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- Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty of Geological Strength Index at Specific Site
- krishna sir (Maths 4 in one)
- syllabus
- Analysis of Variance

Anda di halaman 1dari 120

numerical facts or observations.

convenient, useable and communicable form.

inferences from sample data to populations.

• Population: A complete set of potential observations.

• Parameter: A number describing a population characteristic; typically inferred from

sample statistic.

• Sample: A subset of population selected according to some scheme.

• Random Sample: A subset selected in such a way that each member of the

population has equal opportunity to be selected.

• Variable: A phenomenon that may take different values.

STATISTICS

• Measures of Central Tendency

- Mean: The point in a distribution of measurements about which the summed

deviations are zero

N

1 1 n

N

x

i 1

i (Population Mean) x xi

n i 1

(Sample Mean)

divided by the sum of the weights

G

w x

i 1

i i

w

i 1

i

-Median: Observation in a set that divides the set so that the same number of

observations lie on each side of it.

- Mode: Observation that occurs with the greatest frequency

STATISTICS

• Measures of Dispersion

SS (x i x )2

- Variance: The average of square differences between observations and their mean

1 n

1 N s ( xi x) 2

2

2

N

(x

i 1

i ) 2 (Population Variance) n i 1 (Sample Variance)

N

1

N

(x

i 1

i )2

N

1

- Covariance: For a bivariated distribution Co

N

(x

i 1

i x ) * ( yi y )

STATISTICS

Probability

p(A) = # of outcomes of the event A / #total outcomes

Type of Events:

1. Exhaustive: two or more events are said to be exhaustive if all possible outcomes

are considered. p (A y B) = 1

2. Mutually exclusive: Events that cannot occur simultaneously.

p (A y B) = 0, p (A o B ) = p(A) + p(B)

3. Non mutually exclusive: Events that can occur simultaneously.

p (A o B ) = p(A) + p(B) – p(A y B)

4. Independent: Events whose probability is unaffected by occurrence or

non occurrence of each other

5. Dependent: Events whose probability changes depending upon the occurrence

of each other

STATISTICS

Histogram

Is an easy way to analyze the data. In this example the sample is divided in classes,

where a class is defined as a range of values. The number of measures that fall in

a class is called Class Frequency and the graph is called Histogram. The addition of

frequencies represents the cumulative frequency.

0.015 1 0.01

0.030 6 0.05

0.045 13 0.14

0.060 20 0.28

0.075 11 0.35

0.090 4 0.38

0.105 6 0.42

0.120 16 0.53

0.135 12 0.62

0.150 22 0.77

0.165 19 0.90

0.180 9 0.97

And

greater

... 5 1.00

STATISTICS

frequency distribution. Is the probability that a value of a random variable is less or

equal than a certain value.

50% probability that a variable X random

chosen will be less than zero.

STATISTICS

One of the most famous cdf in geology is this figure that shows the distribution of shale

Lengths in various geological environments.

STATISTICS

• Probability Density function (pdf):

We consider next the probability distribution (or density) function or pdf, probably the

most familiar way of presenting the distribution of a random variable. This forms the basis

for interpreting f(x) as a probability of a value of x in the neighbourhood of x.

A typical continuous pdf is shown below

Specific Distributions - There are more than 100 probability distribution functions observed

in nature. We deal with only a few of these. When we speak of a frequency or probability

distribution function (a pdf or histogram) the first thing that naturally comes to mind is the

normal distribution in which a variable x is distributed with probability f according to the

normal distribution .

STATISTICS

• Probability Density function (pdf) for normal distribution:

The quantities and are the mean and standard deviation of the distribution; this is a

two parameter distribution since it can be completely specified with only and . The

normal distribution is also known as a Gaussian distribution.

