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• Roofs
• Slabs
• Beams
• Columns
• Wall panels
Large panel prefab system
- Based on use of large panel prefab system.
- Components used are prefabricated large panels for
walls, floors, roofs, staircases etc.,
- It is a box like structure.
- Both horizontal and vertical members are load bearing.
- The prefabricated large panel walls can be classified as
a)Cross wall system
b)Longitudinal system
a)Cross wall system
- Cross walls are load bearing and facade walls are non
load bearing.
- Suitable for high rise buildings
b)Longitudinal wall system
- Cross wall is non load bearing and longitudinal walls are
load bearing.
- Suitable for low rise buildings.
Prefabricated floors
- Depending upon the composition prefabricated floors
are classified as
a)Homogeneous floor
b)Non homogeneous floor
- Depending upon the way loads are transferred, the
prefabricated floors are classified as
a)One way system
b)Two way system
• Floors are horizontal members of a building.
• Floors are usually made of reinforced concrete using
normal aggregates.
• On the basis of support and reinforcement, these
panels are divided in to two categories
a)Slabs supported on two edges and reinforcement in
one direction.
b)Slabs supported on the corners and having cross
• Based on shape of c/s of floor slab components, they
are classified as
b)Hollow or multi duct
c)Tray panel
d)Folded plate (trough or trapezium)
e)Ribbed with infilling
Solid floor slabs
• Floor beams may be made of reinforced concrete or
prestressed concrete.
• Beams and slabs are generally treated as separate units.
• Slabs resting directly on walls are designed mostly as
two way slabs.
Hollow core slab
• Main advantage of this compared with solid slab is that
the construction materials are used more efficiently
without loosing their flat surfaces.
• Ducts in slabs may be circular, oval or rectangular c/s.
• They run in the direction of span, the ribs between the
ducts are stiffen by top and bottom plates.
Tray or Pan Slabs:
• They are tray shaped prefabricated floor panels.
• Two types of tray panels are
a)Narrow trays
b)Wide trays
Ribbed floors with infilling:
• Floors are casted first and infilling is done next.
• Spaces between the ribs are filled with ceramic tiles or
with blocks of light weight concrete or gypsum.
Design of Prefabricated floor slab
• In Industrial buildings, prefabricated floor consists of
precast joist and flooring members.
• Flooring members are designed for a span of 9m and
bearing a live load of 1000 kg/m2.
• After placing members in final position longitudinal
reinforcement and stirrups are placed in the trough
formed between longitudinal ribs of adjacent members.
• Continuous mesh reinforcement is placed on top of
these members.
• After that a 5cm thick insitu concrete is cast on the top
of these members and trough between longitudinal ribs
are also filled with concrete
• A prestressed flooring member for a span of 6.0m and
live load of 5000 kg/m2 and weight of 1450kg are
widely used.
• Flooring members for smaller loads can also be made of
light weight concrete.
• These type of members are widely used in residential
houses and public buildings.
• Weight of flooring members should not exceed 5 tonnes
otherwise storage, transportation and placing of
components will be difficult.
• Roofing members can be divided in to two groups
- Long span
- Short span
• Short span members rest on purlin while long span
members directly supported by the main girders.
• The different forms of roof slabs are
a)Reinforced planks made of porous hollow tiles:
• Consists of porous tiles having circular holes.
• Reinforced porous tiled planks having a length of 2.3m,
thickness of 6 to 10cm and a width of 20cm .
• Two kinds of tiles generally exist.
• The first kind is heat insulating and has a unit weight of
750 kg/m3.
• The other kind is load bearing and its unit weight is
1100 kg/m3. (used for production of reinforced planks).
• The disadvantage of using porous hollow tiles is that it is
highly moisture absorbing and therefore not frost
• To protect from moisture, it should be rough and
rendered with lime cement mortar.
b)Light weight concrete roofing members
• Light weight concrete roofing members are heat
insulating and application of separate heat insulation
layer is not necessary.
• It can be applied only if there is a possibility of
• It requires a bond between steel and light weight
concrete for ensuring the transmission of force acting in
steel bars sliding, hence it is necessary to protect the
reinforcement against corrosion.
• Light weight concretes of quality LC70 or LC100 are
quite suitable for the production of roofing members
with rectangular c/s and a thickness of 7.5cm to 25cm,
width of 50cm and length of 1.75-6m.
