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13 tayangan37 halamanPenentuan Permeabilitas

Mar 11, 2019

7. Permeability Determination-2

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13 tayangan37 halaman7. Permeability Determination-2

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2017

Estimating Permeability

based on Pore Dimension

models that are specifically based on the pore

dimensions of the reservoir.

crucial characteristics of the reservoir; including

porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure

Capillary Pressure and Pore size

role in determining permeability. Most methods of

estimating permeability are indirect methods.

theoretical underpinnings relating pore throat

dimension to permeability and experimental

determination of the critical pore dimension

parameters.

curve, obtained experimentally by injecting mercury

into a dried sample. As mercury pressure is increased,

more mercury is forced into progressively smaller pores

in the rock, and the resident pore fluid (air) is expelled.

A length r, usually referred to as the pore throat radius, is

related to the injection pressure by the Washburn equation,

Pc = 2σCosθ/r

where:

σ= is the interfacial tension, θ= is the wetting angle

idealized capillary pressure curve of Fig. 1. A finite pressure

is required to inject mercury into a 100% water-saturated

sample (right side of Fig. 1).

occupies only a small fraction of the pore volume containing

the largest pores. Next, much of the pore space becomes

filled with mercury with a comparatively slight increase in

pressure (progressing from the circle labeled Katz and

Thompson to the circle labeled Swanson in Fig. 1).

Capillary pressure curve (idealized) showing measures used by different

authors for determination of characteristic pore dimension.

Finally, large pressure increases are required to force more

mercury into the smallest pores (steep curve to left of Swanson

circle).

permeability. Purcell derived an expression relating k to an

integral of Pc-2 over the entire saturation span, achieving a

good match with core data. The relationships established by

Timur and Granberry and Keelan, are represented at low water

saturation in Fig. 1. Contributions by Swanson, Winland, and

Katz and Thompson,symbolized by the circles in Fig. 1, are

reviewed below.

Swanson’s equation

permeabilities from a single point on the capillary pressure

curve. His regression relationships are based on permeability

and capillary pressure data on 203 sandstone samples from

41 formations and 116 carbonates from 33 formations.

to pressure, (Sb/Pc)max, from the capillary pressure curve,

arguing that at this point all the connected space is filled with

mercury and "this capillary pressure corresponds to pore

sizes effectively interconnecting the total major pore system

and, thus, those that dominate fluid flow." From linear

regression,

Swanson obtains simple equations of the form,

k = a (Sb/Pc)c max

Rock type (carbonate vs. sandstone)

Fluid type (air or brine)

For carbonates and sandstones combined, c=2.005.

percent of bulk volume, it must be proportional to

Φ(1-Sw); through Eq. 1, Pc can be linked with a pore

throat radius r apex . Thus, Swanson’s result shows

that k is proportional to [Φ(1-Swi)rapex]2, again

demonstrating the dependence of k on the square of a

pore throat size.

Winland’s equation and Pittman’s results

capillary pressure parameter is referred to as Winland’s equation.

Based on laboratory measurements on 312 samples, Winland’s

regression equation is

where:

r35 is the pore throat radius at 35% mercury saturation

k is air permeability

Φ is porosity in percent

A log(k)-Φ plot based on Eq. 4 and showing five characteristic

lines for pore throat radius is shown in Fig. 2.

Note that at a given porosity, permeability increases

roughly as the square of the pore throat radius. And for a

given throat size, the dependence of permeability on

porosity is slightly less than Φ2.

used as a cutoff for reserves determinations, in preference

to the use of k or Φ.

in the same format as Fig. 2. They state that r35 is a

function of both entry size and pore throat sorting and is a

good measure of the largest connected pore throats in a

rock with intergranular porosity

Empirical model based on regression attributed to Winland, from

Kolodzie. Labels for four ranges of r35 are taken from Martin et al.

