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Motivation

Cruz, Aaron Luke G. Cruz, Carl David


Balingit, Jhonas Socorro, Mat
Malaiba
Factors Contributing
to Motivation
Cruz, Aaron Luke G.

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Factors Contributing to Motivation
There are certain factors influencing a person’s desire to do his job well. They are the following.

1. Willingness to do a job. People who like what 3. Needs satisfaction. People will do their jobs
they are doing are highly motivated to produce well if they feel that by doing so, their needs
the expected output. will be satisfied
2. Self-confidence in carrying out a task. When
employees feel that they have the required skill
and training to perform a task, the more
motivated they become.

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Theories of
Motivation
Cruz, Aaron Luke G. (Parts 1-2)

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Theories of Motivation
Only the four most influential ones will be discussed.
They consist of the following:
1. Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory
2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
3. Expectancy theory
4. Goal setting theory

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The Process of Motivation
NEEDS PLUS
MOTIVATION

WHICH LEADS TO
LEADS
READINESS FOR
TO
THE NEXT NEED

WHICH ACTION OR
NEED RESULTS TO
GOAL-DIRECTED
SATISFACTION
BEHAVIOR

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Abraham Maslow, a psychologist,
theorized that human beings have five basic
needs which are as follows:
1. Physiological
2. Security
3. Social
4. Esteem Maslow’s Needs
5. And self-actualization HierarchyTheory
These needs are hierarchical, which
Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
means one need will have to be satisfied first
before the other need.

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SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
Self-fulfillment

ESTEEM NEEDS
Status, respect, prestige

SOCIAL NEEDS
Friendship, belonging, love

SECURITY NEEDS
Freedom from harm, financial security

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
Food, water, sleep, sex, body elimination

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Physiological Needs. Those that are Maslow’s Needs
concerned with biological needs like food,
drink, rest, and sex fall under the category
HierarchyTheory
of physiological needs. These needs take Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
priority over other needs.

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Security Needs. After satisfying
the physiological needs, people will seek
to satisfy their safety needs. These needs Maslow’s Needs
include freedom from harm coming from
the elements or from other people,
HierarchyTheory
financial security which may be affected Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
by loss of job, etc.

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Social Needs. After satisfying his Maslow’s Needs
physiological and security needs, the
employee will now strive to secure love,
HierarchyTheory
affection, and the need to be accepted by Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
peers.

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Esteem Needs. The fourth level of Maslow’s Needs
needs is called esteem needs and they
refer to the need for a positive self-image
HierarchyTheory
and self-respect and the need to be Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
respected by others.

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Self-Actualization Needs. The fifth
and the topmost level needs in the Maslow’s Needs
hierarchy are called self-actualization
needs and involve realizing our full
HierarchyTheory
potential as human beings and becoming Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
all that we are able to be.

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The Relevance of Maslow’s Theory
to Engineering Management. Even if Maslow’s Needs
Maslow’s theory has been largely
questioned, one basic premise cannot be
HierarchyTheory
discarded: a fulfilled need no longer Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
motivates an individual.

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If this is the situation the
subordinate is in, the engineer manager Maslow’s Needs
must identify an unfulfilled need and work
out a scheme so that the subordinate will
HierarchyTheory
be motivated to work in order to satisfy Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
the unfulfilled need.

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Herzberg’s Two-
FactorTheory
Cruz, Aaron Luke G.

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The two-factor theory is one
developed by Frederick Herzberg Herzberg’sTwo-Factor
indicating that a satisfied employee is
motivated from within to work harder and
Theory
that a dissatisfied employee is not self- Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
motivated.

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Herzberg identified two classes of
factors associated with employee satisfaction
and dissatisfaction. In his research, Herzberg
Herzberg’sTwo-Factor
found out that satisfied employees mentioned Theory
the following factors (called satisfiers or
Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
motivation factors) responsible for job
satisfaction.

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These factors are:
1. Achievement
2. Recognition
3. Work itself
Herzberg’sTwo-Factor
4. Responsibility Theory
5. Advancement Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
6. Growth

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Dissatisfied employees mentioned the
following factors (called dissatisfiers or
hygiene factors) as responsible for job
dissatisfaction:
Herzberg’sTwo-Factor
1. Company policy and administration Theory
2. Supervision Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
3. Relationship with supervisor

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4. Work conditions
5. Salary
6. Relationship with peers
7. Personal life
Herzberg’sTwo-Factor
8. Relationship with subordinates Theory
9. Status Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
10. Security

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Herzberg’sTwo-Factor
If Herzberg’s theory will be considered Theory
by the engineer manager in motivating
Cruz, Aaron Luke G.
employees, he must do something to
eliminate the dissatisfiers and install satisfiers.

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10
9
8
7
6 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
5
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION 4
3
2
1
LEVEL OF NO SATISFACTION AND
0
NO DISSATISFACTION (NO REASON
1
2 NOT TO WORK BUT NO
3 MOTIVATION TO WORK HARD)
4
5
LEVEL OF DISSATISFACTION 6
7
8
9
10

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Expectancy
Theory
What is Expectancy
Theory?

