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# EE-480

Wireless Communications

Week 3

EED SST
UMT Lahore
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House Rules

## Please note that Lecturers cannot focus

and concentrate on the topic if there is
noise and disruption during the lecture

## Anyone who disrupts the lecture will

be marked absent or asked to leave
and will be awarded minus five mark
in the next quiz. INDISCIPLINE OF
ANY KIND WILL RECEIVE A MINUS FIVE
MARK PENALTY. 2
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 Function of time
 Can also be expressed as a function of frequency

## ◦ Signal consists of components of different frequencies

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 Impairments, such as noise, limit data rate that can be
achieved
 For digital data, to what extent do impairments limit data
rate?
 Channel Capacity
 – the maximum rate at which data can be transmitted over
a given communication path, or channel, under given
conditions
 Unit?

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 Data rate
 - rate at which data can be communicated (bps)
 Bandwidth
 - the bandwidth of the transmitted signal as constrained
by the transmitter and the nature of the transmission
medium (Hertz)
 Noise
 - average level of noise over the communications path
 Error rate
 - rate at which errors occur
◦ Error = transmit 1 and receive 0; transmit 0 and receive 1
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 For binary signals (two voltage levels)
◦C = 2B
 With multilevel signaling
◦ C = 2B log2 M
 M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels

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 LOG BASE 10 = COMMON LOG
 LOG BASE 2
 LOG BASE e = LOG BASE 2.7182818258 =

NATURAL LOG = ln

##  log 247.7 = log 10247.7 [2.3939..]

 log 2 247.7 [7.9524..]
 ln 247.7 = log e247.7 [5.5122..]

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 Ratio of the power in a signal to the power
contained in the noise that’s present at a particular
point in the transmission
 Typically measured at a receiver
 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, or S/N)

signal power
( SNR) dB  10 log10
noise power
 A high SNR means a high-quality signal, low number
of required intermediate repeaters
 SNR sets upper bound on achievable data rate

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SNR is the simple power ratio
SNR(dB) is SNR in decibels

SNR(dB) = 10 x log10SNR

SNR = 10SNR(dB)/10

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 Equation:
C  B log 2 1  SNR 
 Represents theoretical maximum that can be
achieved
 In practice, only much lower rates achieved

## ◦ Formula assumes white noise (thermal noise)

◦ Impulse noise is not accounted for
◦ Attenuation distortion or delay distortion not accounted for

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 White Noise
◦ White noise is a random signal (or process) with a
flat power spectral density.
◦ In other words, the signal contains equal power
within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency.
◦ White noise draws its name from white light in
which the power spectral density of the light is
distributed over the visible band in such a way that
the eye's three color receptors (cones) are
approximately equally stimulated.

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◦ White Noise ….
◦ An infinite-bandwidth white noise signal is purely
a theoretical construction.
◦ By having power at all frequencies, the total
power of such a signal is infinite and therefore
impossible to generate.
◦ In practice, however, a signal can be "white" with
a flat spectrum over a defined frequency band.

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 Thermal Noise
◦ Thermal noise is approximately white, meaning that
the power spectral density is nearly equal throughout
the frequency spectrum
◦ Additionally, the amplitude of the signal has very
nearly a Gaussian probability density function.

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 Impulse Noise
◦ Impulse noise is a category of (acoustic) noise
which includes unwanted, almost instantaneous
(thus impulse-like) sharp sounds (like clicks and
pops).
◦ Noises of the kind are usually caused by
electromagnetic interference, scratches on the
recording disks, and bad synchronization in digital
recording and communication.
◦ High levels of such a noise ( 200+ Decibels ) may
damage internal organs, while 180 Decibels are
enough to destroy or damage human ears.

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 Delay Distortion
 All signal components are delayed when passing through
a device such as an amplifier or a loudspeaker. The signal
delay can be (and often is) different for different
frequencies.
 The delay variation means that signals consisting of
different frequency components suffer delay (or time)
distortion.
 A small delay variation is usually not a problem, but larger
delays can cause trouble such as poor fidelity and
intersymbol interference.
 High speed modems use adaptive equalizers to
compensate for group delay.

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 Attenuation Distortion
 is the distortion of an analog signal that occurs during
transmission when the transmission medium does not
have a flat frequency response across the bandwidth
of the medium or the frequency spectrum of the
signal.
 Attenuation distortion occurs when some frequencies
are attenuated more than other frequencies.
 When an analog signal of constant amplitude across
its frequency spectrum suffers attenuation distortion,
some frequencies of the received signal arrive being
greater in amplitude (louder), relative to other
frequencies.

