" with

a flat spectrum over a defined frequency band.

13

Thermal Noise

◦ Thermal noise is approximately white, meaning that

the power spectral density is nearly equal throughout

the frequency spectrum

◦ Additionally, the amplitude of the signal has very

nearly a Gaussian probability density function.

14

Impulse Noise

◦ Impulse noise is a category of (acoustic) noise

which includes unwanted, almost instantaneous

(thus impulse-like) sharp sounds (like clicks and

pops).

◦ Noises of the kind are usually caused by

electromagnetic interference, scratches on the

recording disks, and bad synchronization in digital

recording and communication.

◦ High levels of such a noise ( 200+ Decibels ) may

damage internal organs, while 180 Decibels are

enough to destroy or damage human ears.

15

Delay Distortion

All signal components are delayed when passing through

a device such as an amplifier or a loudspeaker. The signal

delay can be (and often is) different for different

frequencies.

The delay variation means that signals consisting of

different frequency components suffer delay (or time)

distortion.

A small delay variation is usually not a problem, but larger

delays can cause trouble such as poor fidelity and

intersymbol interference.

High speed modems use adaptive equalizers to

compensate for group delay.

16

Attenuation Distortion

is the distortion of an analog signal that occurs during

transmission when the transmission medium does not

have a flat frequency response across the bandwidth

of the medium or the frequency spectrum of the

signal.

Attenuation distortion occurs when some frequencies

are attenuated more than other frequencies.

When an analog signal of constant amplitude across

its frequency spectrum suffers attenuation distortion,

some frequencies of the received signal arrive being

greater in amplitude (louder), relative to other

frequencies.

17

Power (dB Watts) = 10 log (P2/P1)

18

The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that

indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually

power or intensity) relative to a specified or

implied reference level.

A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm

quantities.

Being a ratio of two measurements of a physical

unit.

A decibel is one tenth of a bel, a seldom-used

unit.

19

An example scale showing

x and 10 log x.

It is easier to grasp and compare 2

or 3 digit numbers than to

compare up to 10 digits.

20

Spectrum of a channel between 3 MHz and 4 MHz ;

SNRdB = 24 dB .. Channel Capacity?

C=?

C = B log2 (1+SNR)

How many signaling levels are required?

C = 2B log2 M

21

Spectrum of a channel between 3MHz and 4MHz ; SNRdB =

24 dB .. Channel Capacity?

B 4 MHz 3 MHz 1 MHz

SNR dB 24 dB 10 log10 SNR

SNR 251

Using Shannon’s formula

6 6

22

How many signaling levels are required?

C 2 B log 2 M

8 10 2 10 log 2 M

6 6

4 log 2 M

M 16

23

log 2(1) = 0

log 2(2) = 1

log 2(3) = 1.584962500721156

log 2(4) = 2

log 2(5) = 2.321928094887362

log 2(6) = 2.584962500721156

log 2(7) = 2.807354922057604

log 2(8) = 3

log 2(9) = 3.169925001442312

log 2(10) = 3.321928094887362

24

Note that log2(x) is defined for any x greater

than zero.

If you have a calculator that computes the

then you can calculate

ln(2) = 0.693147..

The same thing works with log base 10, i.e.

log 10 2 = 0.30103

25

Nyquist analyzed the theoretical capacity of a

noiseless channel; therefore, in that case,

the signaling rate is limited solely by channel

bandwidth.

Shannon addressed the question of what

with a given bandwidth, a given signal power,

and in the presence of noise.

26

Transmission Medium

◦ Physical path between transmitter and receiver

Guided Media

◦ Waves are guided along a solid medium

◦ E.g., copper twisted pair, copper coaxial cable, optical fiber

Unguided Media

◦ Provides means of transmission but does not guide

electromagnetic signals

◦ Usually referred to as wireless transmission

◦ E.g., atmosphere, outer space

27

Air, space, water

No guiding wire or cable …hence wire-less

Transmission and reception are achieved by means of

an antenna

Configurations for wireless transmission

◦ Directional

◦ Omnidirectional

28

Radio frequency range

◦ 30 KHz to 1 GHz

◦ Suitable for omnidirectional applications

Microwave frequency range

◦ 1 GHz to 40 GHz

◦ Directional beams possible

◦ Suitable for point-to-point transmission

◦ Used for satellite communications

Infrared frequency range

◦ Roughly, 3x1011 to 2x1014 Hz

◦ Useful in local point-to-point multipoint applications within

confined areas

29

Date ?