• The unit weight of member is 100 kg/m3.
c)Small Reinforced concrete roofing members:
• It is essentially a precast simply supported, ribbed
reinforced concrete slab.
• A rib and block slab is composed of rectangular shaped
precast concrete reinforced or prestressed ribs
supporting rebated filler blocks placed between two
• This system is sometimes referred to as planks and
block or beam and block.
• In-situ concrete is poured between and over the blocks.
• Slab depths vary from 170mm to 380mm with clear
span up to 10m.
d)Large reinforced concrete roofing members:
• Rest directly on the main girders of the structure.
• Members are manufactured in a length corresponding
to the spacing of frames (6 to 10m).
• Width is 1.30m to 1.80m.
• Since directly supported by main girder, no purlin is
• Shear walls are flexural wall structures or vertical
system which forms the lateral load resisting system.
• Shear walls are subjected to axial load, bending
moment and shear forces.
• In residential construction, shear walls are straight
external walls that typically form a box like structure
provides all of the lateral support of the building.
• Shear walls generally start at the foundation level and
are continuous throughout the building height.
• Thickness can be as low as 150mm or as high as 400mm
in high rise buildings.
• If shear walls are designed and constructed properly,
they will have the strength and stiffness to resist the
horizontal forces.
• Lateral forces are caused by wind, earthquake and
uneven settlement loads in addition to the weight of
structure and occupants can create powerful twisting
(torsion) forces.
• These forces can literally tear a building apart and
hence reinforcing a frame by attaching or placing a rigid
wall inside maintains the shape and prevents rotation at
the joints.
• Shear walls are especially important in high rise
buildings subjected to lateral wind and seismic forces.
• In last two decades, shear walls became an important
part of mid and high rise buildings.
• As part of an earthquake resistant building design, these
walls are placed in building plan reducing lateral
displacements under earthquake loads.
• Shear walls are not only designed to resist
gravity/vertical loads (loads which are due to self weight
and other moving loads) but they are also designed for
lateral loads of earthquakes and wind.
• These walls are structurally integrated with roofs/floors
and other lateral walls running across at right angles,
thereby giving three dimensional stability for the
building structures.
• Shear wall systems are more stable. It is so because
their supporting area (total c/s area) with reference to
total plan area of building is comparatively more unlike
in case of RCC framed structures
• Walls have to resist the uplift forces caused by the pull
of wind. Walls have to resist the shear forces that try to
push the walls over.
• Load bearing masonry is very brittle material.
• Due to different kinds of stresses such as shear, tensile
etc., caused by earthquake, the conventional
unreinforced brick masonry collapses instantly during
unpredictable and sudden earthquakes.
• RCC framed structures are slender when compared to
shear wall concept of box like three-dimensional
• Though it is possible to design the earthquake resistant
RCC frame, it requires extra-ordinary skills at design,
detailing and construction levels which cannot be
anticipated in all types of construction projects.
• On the other hand even moderately designed shear wall
structures not only more stable, but also comparatively
quite ductile.
• In safety terms, during very severe earthquakes they
will not suddenly collapse causing death of people.
• They give enough indicative warnings such as widening
structural cracks, yielding rods etc., offering most
precious moments for people to run out of structures
before they totally collapse.
• For structural purposes we consider the exterior walls
as the shear resisting walls.
• Forces from the ceiling and roof diaphragm make their
way to the outside along assumed paths, enter the walls
and exit at the foundation.
i)Shear Forces:
• Generated in buildings by accelerations resulting from
ground movement and by external forces like wind and
• It creates shear forces throughout the height of wall
between top and bottom shear wall connections.
ii)Uplift Forces:
• It is because of horizontal forces applied at the top of
the wall.
• The uplift forces try to lift up one end of the wall and
push the other end down.
• If the uplift force is large, it may be enough to tip over
the wall.
• Uplift forces are greater on tall short walls and less on
low long walls.
• Shear walls need hold down devices at each end of
when the gravity loads cannot resist all the uplift.
• The hold down devices then provide necessary uplift
The shear walls are classified as follows
i)Simple rectangular and flanged walls
ii)Coupled shear walls
iii)Framed walls with infilled frames
iv)Rigid frame shear walls
v)Column supported shear walls
vi)Core type shear walls.
i)RC Shear wall
ii)Plywood shear wall
iii)RC hollow concrete block masonry wall
iv)Steel plate shear wall
i)RC Shear Wall
• Consists of reinforced concrete wall and reinforced
concrete slabs.
