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Chapter Four

Testing and Selecting Employees

• With a pool of candidates, your next step is to
select the best person for the job; there are
three tools to use :
- Tests
- Interviews
- Background checks
Why selection is important?
1- first performance depend upon subordinates
2- Screening the undesirable applicant.
3- It’s issue of cost.
4- Courts will find employer liable when
employee commit a crime.
Reliability and Validity
Before studying tests and interviews we have to
know that both of them must be valid and
Refers to the test consistency, it’s the
consistency of scores obtained by the same
person when retested with the identical tests or
with equivalent form of test.
• There are 3 method to measure test reliability:
- Retest estimate.
- Equivalent form estimate.
- Internal comparison estimate.
That the tests are measuring what they are
proposed to measure.
There are 3 types of validity tests:
- Criterion validity: those who perform well in
test perform well in job.
- Content validity: whether the applicant
sample is representative or not.
- Construct validity: whether the test measure
construct ( human traits like honesty).
1- The test must avoid the biasness depend on race,
color, age, religion or gender.
2- The test must be related to the success or failure
of the job.
3- The applicant have the right of the confidentiality
of the test result and the purposes of using the
4- The applicant have the right that only qualified
applicant who complete in the selecting processes.
5- Using tests is supplement step not all the
steps of selecting.
A- Testing
Types of Tests:
1- Tests of Cognitive Abilities.
2- Tests of Motor and Physical abilities.
3- Measuring Personality.
4- Achievement test.
5- Situational Judgment tests
1- Tests of Cognitive Abilities.

There 2 kinds of cognitive tests to be made:

1- IQ tests which is tests measure general
intellectual abilities including; memory,
vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numeric ability.
2- Aptitude tests measure aptitude for the job.
2- Tests of Motor and Physical abilities.

Measure physical abilities such as finger

dexterity , strength, manual dexterity, and
reaction time.
3- Measuring Personality.

- Measuring the basic aspects of applicant’s

personality such as introversion, stability, and
- Personality test is the most difficult to measure
and use, an expert must analyze the test taker’s
interpretations and reactions.
- Industrial psychologist often study the big five
personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional
stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and
openness to experience.
These indicators showed how the applicant
performance will be and how their ability for
4- Achievement test.

Basically measure what person has learned, they

measure your knowledge in areas such as
economics, marketing, or management.
Note : the achievement test can measure the
applicant ability in something like typing.
5- Situational Judgment tests

Require candidate to answer questions about

situations actually found on the job.
B- Interviewing
Types of interviews:
1- According to questions organization.
2- According to types of questions.
3- According to how administered.
4- According to the way of administration.
1- According to questions organization.

A- Structure or directive interview:

Questions are specified in advance.
B- Unstructured interview:
You ask questions as they come in mind.
2- According to types of questions.

A- situational interview:
Questions focus on the applicant’s ability to project
hat his or her behavior would be in a given
B- Behavioral Interview:
You ask interviewees how they behaved in a
situation in the past.
C- company case interview:
To let the applicant identify how they address the
case client’s problems.
3- According to how administered.

A- one-on-one: two people meet alone and one

interview the other by seeking oral response to
oral inquires.
B- sequential interview: several people interview
the applicant in sequence before making a hiring
C- Panel interview: the candidate is interviewed
simultaneously by a group or panel of
4- According to the way of
A- By phone.
B- face to face
C- computerized
Some notes
1- situational interview is more valid than
behavioral interview.
2- structured interview is more valid than
unstructured interview.
3- one-on-one interview more valid than panel
common interviewing mistakes
1- Snap Judgment :
The interviewers jump to a conclusion during
the first few minutes of interview.
2- Negative emphasize:
To be more influenced with unfavorable than
favorable information.
3- Not knowing the job:
Don’t having enough information about the job.
4- pressure to hire
5- candidate order error:
Means the order in which you see the applicant
affect how you rate them.
6- influence of nonverbal behavior:
How the applicant look and how they are
behave such as eye contact, head moving,
smiling and similar behaviors.
7- Race:
Race also play a role in rating the applicant may
be the different racial groups take different
Guidelines for conducting the
1- Plan the interview.
2- structure the interview.
3- Establish report.
4- what not to ask.
5- close the interview.
6- Review the interview.
C- Background investigations
1- there are two key reasons for checking
background :
A- to verify facts provided by the applicant.
B- to uncover damaging background information
such as criminal records.
2- the mostly common verified background
areas are :
A- legal eligibility for employment.
B- dates of prior employment
C- military services
D- education and identification
E- criminal records ( motor vehicle records,
credit, licensing, social security number and
reference checks )