A motivation model based on


the assumption that an
individual will work
depending on his perception
of the probability of his
expectations to happen.
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Motivation is determined
by expectancies and
valences

Introduction to Organizational Behavior, 1991

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Motivation

Expectancy Valence
Belief about the The value an
likelihood or probability individual places
that a behavioral act on the expected
will lead to a particular outcomes or
outcome (like rewards.
promotion).
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Expectancy theory is based on
these assumptions:
○ A combination of forces within the individual and
in the environment determines behavior.
○ People make decisions about their own behavior
and that of organizations.
○ People have different types of needs, goals, and
desires.
○ People make choices among alternative
behaviors based on the extent to which they
think a certain behavior will lead to a desired 28
outcome.
Expectancy
Model
EXPECTANCY EXPECTANCY

Perceived Perceived
probability of probability of
successful receiving an
performance, outcome, given
given effort performance

EFFORT PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES

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Valence +
Second-level
First-level Outcome (Ability to Valence +
Outcome (Compensation) purchase house & lot)

Second-level
Outcome (Ability to be with Valence -
family)

OUTCOMES
Valence +
Second-level
Outcome (Self-esteem)

Valence +
First-level Second-level
Outcome (Recognition) Outcome (Esteem of others)
Valence + 31
GOAL SETTING THEORY
BY: MARIZ JENIKA MALAIBA
Goal Setting Theory
• Refers to the process of “improving performance with objectives, deadlines
or quality standards.
• This theory was developed by American Psychologist Edwin A. Locke to
explain human behavior in specific work situation.
Goal Setting Model drawn by Edwin A. Locke
and his associates:
• 1. Goal Content
• 2. Goal Commitment
• 3. Work Behavior
• 4. Feedback Aspects
1. Goal Content
• To be sufficient in content, goals must be challenging, attainable, specific &
measurable, time limited & relevant.
2. Goal Commitment
• When individual or groups committed to achieve the goals.
3. Work Behavior
• Goals influence behavior in terms of direction, effort, persistence, and
planning.
4. Feedback Aspects
• Provide the individuals with a way of knowing how far they have gone in
achieving objectives.
How Goals Motivate and Facilitate
Performance
Goal Content

Job knowledge
Feedback Work behavior
& ability
Situational constraints:
1. Tools
Task complexity Performance 2. Material
3. equipment
TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION

Socorro, Mart Rosend E.


 Motivation through job design
 Motivation through rewards
 Motivation through employee participation
 Other motivation techniques for the diverse work force
Motivation Through Job Design
A person will be highly motivated to perform if he is assigned a job he likes.
Job design may be defined as “specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an
individual or a group.
2 Approaches in Job Design
1. Fitting People to Jobs
2. Fitting Jobs to People
Fitting People to Jobs
Routine and repetitive tasks make workers suffer from chronic dissatisfaction.
To avoid this, the following remedies may be adapted:

• Realistic job previews


• Job rotation
• Limited exposure
Realistic Job Previews
Where management provides honest explanations of what job actually entails.
Job Rotation
Where people are moved periodically from one specialized job to another.
Limited Exposure
Where a worker’s exposure to a highly fragmented and tedious is limited.
Fitting the Jobs to People
Instead of changing the person, management may consider changing the job.
This may achieved with the use of the following:
• Job enlargement
• Job enrichment
Job Enlargement
Where two or more specialized task in a work flow sequence is combined
into a single job.
Job Enrichment
Where efforts are made to make jobs for more interesting, challenging, and
rewarding.
Motivating Through Rewards
Rewards consist of material and psychological benefits to employees for
performing tasks in the workplace. Properly administrative reward systems can
improve job performance and satisfaction.
2 Categories of Rewards
1. Extrinsic Rewards
2. Intrinsic Rewards
Extrinsic Rewards
Those which refer to payoffs granted to the individual by another party.
Examples are money, employee benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols,
praise, etc.
Intrinsic Rewards
Those which are internally experienced payoffs which are self-granted.
Examples are sense of accomplishment, self-esteem, self- actualization.
Management of Extrinsic Rewards
 It must satisfy individual needs
 The employees must believe effort will lead to reward
 Rewards must be equitable
 Rewards must be linked to performance
Motivation Through Employee Participation
When employee participate in deciding various aspects of their jobs, the
personal involvement oftentimes, is carried up to the point where the task is
completed.
The specific activities identified where employees may participate are as
follows:

• Setting goals
• Making decisions
• Solving problems
• Designing and implementing organizational changes
The more popular approaches to participation includes the following:

• Quality control circles


• Self-managed teams
Quality Control Circles
A method of direct employee participation is the quality control circle
(QCC). The objective of the QCC is to increase productivity and quality of output.
Quality Control Circle Process

Quality circle Quality circle


members gather data, members prepare
and establish cause and solutions and
effect recommendations

`
Results are measured Management considers
and feedback, quality circle
recognition and recommendations and
rewards given quality makes decisions
control circle
members
Requisites to Successful Employee Participation
Program
 A profit-sharing or gainsharing plan
 A long term employment relationship with good job security
 A concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness
 Protection of the individual employee’s rights
Other Motivation Techniques
The advent theories on individual differences and the biological clock of
human beings put pressure on the engineer manager to adapt other motivation
techniques whenever applicable. These refer to following:

• Flexible work schedules


• Family support services
• Sabbaticals
Flexible Work Schedule
There is an arrangement, called flextime, which allows employees to
determine their own arrival and departure times within specified limits.
Family Support Services
Employees are oftentimes burdened by family obligations like caring for
children. Progressive companies provide day care facilities for children of
employees.
Sabbaticals
A sabbatical leave is one given to an employee after a certain number of years
of service. The employee is allowed to go on leave for two months to one year with
pay to give time for family, recreations, and travel.