15 minutes

Syllabus: up to week 2

30

Guest Lecture

By Mr Shabbir Khan (from USA)

16th October 2010

His website www.storagetree.com

On UMT IEEE Student website

31

Description of common microwave antenna

◦ Parabolic "dish", 3 m in diameter

◦ Fixed rigidly and focuses a narrow beam

◦ Achieves line-of-sight transmission to receiving antenna

◦ Located at substantial heights above ground level

Applications

◦ Long haul telecommunications service

◦ Short point-to-point links between buildings

32

Description of communication satellite

◦ Microwave relay station

◦ Used to link two or more ground-based microwave

transmitter/receivers

◦ Receives transmissions on one frequency band (uplink),

amplifies or repeats the signal, and transmits it on another

frequency (downlink)

Applications

◦ Television distribution

◦ Long-distance telephone transmission

◦ Private business networks

33

Description of broadcast radio antennas

◦ Omnidirectional

◦ Antennas not required to be dish-shaped

◦ Antennas need not be rigidly mounted to a precise

alignment

Applications

◦ Broadcast radio

VHF and part of the UHF band; 30 MHZ to 1GHz

Covers FM radio and UHF and VHF television

34

Capacity of transmission medium usually exceeds

capacity required for transmission of a single signal

Multiplexing

- carrying multiple signals on a single medium

35

36

Cost per kbps of transmission facility declines with an

increase in the data rate

Cost of transmission and receiving equipment declines

Most individual data communicating devices require

37

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)

◦ Takes advantage of the fact that the useful bandwidth of the

medium exceeds the required bandwidth of a given signal

Time-division multiplexing (TDM)

◦ Takes advantage of the fact that the achievable bit rate of the

medium exceeds the required data rate of a digital signal

38

39

40

KEY CONCEPTS

41

Q. Relationship between frequency and

wavelength of a sine wave?

A. The relationship is f = v, where is the

at which the signal is traveling.

42

Q. What is the relationship between a signal’s

spectrum and its bandwidth?

A. The spectrum of a signal consists of the

signal is the width of the spectrum.

43

Q. What is attenuation?

A. Attenuation is the gradual weakening of a

A. The rate at which data can be transmitted

under given conditions, is referred to as the

channel capacity.

44

Q. What key factors affect channel capacity?

A. Bandwidth, noise, and error rate affect

channel capacity

45

Q. Differentiate between guided media and

unguided media?

A. With guided media, the electromagnetic

path, whereas unguided media provide a

means for transmitting electromagnetic

waves through space, air, or water, but do

not guide them.

46

Q. Major advantages and disadvantages of

microwave transmission?

A. Point-to-point microwave transmission has a

pair or coaxial cable. It is affected by rainfall,

however, especially above 10 GHz. It is also

requires line of sight and is subject to

interference from other microwave transmission,

which can be intense in some places.

47

Q. What is direct broadcast satellite (DBS)?

A. Direct broadcast transmission is a

transmitted directly to the home for

continuous operation.

48

Q. Why must a satellite have distinct uplink

and downlink frequencies?

A. A satellite must use different uplink and

operation in order to avoid interference.

49

Q. Indicate some differences between

broadcast radio and microwave?

A. Broadcast is omnidirectional, does not

antennas do not have to be rigidly mounted

in precise alignment.

50

Q. Why is multiplexing so cost-effective?

A. Multiplexing is cost‑effective because the

the transmission facility.

51

Q. How is interference avoided by using

frequency division multiplexing?

A. Interference is avoided under frequency

bands, which are unused portions of the

frequency spectrum between subchannels.

52

Q. Explain how synchronous time division

multiplexing (TDM) works?

A. A synchronous time division multiplexer

turns transmitting bits from each of the

signals in a round‑robin fashion.

53

SELECTED END PROBLEMS

54

What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter

channel with

a 300-Hz bandwidth and

an SNR of 3 dB?

55

Using Shannon's equation:

C = B log2 (1 + SNR)

Therefore, SNR = 100.3

C = 300 log 2 (1 + 10 0.3)

= 300 log 2 (2.995) = 474 bps

56

A digital signaling system is required to

operate at 9600 bps.

a. If a signal element encodes a 4-bit word,

the channel?

b. Repeat part (a) for the case of 8-bit words.

57

Using Nyquist's equation: C = 2B log 2M

We have C = 9600 bps

a.

log2M = 4, because a signal element encodes

a 4-bit word

Therefore, C = 9600 = 2B x 4, and

B = 1200 Hz

58

Given the narrow (usable) audio bandwidth of

a telephone transmission facility, a nominal

SNR of 56dB (400,000), and a distortion level

of <0.2%

a. What is the theoretical maximum channel

b. What is the actual maximum capacity?

59

a. Using Shannon’s formula:

C = 3000 log2 (1+400000) = 56 Kbps

level (as well as other potentially detrimental

impacts to the rated capacity,) the actual

maximum will be somewhat degraded from

the theoretical maximum. A discussion of

these relevant impacts needs to be included

and a qualitative value discussed.

60

Given a channel with an intended capacity of

20 Mbps, the bandwidth of the channel is

3MHz.

What signal-to-noise ratio is required to

61

C = B log 2 (1 + SNR)

20 x 106 = 3 x 106 x log2(1 + SNR)

1 + SNR = 26.67 = 102

SNR = 101

62

If an amplifier has a 30dB voltage gain, what

voltage ratio does the gain represent?

SOL

For a voltage ratio, we have

N dB = 30 = 20 log(V 2/V 1)

Ans.

63

If an amplifier has an output of 20W, what is

its output in dB ?

SOL:

64

Read all sections

Work out by hand all solved examples

Solve all in-chapter exercises

Write answers to review questions

Solve at least every fifth Problem [end of

chapter]

65

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