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 Power (dB Watts) = 10 log (P2/P1)

##  Voltage (dB Volts) = 20 log (V2/V1)

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 The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that
indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually
power or intensity) relative to a specified or
implied reference level.
 A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm

## to base 10 of the ratio of two power

quantities.
 Being a ratio of two measurements of a physical

## quantity in the same units, it is a dimensionless

unit.
 A decibel is one tenth of a bel, a seldom-used

unit.

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An example scale showing
x and 10 log x.
It is easier to grasp and compare 2
or 3 digit numbers than to
compare up to 10 digits.

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 Spectrum of a channel between 3 MHz and 4 MHz ;
SNRdB = 24 dB .. Channel Capacity?
 C=?

 C = B log2 (1+SNR)
 How many signaling levels are required?
 C = 2B log2 M

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 Spectrum of a channel between 3MHz and 4MHz ; SNRdB =
24 dB .. Channel Capacity?
B  4 MHz  3 MHz  1 MHz
SNR dB  24 dB  10 log10  SNR 
SNR  251
 Using Shannon’s formula

## C  10  log 2 1  251  10  8  8Mbps

6 6

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 How many signaling levels are required?

C  2 B log 2 M
8  10  2  10   log 2 M
6 6

4  log 2 M
M  16

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 log 2(1) = 0
log 2(2) = 1
log 2(3) = 1.584962500721156
log 2(4) = 2
log 2(5) = 2.321928094887362
log 2(6) = 2.584962500721156
log 2(7) = 2.807354922057604
log 2(8) = 3
log 2(9) = 3.169925001442312
log 2(10) = 3.321928094887362

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 Note that log2(x) is defined for any x greater
than zero.
 If you have a calculator that computes the

## natural logarithm (often denoted ln),

 then you can calculate

##  log 2 ( A ) = ln( A ) /ln( 2 ) .

 ln(2) = 0.693147..
 The same thing works with log base 10, i.e.

## log 2( A ) = log 10( A )/log 10( 2 ).

 log 10 2 = 0.30103

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 Nyquist analyzed the theoretical capacity of a
noiseless channel; therefore, in that case,
the signaling rate is limited solely by channel
bandwidth.
 Shannon addressed the question of what

## signaling rate can be achieved over a channel

with a given bandwidth, a given signal power,
and in the presence of noise.

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 Transmission Medium
◦ Physical path between transmitter and receiver
 Guided Media
◦ Waves are guided along a solid medium
◦ E.g., copper twisted pair, copper coaxial cable, optical fiber
 Unguided Media
◦ Provides means of transmission but does not guide
electromagnetic signals
◦ Usually referred to as wireless transmission
◦ E.g., atmosphere, outer space

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 Air, space, water
 No guiding wire or cable …hence wire-less
 Transmission and reception are achieved by means of

an antenna
 Configurations for wireless transmission

◦ Directional
◦ Omnidirectional

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◦ 30 KHz to 1 GHz
◦ Suitable for omnidirectional applications
 Microwave frequency range
◦ 1 GHz to 40 GHz
◦ Directional beams possible
◦ Suitable for point-to-point transmission
◦ Used for satellite communications
 Infrared frequency range
◦ Roughly, 3x1011 to 2x1014 Hz
◦ Useful in local point-to-point multipoint applications within
confined areas

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 Date ?
 15 minutes
 Syllabus: up to week 2

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 Guest Lecture
 By Mr Shabbir Khan (from USA)
 16th October 2010
 His website www.storagetree.com
 On UMT IEEE Student website

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 Description of common microwave antenna
◦ Parabolic "dish", 3 m in diameter
◦ Fixed rigidly and focuses a narrow beam
◦ Achieves line-of-sight transmission to receiving antenna
◦ Located at substantial heights above ground level
 Applications
◦ Long haul telecommunications service
◦ Short point-to-point links between buildings

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 Description of communication satellite
◦ Microwave relay station
◦ Used to link two or more ground-based microwave
amplifies or repeats the signal, and transmits it on another
 Applications
◦ Television distribution
◦ Long-distance telephone transmission

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◦ Omnidirectional
◦ Antennas not required to be dish-shaped
◦ Antennas need not be rigidly mounted to a precise
alignment
 Applications
 VHF and part of the UHF band; 30 MHZ to 1GHz
 Covers FM radio and UHF and VHF television

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 Capacity of transmission medium usually exceeds
capacity required for transmission of a single signal
 Multiplexing
 - carrying multiple signals on a single medium

## ◦ More efficient use of transmission medium

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 Cost per kbps of transmission facility declines with an
increase in the data rate
 Cost of transmission and receiving equipment declines

## with increased data rate

 Most individual data communicating devices require

## relatively modest data rate support

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 Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)
◦ Takes advantage of the fact that the useful bandwidth of the
medium exceeds the required bandwidth of a given signal
 Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
◦ Takes advantage of the fact that the achievable bit rate of the
medium exceeds the required data rate of a digital signal

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KEY CONCEPTS

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 Q. Relationship between frequency and
wavelength of a sine wave?
 A. The relationship is f = v, where  is the

## wavelength, f is the frequency, and v is the speed

at which the signal is traveling.

