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• Describe the organs of the male and female human
reproductive systems
Guiding Question

What is reproduction?
The primary sex organs (gonads) are
those that produce gametes (sperm
and eggs)
Male: testes Female: ovaries
Sex Organs
Male: Female:
ducts, glands, penis uterine tubes, uterus, vagina
Male Secondary Characteristics
• Puberty
• Burst of hormones activate maturation of the gonads: testes
• Enlargement of the external and internal genitalia
• Voice changes
• Hair growth
• Mental changes
• Changes in body conformation and skin
• Sebaceous gland secretions thicken/increase  acne

• Begins: 9 – 14 yrs of age

• Abnormally early = precocious puberty
• Delayed = eunuchoidism
 Infancy
 Erections begin
 Ages 11-14
 Secondary sex characteristics appear
 Ages 13-16
 Sperm produced in adult amounts (puberty)
 Late teens
 Peak sexual urges for boys
 Throughout life
 If good health is present, there is the sex urge and ability to father


Foreskin Penis
• It has three external parts:
• Shaft – contains the urethra – a passage for urine to
leave the body
• Glans – has opening for urethra, homologous to the
clitoris in females
• Foreskin -– a sheath of skin that covers the tip of the
• It functions to both ability for urination and the transfer
sperm to the vagina.
• During sexual activity, the penis becomes erect or firm
• Ejaculation – occurs when sperm are released from the penis after
sexual excitement
• A sac-like pouch located behind the penis that holds each

• Protects testes and maintain the temperature of the testes

2 degrees lower than body temperature.
• Improves sperm maturation
• The two testes are small organs that lie in the scrotum
and produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone.

• They are the male sex gland.

• They are the counterpart to the female ovary.

• Loss of one does not impair the function of the other.

• Four to five billion sperm cells are produced each month.

• The male reproductive hormone made by the testicles
which causes the changes of puberty.

• This hormone causes secondary sex characteristics,

production of sperm and sexual urge.

• It is produced in the testicles and enters the bloodstream

at a fairly constant rate.
• The microscopic cells produced by the male's testicles
which can fertilize the female's ovum.

• They are tiny, living cells 100 times smaller than a pencil

• Enough sperm would fit on the head of a pin to re-

populate the earth if each sperm fertilized an egg.

• It is destroyed by warm body temperature, acidic


• It can survive in a women’s body for 5-8 days.

• Any sperm not ejaculated are passed in the urine.

Epididymis & VasDeferens

• Epididymis = maturation site for


• Vas Deferens = two long, thin tubes

that serve as a passageway for sperm
towards the urethra
Seminal Vesicles
• Two small glands that secrete a sugar-rich fluid that
nourishes and enables the sperm to move.
• Makes 60% of semen volume

• Prostate Gland
• The gland secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the
acid found in the male urethra and the female
reproductive tract.
• Without the fluids of the prostate, many sperm would die
and fertilization of an egg would be impossible.
• 40% of semen volume
• A tube that both semen
and urine pass
• Semen and urine never mix.

• During urination
• one sphincter will relax so
that the bladder will push
urine out from the body.

• During ejaculation
• another sphincter will relax
so that semen can flow
through the urethra to the
outside of the body.
Semen, Sperm & Fertilization
• Spermatogenesis
• Development of sperm

• Major constituents of semen

• Sperm, fructose (sugar for sperm), prostaglandins (comes from the

• Sperm are viable for 2 days (egg: 12-24 hr)

• Only ~ 100 reach the destination.
• Only one sperm fertilizes the egg.

Diseases and Disorders of the Male

Reproductive System
Disease/Disorder Description
Benign prostatic Nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate
hypertrophy (BPH) gland; common in older men
Epididymitis Inflammation of an epididymis; usually
starts as an urinary tract infection
Impotence or Disorder in which erection cannot be
erectile dysfunction achieved or maintained; about 50% of males
(ED) between 40 and 70 have some degree of ED

Diseases and Disorders of the Male

Reproductive System
Disease/Disorder Description
Prostate cancer Most common form of cancer in men over
40; risks of developing it increase with age
Prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate gland; may be
acute or chronic

Testicular cancer Malignant growth in one or both testicles;

more common in males 15–30 years; more
aggressive malignancy
Female Secondary Characteristics
• Puberty
• Burst of hormones activate maturation of the gonads: ovaries
• Begins: 8-13 yrs of age
• Abnormally early = precocious puberty
• Delayed =Primary Amenorrhea

• Axillary & pubic hair growth

• Changes in body conformation [widening of hips,
development of breasts]
• Onset of first menstrual period [menarche]
• Mental changes
• Ages 9-12
• Secondary sex characteristics appear
• Ages 11-14
• Menstrual cycle begins
• Late 20-30's
• Peak sexual urges
• Ages 45-55
• Menopause (cycle stops, but sex urge continues)
Labia Majora & Minora
• External visible is known as the vulva (not the vagina)