STATISTICS

Valores Z para Distribucion Normal

Desv Std Probabilidad Desv Std Probabilidad

desde el promedio Acumulada desde el promedio Acumulada

z

1 2

F (z )

-3.0 0.0014 0.0 0.5000

-2.9 0.0019 0.1 0.5398 z

e 2 dz

2p

-2.8 0.0026 0.2 0.5793

-2.7

-2.6

0.0035

0.0047

0.3

0.4

0.6179

0.6554

-2.5 0.0062 0.5 0.6915

-2.4 0.0082 0.6 0.7257

-2.3 0.0107 0.7 0.7580

-2.2 0.0139 0.8 0.7881

-2.1 0.0179 0.9 0.8159 Z is called a unit normal

-2.0 0.0228 1.0 0.8413

-1.9 0.0287 1.1 0.8643

variable with mean of zero and

-1.8 0.0359 1.2 0.8849 a variance of one.

-1.7 0.0446 1.3 0.9032

-1.6 0.0548 1.4 0.9192

-1.5 0.0668 1.5 0.0332

-1.4 0.0808 1.6 0.9452

(x )

-1.3 0.0968 1.7 0.9554

z

-1.2 0.1151 1.8 0.9641

-1.1 0.1357 1.9 0.9713

-1.0 0.1587 2.0 0.9773

-0.9 0.1841 2.1 0.9821

-0.8 0.2119 2.2 0.9861

-0.7 0.2420 2.3 0.9893

-0.6 0.2743 2.4 0.9918

-0.5 0.3085 2.5 0.9938

-0.4 0.3346 2.6 0.9953

-0.3 0.3821 2.7 0.9965

-0.2 0.4207 2.8 0.9974

-0.1 0.5602 2.9 0.9981

0.0 0.5000 3.0 0.9987

STATISTICS

The normal distribution is rather uncommon in nature. For example, while porosity

seems to be reasonably normally distributed, permeability distributes in a manner far

removed from the symmetry demanded by the normal distribution. Permeability

seems to be distributed commonly as log-normal. The following figure shows both

the cdf and pdf for a log-normal distribution

The variable X being characterized cannot be less than zero. There are a few very large

values of X; most of the values are small. Because of this the mode (the most likely

value) is less than the median which is less than the mean.

STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Heterogeneity

All reservoir properties are heterogeneous, but we focus on flow properties here,

especially permeability.

Heterogeneity measures fall into two categories:

1. Static

Coefficient of variation

Dykstra-Parsons coefficient

Lorenz coefficient

2. Dynamic

Channeling factors

Dispersivities

STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

The most direct measure of heterogeneity is the variance and standard deviation

The standard deviation is, of course, the positive square root of the variance.

Both quantities have units but the coefficient of variation, CF, does not.

STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Heterogeneity: Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient (VDP)

A common measure of permeability

variation used in the petroleum

industry is the Dykstra-Parsons

coefficient VDP.

computed from a set of k data

arranged in increasing or decreasing

value. The values to be used in the

definition are taken from a "best fit"

line through the data when they are

plotted on a log–probability plot.

VDP takes values between 0 and 1.

STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient

10000

1000

V DP = 0.84

100

k/Phie

10

0.1

1 2 5 10 20 30 50 70 80 90 95 98 99

STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Heterogeneity: Lorenz Coefficient (LC)

measure of variability is the Lorenz

Coefficient LC. If A is the area under

the F–C curve, the Lorenz coefficient

is defined as

and 45o line)

homogeneous reservoirs and 1 for

infinitely heterogeneous reservoirs.

GEOSTATISTICS

numerical facts in the space

and optimises the geostatistical results

GEOSTATISTICS

We need to transform the original data to have a normal distribution, in the case of data

with lognormal distribution, we only have to apply the logarithm.

10.000 Trials Frequency Chart 0 Outlie

,33 3339

,25

,16

,08 834,7

Mean = 62,34

,00 0

0 139 278 418 557

GEOSTATISTICS

This tool allow to analyze the spatial behaviour of any

Semivariogram property over a particular zone.

