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Energy Conservation and

Management in Industry

NEW SENSE

J. Nagesh Kumar
Director
Centre for Energy, Environment and Productivity (CEEP)
Chennai
tallkumar@gmail.com  9444882553
Non-Renewable and Renewable
Energy
Coal

Reserves/Production (R/P) - 122 years


Oil

Reserves/Production (R/P) - 42 years


Natural Gas

Reserves/Production (R/P) - 60 years


Energy Conservation and its
Importance
• Coal and other
fossil fuels, have
taken hundreds of
millions of years to
form, are likely to
deplete soon.
• already consumed
60% of all resources
• will not exist for
future generations
Electrical energy: Stage wise
losses
Adverse Environmental Impacts
of Energy Use
• Global warming
• Acid rain
• Ozone layer depletion
• Localised pollution
Alternate Energy
Technologies
India brings out law for energy
conservation
THE ENERGY CONSERVATION
ACT, 2001 No 52 OF 2001
[29th September 2001]

An Act to provide for efficient use of


energy and its conservation and for
matters connected therewith or
incidental thereto.
Star labeling schemes
introduced
Widening Oil Demand in India
Installed Generating Capacity of India July 2016

Thermal 211640 MW (70 %)


61% Coal , 8 % Gas, 1% Diesel)

Hydro 42848 MW (14 %)


R.E.S. 42849 MW (14.1%)
(MNRE)

Nuclear 5780 MW (1.9 %)

Total 303118 MW
TANGEDCO LT Tariff IIIB
Tariff Consumption Fixed charges Energy Monthly
Description Slab range in per service for Charges Minimum in
KWHr (Units) two months Paise/Kwhr Rupees
and billing (unit)
period (One or
two months)
LT Tariff III-B Consumption
from 0 units to Rs.60/- 400 Rs.40/KW or
750 units per part thereof of
month/ 0 units the contracted
to 1500 units for load.
two months
Consumption
from 751 units Rs.60/- 500
and above per
month/ 1501
units and above
for two months
Energy consuming equipment
• Motor Driven Systems
– Machines
– Air compressor
– Pump
– Blowers and fans
– Air conditioning
• Lighting, Heating and Melting
• Thermal energy systems
– Boilers
– Furnaces
Case Study 1
Construction Equipment
Company
Energy Consumption
• Annual Energy Bill
– Electricity Rs. 1.5 Crores
– Diesel Rs. 1 crore
• Average consumption per month –
1,47,000 units
• Energy Cost – Rs.4.70 per unit
Electrical Energy Consumption Pattern
Annual Bill – Rs.1.5 crores
EB POWER SUPPLY

DG SET M TRIVECTOR METER Metering

11 KV/440V
Transformer
END USE/ Transformer
.Effi.98-99.5%
CUSTOMERS

ELECTRICAL
M
Sub-station Dist. loss
1 -6%

Feeders,
M M M M C Capacitors

Distribution
C
Panels

C
Motors
Effi.85-96%

MECHANICAL
FANS & BLOWERS PUMPS R & AC COMPRESSORS LIGHTING, HEATING LOAD

Electrical Distribution System –Single Line Diagram


Diesel Consumption Pattern
Rs 1 crore per annum
Energy Saving opportunities in
Paint shop
VFD Top coat
Flush off
OVEN Fan
10 kW
(15 kW)
ASU Fan
50 kW
(110 kW)

Primer Top coat


Exhaust Fan Exhaust Fan
43 kW 45 kW
(75 kW) (75 kW)
Reduce air flow
• Reduce ASU speed to 35 Hz. 30 % reduction in flow rate
• Provide VFD for primer and top coat exhaust

AHU @ 50Hz 67 kW
AHU @ 45Hz 50
AHU @ 40Hz 35
AHU @ 35Hz 25
AHU @ 30Hz 17
• Primer and top coat exhaust fans will consume 15 kW
each
• Total savings – 75 kW x 5 hrs x 200 days x Rs.7.5
Rs . 6 lakhs
Reduce water flow
• Existing water flow intended for maximum capacity
• Provide VFD for circulation pump and reduce flow by
50%
• Power drawn by the pump 20 kW (37 kW)
• Power that will be consumed at 50 % flow
• Total savings – 9 kW x 5 hrs x 200 days x Rs.7.5
Rs . 67,000
Touch up Paint shop
Shot blasting machine Dust collection System
• 50 % time the dust collection fan (180 kW) be switched off
• By providing a separate dust collector system for Manual blasting ( 5KW)
this can be improvised
• By providing sequence between impellers and dust collector fan this can be
achieved
Case Study 2
Process Industry
RECOVER LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT
FROM DG SET JACKET COOLING WATER

