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In this case of army to charge the equipment an internal

combustion engine is carried with his own at the time of high
altitude ignition system is not possible in the case of less oxygen
content at the time we use hydroxl has been considered at several
phases as a substitute to hydrocarbon-ionization process.
Starting from the 70’s, there have been several attempts to
convert engines for hydrogen operation. Together with the
development in gas injector technology, it has become possible to
control precisely the injection of hydrogen for safe operation.
Since improvements before it is widely used in vehicles, the
conventional internal combustion engine is to play an important
This study examines the performance characteristics and
ionization of a hydrogen high spark-ignition engine

 The use of hydrogen as an alternate fuel source to the

automotive industry has been extensively
researched. In fact, most of the world’s leading
automobile manufacturers have committed vast
amounts of resources into the development of cars
that are powered by hydrogen. However, the impetus
at which these innovations have occurred has
increased exponentially over the past few years.

 This may be attributed, primarily, to the volatility of

international crude oil prices, which has a direct effect on the
automotive fraternity. Thus, the international community has
become alarmingly aware of their total dependence on fossil
fuels and the precarious situation in which they may find
themselves, should they be “held hostage” by the OPEC
nations. Constant advances in materials and technologies
have allowed for the feasibility of systems and concepts,
previously deemed ludicrous, to be evaluated as possible
design solutions. The generation of materials with superior
sealing properties have made past difficulties in the storage of
hydrogen obsolete while composite materials have resulted in
lighter tanks, thereby reducing the fuel consumption and
increasing the range of hydrogen-powered vehicles.

 The ignition system on your car has to work in perfect concert with the rest
of the engine. The goal is to ignite the fuel at exactly the right time so that
the expanding gases can do the maximum amount of work. If the ignition
system fires at the wrong time, power will fall and gas consumption and
emissions can increase. When the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder burns,
the temperature rises and the fuel is converted to exhaust gas. This
transformation causes the pressure in the cylinder to increase dramatically
and forces the piston down. In order to get the most torque and power from
the engine, the goal is to maximize the pressure in the cylinder during
the power stroke. Maximizing pressure will also produce the best engine
efficiency, which translates directly into better mileage. The timing of the
spark is critical to success.
 There is a small delay from the time of the spark to the time when the
fuel/air mixture is all burning and the pressure in the cylinder reaches its
maximum. If the spark occurs right when the piston reaches the top of the
compression stroke, the piston will have already moved down part of the
way into its power stroke before the gases in the cylinder have reached their
highest pressures. To make the best use of the fuel, the spark should
occur before the piston reaches the top of the compression
stroke, so by the time the piston starts down into its power stroke the
pressures are high enough to start producing useful work.
Process flow

Hydrogen extraction
from water

Increasing the spark


Reducing engine
knocking detonation
at high altitude

The spark ignition (SI) engine is one of the two most common
reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engine types in current use.
Basic SI engines have not fundamentally changed since the early
1900s with the possible exception of the introduction of the Wankel
rotary SI engine in the 1960s.
However, major advances in the areas of materials, manufacturing
processes, electronic controls, and computer aided design have led to
significant improvements in dependability, longevity, thermal
efficiency, and emissions during the past decade. Electronic controls, in
particular, have played a major role in efficiency gains in SI automotive
engines through improved control of the fuel injection and ignition
systems that control the combustion process. Electronic control of diesel
fuel injection systems is also becoming more common and is producing
improvements in diesel emissions and fuel economy.

 Hydrogen extraction from the water by ionizing the

positive charges from the water (H2O) and
discharging the negative charges from the hydrogen
by using copper as cathode zinc as anode high
positive ionization hydrogen escapes from the top of
the flask and to move the experiment chamber at the
same time by using the voltage booster length of the
spark plug is increases was observed by the visual
glass tube. The hydrogen is investigated through the
hydrogen level. This investigation is carried out for
the high altitude ignition trouble.