Let us express the variance of N samples

measured a distance h apart as

The semivariance is, in effect, the variance of a

property Z at successively larger spacings . . .

h, 2h, 3h, etc. When the semivariance is plotted

Vs. the spacing, a semivariogram results.

When h=0 the covariance is equal to variance.

correlated so the covariance will tend to

zero. The range is the larger distance of

correlation. Semivariogram

A semivariogram try to quantify the Covariance

GEOSTATISTICS Semivariogram

1 n

( h)

2n i 1

(V ( xi ) V ( xi h)) 2

1 N

Co C ( xi, xi h) (V ( xi ) V ( x)) * (V ( xi h) V (x))

N i 1

The semivariance does not, in general, go through the origin, an effect known as the

nugget effect. Represents the variance at a range below the lag distance. This effect is

generally attributable to:

1. Measurement error.

2. Miscorrelation on a distance smaller than the smallest lag distance.

The semivariogram is the most powerful geostatistical tool. It forms the basis of Kriging

which is itself the basis of geostatistical estimation, and it is unbiased to estimates of

the sample mean, although it tends to lose precision when autocorrelation is large.

The most singular feature of the semivariogram is that it is a combined measure of

heterogeneity (sill and nugget) and autocorrelation (the range).

GEOSTATISTICS

Semivariogram

1

Experimental Variogram ( h)

*

2 N h

( z ( xi ) z ( x j )) 2

xi x j h

Choose a direction

experimental variogram

6

Variograma

2 experimental

1

0

0

4

0 .4

0 .8

1 .2

1 .6

2 .4

2 .8

3 .2

3 .6

Distance

GEOSTATISTICS

Experimental Variogram: Direction

and we use the point that lie in and

b

Used points

Unused points

b = band width

GEOSTATISTICS

Anisotropy

Semivariograms in different directions, perpendicular to each other, can be used to

demonstrate anisotropy. This could be particularly useful where the trends are not

visually obvious.

The anisotropy could be Geometrical and Zonal

3

R2 R1 2.5

R1=R2

SemiVariogram

(hy) 2

R1 1.5

(hx) 1

0.5

R2

0

0 0.94 1.99 3.04 4.09 5.14 6.19 7.24 8.29 9.34 10.4 11.4

Lag

GEOSTATISTICS

Geometric Anisotropy

2,5

Variograma

1,5 N-S

E-O

1

0,5

0

0,0 0,9 2,0 3,0 4,1 5,1 6,2 7,2 8,3 9,3 10,4 11,4

Distancia

GEOSTATISTICS

Geometric Anisotropy

GEOSTATISTICS

Behavior short distances

0 si h 0

h S

s si h 0

Semivariogram

lag

matter how close the values are.

Comportamiento discontinuo

GEOSTATISTICS

Nugget effect

h var [ Z ( x) Z ( x h)]

1

2

0 0

value of the semivariogram is

different to zero.

GEOSTATISTICS

Nugget effect

The causes could be:

2) Z obs x Z x x

real

values at distances lower than the lag

GEOSTATISTICS

Semivariogram Models

Spherical Model

Exponential Model

Gaussian Model

Potential Model

Nugget Model

GEOSTATISTICS

Semivariogram Models

Models with Sill: The semivariogram exhibits a constant value after a certain distance

• Spherical

• Exponential

• Gaussian

Semivariogram

Co

Spherical

Exponential

Gaussian

Lag

GEOSTATISTICS

Models without Sill: The semivariogram does not reach a constant value

• Power

• Cosine

• Log normal

Power Model

h s h

Semivariogram

p

s=2.5, p=0.4

s=0.4, p=1.8

0 p2

lag

the value of p

GEOSTATISTICS

Data can be much more complex than shown by certain idealized correlation behaviour.

Autocorrelation in clastic formations tends to be scale-dependent, with different scales

being associated with laminae, bedforms and formations.