4 MW
F.OIL POWER
DG SET

80oC 90oc Jacket cooling water,


150m3/hr
7.8o C Chilled water,
c.w cooler VAR 150 TR
85o.c 13.3o.c

•Chilled water generation equivalent =150 TR


•ANNUAL SAVING = Rs.36 Lakhs
HEAT RECOVERY FROM PROCESS AIR
12000M3/HR
180.C Process Air
100.C 32.C
SCREW
COMP. H.E COOLER

Hot Water circulation


55 m3/hr 32.C 35.5.C
cooling water,
VAR 100m3/hr
90.C SYSTEM 85.C

13.3.C 7.8.c
Chilled water , 55
TR

ANNUAL SAVING = Rs.20 lakhs


Process Integration: Feed preheating
with waste heat
• Preheat the fresh feed (impure butanol) with
outgoing product(pure butanol

impure Butanol
15m3/hr, 30.C 124.C
80.c Evaporator To C903
Preheater
cooler From C 903
To storage 40.C Pure Butanol
1m3/hr, 124.C

Annual Saving = Rs. 3.6 Lakhs


INCREASE FERMENTOR
AVAILABILITY
• Clean and inspect once in every two
batches instead of every batch
– 31 batches more per year
– Turnover up by Rs.3.25 crores

• Use continuous steriliser for media and


sterile water
– Turnover up by Rs.4.86 crores

• Clean and inspect once in three batches ?


– Turnover up by Rs.6.24 crores
Case study 3:
Tyre and tube manufacturing
plant
Calendaring (Ply)

Compounding Tread Extruder


Tyre building
Tyre moulding

Bead winding

Finishing and inspection


Tube manufacturing process

Strained rubber

Warming Mill Feeding Mill


Compounding Mill Water spray

Extruder
Cutting Cooling conveyor
Chalk powder bath

Mouth fixing Edge cutting Splicing & Jointing Joint cooling Inflation
Tube curing press

Dispatch Leak test Inflation


Inspection
Compressed air system

Tyre plant
Air
Receiver
300 cfm Loading - 50 kW
60 kW Unloading - 12 kW

Refrigerated Loading - 50 kW
300 cfm
air dryer Unloading - 12 kW
60 kW

600 cfm
Loading - 20 kW
Unloading - 99 kW
Tube plant
110 kW
High Pressure Compressed
air system

Air
Tyre plant
Receiver
Loading -14 kW
54 cfm
15 HP

Loading - 13 kW
33 cfm
20 HP

Loading - 25 kW
Unloading - 8 kW
82 cfm
30 HP
Cooling water system : Air
Compressors
10 HP
Actual -5 kW

100 TR
300 cfm
60 kW

Refrigerated
300 cfm
5 6 air dryer 60 kW

HP - 10 HP - 7.5
Actual - 5.5 kW Actual - 3.2 kW
H - 22 m H - 22 m
Q - 57.6 m3/hr Q - 57.6 m3/hr
600 cfm
110 kW
Cooling water system : Tyre plant
10 HP
Actual - 3.2 kW

84” mill (1) 4.7 m3/hr 1.4 m3/hr 8” extruder


200 TR Falcon mouth cooling

84” mill (2) 5.3 m3/hr 8.4 m3/hr 60” warming


Dunlop mill (1)

60” mill 3.3 m3/hr 8.4 m3/hr 60” warming


Kleinewerfers mill (2)
8 9
7
60” mill (2) 4.2 m3/hr 8.4 m3/hr 60” feeding
Manchester mill (3)
HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 14 kW Actual - 42 ” (1) 8.4 m3/hr 25.5 m3/hr 8” extruder
H - 29 m H - 39 m H- m Sonal mill conveyor cooling
Q - 17 m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - m3/hr
42 ” (2) 3.4 m3/hr 5.6 m3/hr 60 “ warming mill
mill (Calender

4.2 m3/hr 5.6 m3/hr 60 “ feeding mill


Darwing mill
(Calender)

Extruder screw 0.746 m3/hr 9 m3/hr


Calender
cooling
Return water sump
4.2 m3/hr 12 kg/hr
4 1/2” Conveyor 70OC Hot water -
cooling O
85 C Condensate -12 kg/hr

HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 12 kW Actual - 16.2 kW
H - 29 m H - 39 m H - 56 m
Q - 17m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - 15 m3/hr
Cooling water system : Tube plant &
K4
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

100 TR

Final
compounding 8 m3/hr
mill

2.5 m3/hr
2 3 Warming mill

1 4
HP - 7.5
Feeding mill 0.4 m3/hr
Actual - 4 kW
HP - 20
H - 22 m
Actual - 11 kW
Q - 16m3/hr
H - 29 m 0.23 m3/hr
Q - 23 m3/hr K4 Extruder

Extruder 3 m3/hr
die cooling

Extruder 9.4 m3/hr


Return water sump conveyor cooling

HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 12 kW Actual - 16.2 kW
H - 29 m H - 39 m H - 56 m
Q - 17m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - 15 m3/hr
Closed circuit cooling water
system
Make up water
Overflow for from Sintex tank
recirculation

Spray Condensate
Pond Tank
8 kW
High pressure pumps
Center piston water Ejector HP steam +
Closed Circuit water
9 kW

Tyre curing presses


After HP steam inflation, High pressure water enters
and along with steam goes to condensate tank
Existing steam generation
Feed water
tank

Nestler
Westerwork
Boiler
Boiler

Ogdon Ogdon
Pump Tube Tyre Pump
Plant Steam Plant

Condensate Condensate
tank Furnace Oil
tank
Furnace oil Supply system
Soft water
storage tank

Boiler feed
Day tank
water tank
95OC

Furnace oil
storage tank Steam
preheater

Overflow
tank

Nestler Westerwork
Steam Steam
Line Line
heater heater
Proposed steam generation
Feed water
tank
Rice husk fired boiler

Steam

Ogdon Ogdon
Pump Tube Tyre Pump
Plant Plant

Condensate Condensate
tank tank
Existing boiler plant system

Boiler feed
water tank
85OC 220OC

Nestler Westerwork
Use overflow from feed water tank for
furnace oil preheating system
Soft water
storage tank

Boiler feed
Day tank
water tank
95OC

Furnace oil
storage tank Steam
preheater

Overflow
tank

Nestler Westerwork
Steam Steam
Line Line
heater heater
Recover waste heat by
providing an economiser

Economiser

Increase in boiler Boiler feed


feed water by 10OC water tank
95OC

220OC

180OC

Nestler Westerwork
Recover waste heat by
providing a Recuperators

Economiser

Increase in boiler Boiler feed


feed water by 10OC water tank
95OC

220OC

180OC

Nestler Westerwork
Existing: High radiation loss
from Moulds

Radiation
from moulds
Reduce heat loss through
insulation

Insulated Mould
Existing cooling water system for tube
plant
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

100 TR

Final
compounding 8 m3/hr
mill

2.5 m3/hr
2 3 Warming mill

1 4
HP - 7.5
Feeding mill 0.4 m3/hr
Actual - 4 kW
HP - 20
H - 22 m
Actual - 11 kW
Q - 16m3/hr
H - 29 m 0.23 m3/hr
Q - 23 m3/hr K4 Extruder

Extruder 3 m3/hr
die cooling

Extruder 9.4 m3/hr


Return water sump conveyor cooling

HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 12 kW Actual - 16.2 kW
H - 29 m H - 39 m H - 56 m
Q - 17m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - 15 m3/hr
Modified cooling water system for tube
plant
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

100 TR

Final
compounding 8 m3/hr
mill

2.5 m3/hr
Warming mill

1 4
HP - 7.5
Actual - 4 kW Feeding mill 0.4 m3/hr
HP - 20 H - 22 m
HP - 3
Actual - 11 kW Q - 16m3/hr
Actual –1.4 kW
H - 29 m H - 22 m 0.23 m3/hr
Q - 23 m3/hr K4 Q - 17m3/hr
Extruder

Extruder 3 m3/hr
die cooling

Extruder 9.4 m3/hr


Return water sump conveyor cooling

HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 12 kW Actual - 16.2 kW
H - 29 m H - 39 m H - 56 m
Q - 17m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - 15 m3/hr Modified pumping system
Existing cooling water system for K4
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