Martin et al. used the r35 parameter, along with other

petrophysical, geological, and engineering data, to identify flow

units in five carbonate reservoirs. With Eq. 4, r35 can be computed

from permeability and porosity measurements on core samples.

Flow units are grouped by the size of pore throats using the

designations, as shown in Fig. 2, of:

Megaport

Macroport

Mesoport

Microport

reservoir of medium thickness and medium gravity oil yielded the

following:

Megaport, tens of thousands of barrels of oil per day

Macroport, thousands

Mesoport, hundreds

Microport, nonreservoir

Porositas

Macro porosity :Refers to pores

greater than 50 nm in diameter.

Flow through macropores is

described by bulk diffusion.

greater than 2 nm and less than 50

nm in diameter. Flow through

mesopores is described by Knudsen

diffusion.

smaller than 2 nm in diameter.

Movement in micropores is by

activated diffusion.

After flow units are identified, well logs and sequence stratigraphy

are used to identify zones with similar properties where no core data

exist. The method works well in carbonates where flow is controlled

by intergranular, intercrystalline, or interparticle pore space but not so

well if fractures or vugs are present.

Swanson’s results. Pittman used a set of 202 sandstone samples from

14 formations on which k, Φ, and mercury injection data had been

obtained. Using Eq. 2, he associated a pore size rapex with the capillary

pressure, Pc, determined by Swanson’s method and found that the

mean value of rapex has a mercury saturation of 36%.

Swanson and Winland in Fig. 1 are practically identical, and the two

methods are sampling the same fraction of the pore space.

Pittman also established regression equations for pore

aperture sizes ranging from 10% to 75% mercury saturation.

His expressions have been rearranged and displayed in Table 1

to show the exponents of r and Φ required to predict k.

(Because r was used as the dependent variable in Pittman’s

regressions, the coefficients in Table 1 differ somewhat from

what would be obtained if k were the dependent variable;

however the changes would not invalidate the point of this

discussion.)

r exponent decreases

Φ exponent increases

That is, the porosity term contributes relatively less to k than

does r for mercury saturation values <35%. In fact, Pittman

noted that the porosity term was statistically insignificant for

r10 through r35.

Katz and Thompson’s equation

Another investigation on the influence of pore structure on flow

properties comes from Katz and Thompson and Thompson et al. They use

percolation theory to derive a deceptively simple relationship,

k = (1/226)lc2σ/σo

where:

•k is absolute permeability (same units as )

•σ is electrical conductivity of the rock

•σo is the conductivity of the saturant

geometry assumed for the pore space.

They substantiate Eq. 5a with experimental data on 60 sandstone and

carbonate samples with permeabilities ranging from <1 md to 5 darcies.

The parameter lc in Eq. 5a represents a dimension of a very particular subset

of pores: "The arguments suggest that permeability can be estimated by

assuming that the effective pore size is the smallest pore on the connected path

of pores containing the largest pores. We call that effective pore size lc." To

obtain lc, the pressure at the inflection point on a capillary pressure curve is

converted to a diameter. The authors argue that the inflection point marks the

pressure at which a sample is first filled continuously end to end with mercury

and that the large pores first filled are those that control permeability.

The Katz and Thompson equation and its characteristic curves are given in

Fig. 3. To plot curves on log(k)-Φ plots, we assumed the simplest relation

between formation factor and porosity (cementation exponent of 2.0), σ/σo=Φ2.

Some data points from Katz and Thompson’s experiments are posted in Fig. 3

to indicate how well their measured lc match the curves (This is not really a test

of their model because they used formation factor in their correlations, not Φ2).

Their result is similar to that of Swanson’s and Winland’s equations:

Permeability is closely proportional to the square of rΦ.

Permeability equation with critical pore-size radius (Rc) as a

parameter, from Katz and Thompson.[Values of rc posted next

to data points are from mercury injection tests.