• Wall thickness varies from 140mm to 500mm
depending on the number of stories, building age and
thermal insulation requirement.
• In general these walls are continuous throughout the
height but discontinued sometimes for commercial or
parking spaces.
• Floor slabs are either cast in-situ flat slabs or precast
hollow core slabs.
• Buildings are supported by mat foundation generally.
ii)Plywood Shear Wall:
• Plywood is the traditional material used in the
construction of shear walls.
• The creation of pre-fabricated shear panels have made
it possible to inject strong shear assemblies.
• The plywood shear wall consists of
- Plywood : To transfer the loads
- Chords : To resist tension/compression generated by
overturning moments.
- Base connections : To transfer shear to foundation.
iii)Midply Shear Wall
• It is improved timber shear wall that was developed by
redesigning the joints between framing members.
• So that the failure modes observed in standard wall are
virtually eliminated at lateral load levels.
iv)RC Hollow Concrete Block Masonry:
• This walls are constructed by reinforcing the hollow
concrete block masonry, by taking advantage of hollow
spaces and shapes of hollow blocks.
• It requires continuous steel rods both in horizontal and
vertical directions at structurally critical locations of wall
• Hollow spaces of masonry blocks are packed with fresh
grout concrete.
• RHCBM elements are designed both as load bearing
walls for gravity loads and also as shear walls for lateral
seismic loads.
• The steel plate shear wall systems have been used in
recent years in highly seismic areas to resist lateral
• It consists of steel plate wall, boundary columns and
horizontal floor beams.

• Precast columns can be produced either as multi-

storeyed corbelled columns or single floor to floor
• They are either prestressed or reinforced.
• It has been found that single floor to floor columns is
more economical.
• They are simple to design, detail and construct.
• Once loads and bending moments are established, the
design process is same as standard reinforced cast in-
situ columns.
• Eccentric loading due to erection requirements and
localized effects at the top and bottom of column
should be taken in to account in the design.
• Extra reinforcement is usually provided at the top and
bottom of the column.
• These additional ties act as anti-splitting reinforcement.
• Other important factors that must be considered in
designing include the required beam bearing on the
• Base connection is generally analyzed as a pin joint .
• In connection details, the columns are conservatively
sized , manufactured with high strength concrete and
reinforced typically limited to four corner bars with
nominal ties.
• This approach result in extremely simple components
that can easily mass produced.
• Designed with simplicity and practicality in mind.
• They are designed as inverted Tee profile and designed
as prestressed or partially prestressed.
• This type of component is designed as continuous for
imposed loads in its final form, while being simply
supported during the erection phase.
• They are also designed so that no propping is required
during erection of the supported floor.
• Precast floor components sit directly on the ledge of the
inverted Tee.
• As columns are designed for floor to floor height, the
beams are able to sit directly on top of the columns.
• Dowels protruding from the columns pass through
ducts within the end of the beams to provide the pin
joined connection.
• This allows the connection between beams and
columns to be very simple and eliminate the need for
difficult corbelled or mechanical shear type
• One of the most critical design cases for the beams and
beam to column connection is the design for torsion
• During the erection phase it is inevitable that at some
stage the beam will be loaded on only one side causing
the beam to roll on the column particularly if the
column is narrower than the beam.
• The beam-column connection must be designed and
detailed to resist this torsional load.
• It is more economical to increase the overall building
height than to reduce beam depths.
Various types of foundations normally adopted are
i)Open foundations
ii)Rib foundation
iii)Columns and footings
iv)RCC raft foundation
• Conventional methods using in-situ techniques are
found to be economical and more practical for low cost
housing of slums which generally consists of low rise
• In seismic regions, special attention is required to make
the foundation continuous using horizontal
• Prefabrication is not recommended for foundation in
normal situations.
• In construction of walls, rammed earth, normal bricks,
soil cement blocks, hollow clay blocks etc., of different
sizes are used.
• However, still bricks continue to play major role in
construction industry.
• In actual construction, the number of bricks or blocks
are broken in to different sizes to fit in to position at site
is very large.
• As a result of this, there is wastage of materials and the
quality of construction also suffers.
• Increasing the size of wall blocks will prove economical
due to greater speed and less mortar consumption.
• This can be achieved by producing low density bigger
size wall blocks and industrial wastes like blast furnace
slag and fly ash can be effectively utilized.
• Several prefabrication techniques have been developed
and executed for walls but these medium and large
panel techniques have not proved economical for low
rise buildings as compared to traditional brick work.