100 TR

Final
compounding 8 m3/hr
mill

2.5 m3/hr
Warming mill

1 4
HP - 7.5
Actual - 4 kW Feeding mill 0.4 m3/hr
HP - 20 H - 22 m
HP - 3
Actual - 11 kW Q - 16m3/hr
Actual –1.4 kW
H - 29 m H - 22 m 0.23 m3/hr
Q - 23 m3/hr K4 Q - 17m3/hr
Extruder

Extruder 3 m3/hr
die cooling

Extruder 9.4 m3/hr


Return water sump conveyor cooling

HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 12 kW Actual - 16.2 kW
H - 29 m H - 39 m H - 56 m
Q - 17m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - 15 m3/hr Modified pumping system
Modified cooling water system for K4
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

100 TR

Final
compounding 8 m3/hr
mill

2.5 m3/hr
Warming mill

1 4
HP - 7.5
Actual - 4 kW Feeding mill 0.4 m3/hr
HP - 20 H - 22 m
HP - 3
Actual - 11 kW Q - 16m3/hr
Actual –1.4 kW
H - 29 m H - 22 m 0.23 m3/hr
Q - 23 m3/hr K4 Q - 17m3/hr
Extruder

Extruder 3 m3/hr
die cooling

Extruder 9.4 m3/hr


Return water sump conveyor cooling

HP - 10 HP - 20 HP - 20
Actual - 6 kW Actual - 12 kW Actual - 16.2 kW
H - 29 m H - 39 m H - 56 m
Q - 17m3/hr Q - 23 m3/hr Q - 15 m3/hr Modified pumping system
Idle running of cooling water pump and
fan even when mill is not in operation
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

100 TR
Water keeps circulating
through the mills even
when they are not in
operation

1 4
HP - 7.5
Actual - 4 kW
HP - 20 H - 22 m
Actual - 11 kW Q - 16m3/hr
H - 29 m
Q - 23 m3/hr K4
Provide interlocks to avoid idle running of
pump and cooling tower fan
10 HP
Actual - 6 kW

Interlock between pump


100 TR
& cooling tower fan and
dump mill will ensure that
pump and fan are
switched off when mill is
not in operation

1 4
HP - 7.5
Actual - 4 kW
HP - 20 H - 22 m
Actual - 11 kW Q - 16m3/hr
H - 29 m
Q - 23 m3/hr K4
Compressed air: Leak vs actual
demand

Demand Leak

1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
12 13 14 15 16 17 8 19 20 21 22 23 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Anticipated Compressed air demand
pattern
(After minimising leaks)

Demand Leak
700

600

500
400
Cfm

300

200

100

0
12 13 14 15 16 17 8 19 20 21 22 23 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Time (Hrs)
Existing shaping steam supply

HP Steam HP Steam
190 Psi 20 Psi
Existing shaping steam supply

20 psi

High pressure
platen
condensate
Air leakages in HP compressed
air system

Air
Receiver
54 cfm Loading -14 kW
15 HP

33 cfm Loading - 13 kW
20 HP

Loading - 25 kW
82 cfm Unloading - 8 kW
30 HP
Minimise leakages

Air
Receiver
54 cfm Loading -14 kW
15 HP

33 cfm Loading - 13 kW
20 HP

Loading - 25 kW
82 cfm Unloading - 8 kW
30 HP
Existing cooling water supply
system for 8” Extruder

Extruder

Cracker mill Warming mill Feeding mill


Return
Supply
Proposed series cooling water
supply system for 8” Extruder

Extruder

Cracker mill Warming mill Feeding mill


Return
Supply
Existing hot air blowing
system for moisture removal

Electric heater 4 kW
Hot air

Extruder
Cutting Cooling conveyor
Chalk powder bath
Modified system with more surface
contact between air and tube

Ambient air

Extruder
Cutting Cooling conveyor
Chalk powder bath

Modified air
blowing arrangement
Existing hot air system for tread
cooling in 8” extruder

Electric
heater 9 kW Hot air

Cutting

Extruder

Cooling conveyor
Modified ambient air system with
change in air blow angle

Ambient air

Cutting

Extruder

Cooling conveyor
Existing steam supply to
canteen

18 kW 18 kW

Steam jacketed vessels


Electric Boilers
Proposed steam supply to
canteen
Steam supplied
from boiler house

Hot water tank

Proposed extension of steam line to canteen

Worker’s
bathroom
Steam jacketed vessels
Existing electrical valve drying
oven
Provide a steam drying oven

20 psi

High pressure
platen
condensate