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 Q. What is the relationship between a signal’s
spectrum and its bandwidth?
 A. The spectrum of a signal consists of the

## frequencies it contains; the bandwidth of a

signal is the width of the spectrum.

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 Q. What is attenuation?
 A. Attenuation is the gradual weakening of a

##  Q. Define channel capacity?

 A. The rate at which data can be transmitted

## over a given communication path, or channel,

under given conditions, is referred to as the
channel capacity.

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 Q. What key factors affect channel capacity?
 A. Bandwidth, noise, and error rate affect

channel capacity

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 Q. Differentiate between guided media and
unguided media?
 A. With guided media, the electromagnetic

## waves are guided along an enclosed physical

path, whereas unguided media provide a
means for transmitting electromagnetic
waves through space, air, or water, but do
not guide them.

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microwave transmission?
 A. Point-to-point microwave transmission has a

## high data rate and less attenuation than twisted

pair or coaxial cable. It is affected by rainfall,
however, especially above 10 GHz. It is also
requires line of sight and is subject to
interference from other microwave transmission,
which can be intense in some places.

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 Q. What is direct broadcast satellite (DBS)?
 A. Direct broadcast transmission is a

## technique in which satellite video signals are

transmitted directly to the home for
continuous operation.

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 Q. Why must a satellite have distinct uplink
 A. A satellite must use different uplink and

operation in order to avoid interference.

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 Q. Indicate some differences between
 A. Broadcast is omnidirectional, does not

## require dish shaped antennas, and the

antennas do not have to be rigidly mounted
in precise alignment.

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 Q. Why is multiplexing so cost-effective?
 A. Multiplexing is cost‑effective because the

## higher the data rate, the more cost‑effective

the transmission facility.

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 Q. How is interference avoided by using
frequency division multiplexing?
 A. Interference is avoided under frequency

## division multiplexing by the use of guard

bands, which are unused portions of the
frequency spectrum between subchannels.

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 Q. Explain how synchronous time division
multiplexing (TDM) works?
 A. A synchronous time division multiplexer

## interleaves bits from each signal and takes

turns transmitting bits from each of the
signals in a round‑robin fashion.

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 SELECTED END PROBLEMS

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 What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter
channel with
 a 300-Hz bandwidth and
 an SNR of 3 dB?

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 Using Shannon's equation:
 C = B log2 (1 + SNR)

##  We have B = 300 Hz (SNR)dB = 3

 Therefore, SNR = 100.3
 C = 300 log 2 (1 + 10 0.3)
 = 300 log 2 (2.995) = 474 bps

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 A digital signaling system is required to
operate at 9600 bps.
 a. If a signal element encodes a 4-bit word,

## what is the minimum required bandwidth of

the channel?
 b. Repeat part (a) for the case of 8-bit words.

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 Using Nyquist's equation: C = 2B log 2M
 We have C = 9600 bps
 a.
 log2M = 4, because a signal element encodes

a 4-bit word
 Therefore, C = 9600 = 2B x 4, and
 B = 1200 Hz

##  b. 9600 = 2B x 8, and B = 600 Hz

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 Given the narrow (usable) audio bandwidth of
a telephone transmission facility, a nominal
SNR of 56dB (400,000), and a distortion level
of <0.2%
 a. What is the theoretical maximum channel

## capacity (kbps) of traditional telephone lines?

 b. What is the actual maximum capacity?

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 a. Using Shannon’s formula:
 C = 3000 log2 (1+400000) = 56 Kbps

##  b. Due to the fact there is a distortion

level (as well as other potentially detrimental
impacts to the rated capacity,) the actual
maximum will be somewhat degraded from
the theoretical maximum. A discussion of
these relevant impacts needs to be included
and a qualitative value discussed.

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 Given a channel with an intended capacity of
20 Mbps, the bandwidth of the channel is
3MHz.
 What signal-to-noise ratio is required to

## achieve this capacity?

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C = B log 2 (1 + SNR)
 20 x 106 = 3 x 106 x log2(1 + SNR)

##  log2(1 + SNR) = 6.67

 1 + SNR = 26.67 = 102
 SNR = 101

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 If an amplifier has a 30dB voltage gain, what
voltage ratio does the gain represent?
 SOL
 For a voltage ratio, we have

 N dB = 30 = 20 log(V 2/V 1)

##  V 2 /V 1 = 10 30/20 = 10 1.5 = 31.6

Ans.

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 If an amplifier has an output of 20W, what is
its output in dB ?
 SOL:

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