 Hydrogen test flask

 Spark plug
 Ignition coil
 Two conical glass
 Zinc sheet
 Copper sheet
 Nacl solution
 Water
 12 v and 6 amp battery
 Voltage booster

 Carburetors vary quite a bit in design and complexity. The simplest

possible one is essentially a large vertical air with hydrogen pipe
above the engine cylinders with a horizontal fuel pipe joined onto
one side. As the air with hydrogen flows down the pipe, it has to
pass through a narrow kink in the middle, which makes it speed up
and causes its pressure to fall. This kinked section is called
a venturi. The falling pressure of the air with hydrogen creates a
sucking effect that draws air with hydrogen in through the fuel pipe
at the side. The air with hydrogen flow pulls in fuel to join it, which
is just what we need, but how can we adjust the air with hydrogen -
fuel mixture? The carburetor has two swiveling valves above and
below the venturi. At the top, there's a valve called the choke that
regulates how much air with hydrogen can flow in. If the choke is
closed, less air with hydrogen flows down through the pipe and the
venturi sucks in more fuel, so the engine gets a fuel-rich mixture.
That's handy when the engine is cold, first starting up, and running
quite slowly. Beneath the venturi, there's a second valve called
the throttle.
 The more the throttle is open, the more air with hydrogen flows through the
carburetor and the more fuel it drags in from the pipe to the side. With
more fuel and air with hydrogen flowing in, the engine releases more
energy and makes more power and the car goes faster. That's why opening
the throttle makes a car accelerate: it's the equivalent of blowing on a
campfire to supply more oxygen and make it burn more quickly. The
throttle is connected to the accelerator pedal in a car or the throttle on the
handlebar of a motorcycle.
 The fuel inlet to a carburetor is slightly more complex than we've described
it so far. Attached to the fuel pipe there's a kind of mini fuel tank called
a float-feed chamber (a little tank with a float and valve inside it). As the
chamber feeds fuel to the carburetor, the fuel level sinks, and the float falls
with it. When the float drops below a certain level, it opens a valve allowing
fuel into the chamber to refill it from the main gas tank. Once the chamber
is full, the float rises, closes the valve, and the fuel feed switches off again.
(The float-feed chamber works a bit like a toilet, with the float effectively
doing the same job as the ball cock the valve that helps a toilet refill with
just the right amount of water after you flush. What do car engines and
toilets have in common? More than you might have thought!)

 H₂O→H+HO

A general model, based on a theoretically calculated

ionization oscillator strength and an experimentally
determined excitation shape function, has been
obtained for calculating the molecular hydrogen
ionization cross section of a transition between any
discrete vibrational levels of the neutral state and
ionic state. Specifically, the excitation shape function
and ionization oscillator strength for transitions
from the level of the neutral state to the discrete
levels of the ionic state are derived from analyzing
several experimental measurement

 Army purpose

 This study examines the performance characteristics and

ionization of a hydrogen high spark-ignition engine.
Together with the development in gas injector
technology, it has become possible to control precisely
the injection of hydrogen for safe operation. Army
purpose using diesel spark-ignition engines are a
possible choice for long endurance, high altitude
operations extremely high altitude operations. In fact,
piston engines SFC (Specific Fuel Consumption) is
independent from altitude. An integrated design is
strictly necessary, at high altitudes the air is taken from
high-pressure areas into an alternate extremely

 Jump up^ Furuhama, Shouichi (1978). International Journal

of Hydrogen Energy Volume 3, Issue 1, 1978, Pages 61–81.
Elsevier Ltd.
 Jump up^ Hydrogen Fuel ICE Bus developed by TCU
 Jump up^ de Paula, Matthew. "Aston Martin Favors
Hydrogen over Hybrids, At Least for Now". Forbes. Forbes
 Jump up^ P.C.T. De Boera, W.J. McLeana and H.S. Homana
(1976). "Performance and emissions of hydrogen fueled
internal combustion engines". International Journal of
Hydrogen Energy Jump up^ Converting of gasoline ICE to
hydrogen ICE
 Jump up^ Hydrogen use in internal combustion engines