• Structural floors/roofs account for substantial cost of a
building in normal situation.
• Therefore, any savings achieved in floor/roof
considerably reduces the cost of building.
• Traditional cast in-situ concrete roof involve the use of
temporary shuttering which adds to the cost of
construction and it also increases time.
• Use of standardized and optimized roofing components
where shuttering is avoided prove to be economical,
fast and better in quality.
• Some of the prefabricated roofing/flooring components
found suitable in many low cost housing projects are
i)Precast RC planks
ii)Precast hollow concrete panels
iii)Precast RB panels
iv)Precast RB curved panels
v)Precast concrete/ferrocement panels
vi)Precast RC Channel units.

• In prefabrication, many elements are prefabricated or

assembled or united or joined to form a single
• The problem in pre-fabrication is the transportation.
• To avoid problem in transportation , the structure is
disunited or separated in to smaller member or
elements so that the transportation becomes very easy
and then they are unite or assembled at site.
• The method of separating in to smaller elements is
called disuniting of structures in prefabrication.
• Instead of using a larger member as a beam or girder,
two or three smaller sections may be used and united
together as a single member.
• But the load carrying capacity of single member should
be equal to the sum of load carrying capacity of 2 (or) 3
smaller members.
• There are four methods of disuniting structures.
a)Systems Consisting of Linear Members disunite at
• Disuniting at joints give linear members.
• This means a great advantage and facility from the view
point of both manufacture and assembly.
• Auxiliary scaffoldings are not necessary and the hoisting
process is very simple.
• The disadvantage of this system is that the joints are at
the corners i.e., at places where moments usually reach
their maximum values, so the forming of joints is
• So the joints must be over dimensioned.
• This necessitates additional materials for the precast
members too.
• The other new trend of replacing moment resistant
joints by hinge like ones can also be used.
b)System for the prefabrication of disuniting in to entire
rigid frames:
• To lessen the number of joints and to prefabricate large
members in to one leads to the prefabrication of entire
• But these kind of prefabricates are only appropriate for
site prefabrication.
• The drawback of this system is hoisting will be more
difficult and requires careful preparation.
• The stress distribution of straight members during their
hoisting is statically determined.
• The stress distribution arising in frames during their
hoisting on the other hand is frequently statically
• It may happen due to tilting of a frame from the
horizontal into vertical position when lifted at two
points by two separately acting hoisting machines.
• If these two points are not hoisted exactly at the same
time and with perfect uniformity, the frame itself will be
affected by torsions.
• Connecting two suspension points by balance or a cable
rocker enables the frame to be hoisted at one single
• The stress distribution is statically determined.
• If the rocker is not suspended at the exact same point
torsion can also arise in this case.
• Hoisting of asymmetric frames are more difficult.
• This shows that hoisting of a frame is far more
complicated than hoisting a straight member.
• Entire frames are prefabricated on the ground close to
their final location.
• They can also be produced in a vertical position side by
• The advantages of prefabricating entire frames are
small number of joints are only needed and the
possibility of rapid hoisting work.
• This method can be very much handy in construction of
large walls consisting of great number of uniform
c)System consisting of L, T and U shaped or straight
members disunited at points of minimum moments:
• Another method for the disuniting of structures is their
division into members at points where the moments are
• This method is called “Lambda method” in some
• Difficulties met with carrying out a moment-bearing
junction at a place where the moment is greater led to
this method.
• Therefore, the junctions must be re-sited in places the
moments are smallest.
• Hinge-like joints can also be formed while joining.
• The drawback of this method is hoisting.
• The hoisting and temporary bracing of L-shaped
asymmetric frame member is particularly complicated.
• The joining of members are also not less complicated.
• The joints are dimensioned for the bearing of other
adjoining member is necessitated.
d)Two-Hinged and Three-hinged Arches:
• Arched structures are normally used for bridging spans
of more than 20-25m.
• Production and placing is more difficult than that of
straight members but as they demand little material,
their use for long span structures is economical.
• Arches can be two and three hinged, but they can also
be fixed at footings.
• Arched structures are usually prefabricated and
assembled in statically determined three hinged variant.
• The middle hinge is eliminated after placing is finished.
• The reinforcing bars protruding from both members are
welded together and the joint between the member is
filled with in site concrete.
• Thus the structure is transformed in to hinged arch,
increasing thereby its rigidity as well reducing its motion
under wind load.