To obtain compatibility with other author’s expressions, we define a

critical radius rc=lc/2, keeping both permeability and rc2 in units of μm2

k = (4/226)rc2σ/σo

Eq. 5b is identical in form to the Kozeny-Carman equation with

tortuosity eliminated, but the percolation concepts used to derive Eq.

5b are quite different from the geometrical arguments used to derive the

Kozeny-Carman expression. The Kozeny-Carman coefficient, which is

≈0.4, is considerably greater than that (0.0177) in Eq. 4b.

Consequently, the characteristic radius rc is ≈4.7 times greater than the

hydraulic radius, rh. Although rh is defined as the ratio of pore volume

to pore surface area, it can be determined in a variety of ways,

including the use of mercury injection.

represented by an extended horizontal line across Fig. 1; i.e., as a

method that samples a broad spectrum of pore sizes

It is interesting to compare the Katz and Thompson model (Fig. 3) with

Winland’s empirical equation (Fig. 2). The shapes of the curves are

comparable; i.e., the models agree on the approximate Φ2 dependence.

The pore radii given by the Winland equation are smaller than comparable

radii in the Katz and Thompson model. This is expected because the

Winland equation requires a saturation of 35%, a criterion of greater

injection pressure than that of Katz and Thompson. What is noteworthy is

the general agreement between the two models regarding the form of the

log(k)-Φ relationship. They demonstrate that in the models invoking higher

powers of Φ, which we have shown in previous graphs are not well

grounded physically, the higher powers of Φ are required to compensate for

lack of knowledge regarding the critical pore dimension.

It does seem, however, that the empirical data that often show a "straight-

line" log(k)-Φ relationship contain some fundamental information regarding

how the critical pore dimension relates to porosity.

Flow zone indicator

Amaefule and Altunbay rearranged the version of the Kozeny-Carman

equation with specific surface area as ratio of pore surface to grain

volume to obtain a parameter group named the flow zone indicator (I),

can be seen from Eq. 5, I has the units of pore size, in micrometers,

and can be computed from core measurements of k and φ, even though

it is defined in terms of f, τ, and Σg, which are not easily measured.

The choice of the form used over other forms of the Kozeny-Carman

equation that use alternative definition of specific surface area seems a

bit arbitrary and results in the particular combination of porosity terms

used in Eq. 6.

Amaefule and Altunbay use I to define zones called "hydraulic flow

units" on a doubly logarithmic plot incorporating the terms in Eq. 6. For

compatibility with other plots in this chapter, a plot in log(k)-Φ

coordinates is shown in Fig. 4. Each data point on a log(k)-Φ plot has an

I value that associates it with a nearby curve of constant I value.

bands should be positioned and how to compute a value of I from well

logs in uncored wells. Options for doing so are described in Estimating

permeability from well log data.

Nomenclature

f = shape factor

I = flow zone indicator

k = permeability

lc = pore-space dimension

p = pressure

Pc = capillary pressure

rh = hydraulic radius

r35 = pore throat radius at 35% mercury saturation

R = pore throat dimension

Sb = mercury saturation

θ = wetting angle

σ = electrical conductivity of rock

σo = electrical conductivity of saturant

σ = interfacial tension

Σp = ratio of pore surface area to pore volume

Σr = ratio of pore surface area to rock volume

Σg = ratio of pore surface area to grain volume

Σ = specific surface area

τ = tortuosity

Φ = porosity

Measuring Pore and Pore throat sizes

or gas and water (where

water wets the grain

surface), the pore throat size

(B) for oil or gas flow is less

than the absolute pore throat

size (A). The thickness of

the water layer coating the

grains is proportional to the

Sw of the rock. In other

words, as buoyancy pressure

increases, Sw decreases and

the effective size of the pore

throat for oil or gas flow (B)

increases.

Measuring Pore and Pore throat sizes

Absolute size of a pore throat is the radius of a circle drawn

perpendicular to fluid flow and fitting within its narrowest point.