• Mons pubis or "mound of Venus" is the V-shaped

area covered with hair

• Labia majora
• Rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin
• Protect other external reproductive organs
• Homologous to scrotum

• Labia minora
• Fold of skin between labia majora
• Very vascular
• Merge to form hood over clitoris
Clitoris & Perineum
• Clitoris
• Contains female erectile tissue
• Rich in sensory nerves
• Homologous to glans

• Perineum
• Between vagina and anus
• Area for episiotomy, if needed, during birth
Urethra & Vaginal Opening
• Urethra
• The urethra is below the clitoris is the passage for urine
• It is much shorter than the male urethra, can be more
likely to develop a UTI

• Vaginal Opening
• The entrance to the actual vagina
• It is the tube that is used for flow of menstrual fluid,
penetration during sex, and birth
• The hymen is a thin fold of tissue which partially covers
the opening of the vagina.
• Medically it is no longer considered to be a 100% proof of female
• Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond.
• It is homologous to testes

• In young women the ovaries are about 1½ - 2 inches long,

1 inch wide & 1/3 inch thick.
• After menopause they tend to shrink.

• The female baby is born with all the ova she will ever
have (about 200,000 in each ovary).
• About 400-500 ova mature and are released over a lifetime
Ovaries Part II
• Ovaries have two main functions:
• store and release the ova or female egg cell. Some of
the ova disappear; others are dormant until each is
ripened and released after puberty.
• This process is called oogenesis
• produce female sex hormones estrogen and

• They are the largest cells in the female body

(about the size of a grain of sand.)
• Estrogen is responsible for the secondary sex
characteristics and the sex drive in females.
• It spurs the onset of puberty and is responsible for ovulation
(release of a mature egg).

• Progesterone builds up the lining of the uterus called the
endometrium in preparation for the fertilized ovum
Fallopian Tubes
• Stretch from the uterus to the ovaries and measure about
8 to 13 cm in length.

• The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries

feather into ends called fimbria

• The fimbria (with cilia) beat in waves hundreds of times a

second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it
through the tube to the uterine cavity.

• Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube

• Pear-shaped muscular organ in the upper female
reproductive tract.
• It’s purpose is to provide a place for a developing embryo
• The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects
with the vagina and serves as a sphincter to keep the
uterus closed during pregnancy until it is time to deliver a
• The uterus expands considerably during the reproductive
• It can grow to from 10 to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy.
Uterus Part II
• The main body consists of a firm outer coat of muscle
(myometrium) and an inner lining of vascular, glandular
material (endometrium).

• The endometrium thickens during the menstrual cycle to

allow implantation of a fertilized egg.

• Pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants

successfully into the endometrial lining. If fertilization does
not occur, the endometrium sloughs off and is expelled as
menstrual flow.
• vagin = sheath

• A muscular, ridged sheath connecting the external

genitals to the uterus.

• Functions as a two-way street, accepting the penis and

sperm during intercourse and roughly nine months later,
serving as the avenue of birth through which the new
baby enters the world
• The neck of the uterus.

• The cervix is lined with mucus, the quality and quantity of

which is governed by monthly fluctuations in the levels of
the estrogen and progesterone.
• When estrogen levels are low, the mucus tends to be thick and
sparse, hindering sperm from reaching the fallopian tubes.
• When estrogen levels are high (an egg is ready for fertilization) the
mucus then becomes thin and slippery, offering a “friendly
environment” to sperm.

• At the end of pregnancy, the cervix acts as the passage

through which the baby exits the uterus into the vagina.
• The cervical canal expands to roughly 50 times its normal width in
order to accommodate the passage of the baby during birth
Diseases and Disorders of the Female
Reproductive System
Disease/Disorder Description
Breast cancer Second leading cause of cancer deaths in
women; classified as stage 0 to 4
Cervical cancer Slow to develop; Pap smear detects
abnormal cervical cells
Cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix usually due to an
Dysmenorrhea Condition with severe menstrual cramps
limiting normal activities
Diseases and Disorders of the Female
Reproductive System (cont.)
Disease/Disorder Description
Endometriosis Tissues of uterine lining growing outside of
the uterus
Fibrocystic breast Abnormal cystic tissue in the breast; size
disease varies related to menstrual cycle; common in
60% of women between 30 and 50
Fibroids Benign tumors in the uterine wall; affect
25% of women in their 30s and 40s
Ovarian cancer Considered more deadly than other types;
detection difficult and often spreads before
Diseases and Disorders of the Female
Reproductive System (cont.)
Disease/Disorder Description
Premenstrual Collection of symptoms occurring just
syndrome (PMS) before a menstrual period
Vaginitis / Inflammation of the vagina / inflammation of
vulvovaginitis vagina and vulva; both associated with
abnormal vaginal discharge
Uterine Most common in post-menopausal women;
(endometrial) cancer causes about 6% of cancer deaths in women