Absolute size of a pore is the radius of the largest sphere that will fit

inside it. The cross-sectional shape of fluids moving through

intergranular porosity is roughly circular. Both pores and pore throats

can be divided into petrophysically significant size ranges.

illustrates the concepts of pore size and pore throat size determined by

measuring the radius of a sphere in the pore and the radius of a disk in

the pore throat. Pore size can be estimated visually by using an SEM

(scanning electron microscope), for example. Pore throat sizes for a rock

can be measured using capillary pressure–mercury injection tests, which

can be converted to a distribution or profile of pore throat sizes for a

sample. Erlich et al.[2] describe a procedure for estimating pore and pore

throat size from thin section image analysis.

Measuring Pore and Pore throat sizes

size to pore throat size.

Geometrical reasoning and

limited experimental data suggest

that aspect ratios have small

ranges in intergranular and

intercrystalline pore systems (see

Reservoir quality). Disparate

Archie rock types such as quartz-

cemented sandstones, bioturbated

sandstones, and sucrosic

dolomites have aspect ratios that

range between 5:1 and 10:1. Non-

Archie rock types have even

larger variations in aspect ratios.

Capillary pressure (Pc) curves:

Pore throat size determination

pore space controlled by pore throats of a given size (usually given in

microns) to a given capillary pressure

interfacial tension (γ), the wettability (Θ), and pore throat radius (r). Pc

increases with decreasing pore throat size, increasing interfacial tension,

and increasing contact angle (greater oil wetting). It can be expressed as

follows:

2γ Cosθ

with a circular cross section. Real pores only approximate this, and then

only if they are intergranular or inter crystalline.

Capillary test procedure

is immersed in a mercury pressure cell. The pressure in the cell is

raised to a predetermined pressure level (P1, Figure 1).

is measured (V2). Since the porosity of the test sample is known prior

to the test, the volume of injected mercury can be converted to the

percent of the total pore volume filled with mercury (for example,

10% at 10 psi68.948 kPa 0.0689 MPa 0.68 atm for point M1).

All the pores filled with mercury at this point in the test have at least

one 10μ pore throat radius or larger and represent 10% of the sample's

pore volume. This procedure is repeated several more times at

different pressures (for example, points M2 through M5).

Example of a mercury capillary pressure test

Pore throat profiles

A curve is drawn through the measured points at test completion. This

capillary pressure curve also represents a pore throat size profile for the

tested sample. It relates a given pore throat size to its capillary resistance

(Pc). Figure 2 shows the curve drawn through the points in Figure 1

Capillary pressure curves are converted to profiles of pore throat

size by solving the previous equation for r:

approximation of height above free water (h) within a reservoir system.

From a capillary pressure curve at a given Sw, we read the capillary

pressure and multiply it by a factor that converts Pc to buoyancy

pressure (Pb). If the conversion factor is not known, we use 0.4 for gas

and 0.7 for oil.

Curve drawn through the points in Figure 1.

Using pc to estimate h and r

Use the table below to estimate height above free water (h) and

pore throat radius (r) from a mercury capillary pressure curve

(Sw value).

Pore throat size ( r ) from Sw 2. At the intersectionof grid line and Pc

curve, read the corresponding value for

r on the Y-axis

(Sw value).

2. At the intersectionof grid line and Pc

curve, read the corresponding value for

Height above free water level (h) from Sw

Pc on the left Y-axis

3. Multiply Pc by the appropriate gradient

(as a rule of thumb, use 0.7 for oil, 0.4

for gas).

Example

Using the curve in Figure 3, if Sw = 20% (point 1), then the mercury

capillary pressure (Pc) that must be overcome to enter pore throats at that

point on the curve is 200 (point 2). Converting mercury Pc to hydrocarbon

column height (h):

200 psi is 0.5μ.

Example of a mercury capillary pressure test.

Comparison between NMR Relaxation time and

Mercury-Injection pore throat size distributions

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