GEOSTATISTICS

Cross Semivariograms

The cross-semivariograms represent and quantify the spatial relationship between 2

variables. These cross semivariograms are necessary in cokriging where we use the

information of one variable to estimate the other. Mathematically it can be expressed:

1 n

c ( h)

2n i 1

[V ( xi ) V ( xi h)] * [W ( xi) W ( xi h)]

To estimate the cross semivariogram we need to have the data of both variables in

xi y (xi+h).

The model for the cross semivariogram has to be equal to the single semivariograms for

the variables, the range values have to be the same but not the Sill.

GEOSTATISTICS

Estimation

• Honour the data

• Smooth (good to see trends)

• Inappropriate where the extreme values are important

• Just produce one output

• Does not quantify uncertainty

Simulation

• Honour the data

• Realistic heterogeneity

• Very flexible (can match geology)

• Honour the spatial variability (Semivariogram)

• Produces equi-probables outcomes

• Uncertainty prediction

Kriging

Kriging

Z u

Kriging

• Closest Point

• Least Squares

• Projected Slopes

• Weighted Average

• Distance

• Isopach

• Bounded range

• ……

Kriging

Bases for Kriging estimation:

the sampled values

value = real value)

var Z u Z * u

** In the process of minimizing error variance kriging creates smooth distributions

GEOSTATISTICS

Ordinary kriging: To estimate specific values.

Block kriging: To estimate blocked values. This technique is extremely useful for

estimation of static properties for a grid blok: Phie, Sw, Log(k). These variables are

sensitive to arithmetic average therefore suitable for the block kriging approach.

Universal kriging: if the average of the sample varies in the stationary region, means

that estimates the point values in presence of a trend.

Conventional Cokriging: Honor the sampled data but use both semivariograms:

seismic and wells.

Collocated Cokriging: each grid point is calculated using the closest seismic data

Conditional Simulation: is the process of creating a set of maps, all of which honor

the sparse data (wells) exactly, and at the same time display the spatial continuity

properties implicit in the semivariogram. These maps are equi-probable in the sense that

they are all consistent with the known information. However, they are not strictly random,

because they are constrained by the semivariogram model, as well as the secondary

dense data (optional). The simulation maps differ from the kriged or cokriged maps in that

they contain the possibility of large deviations or outliers. Kriged maps are smoother –the

bias in the kriging algorithm is toward as little variation as possible, consistent with the

hard data. Simulation maps may show the extreme possibilities that are still consistent

with the hard data.

GEOSTATISTICS

Conditional Simulation

Simulation is the process of creating a set of maps, all of which honor the

sparse (well) data exactly, and at the same time display the spatial continuity

properties implicit in the semivariogram.

While simulation maps are interesting in themselves as displays of possible

outcomes, they are most useful when analyzed to see distributions of

features. For this purpose, we create a series of maps, and then analyze

those maps to display the properties.

1. Realistic heterogeneity

2. Use of statistics for matching

3. Great flexibility

4. Uncertainty prediction

5. Equivalent use of conditioning data

6. Information management

Conditional Simulation

Gross Thickness

Sand G57 B Nilam Field

Demarcating the Polygon Boundary for G53B Tk #1

Polygons G53B

Make Surface (1/2)

Make Surface (2/2)

Make Horizons (1/1)

Surfaces

MarkersTops

Make Zones (1/1)

Layering - Settings

(Follow top/Base) or relative proportions (Fractions).

Proportional

Follow Base

Follow Top

Fractions

Follow Base

with Reference

Layering - Results

Follow base

Proportional

Follow top

Fractions

depositional surface

edges in 3D to see all updates before

applying the Make Zones and Layering

Processes.

Layering Concepts (1/2)

What is the appropriate model of layering? Parallel to top/base of marker or Proportional?

The choice of correct representation will have considerable impact on modeling phase and finally

on flow simulations, since It defines the spatial architecture of depositional units in the reservoir.

Regional Marker 1 (TZ)

(well

NILAM -core)

87

LEVEL G53B

1(A)

12805

17 FLOOD-DOMINATED

NILAM - 179

LEVEL G61 / H13

12810 17 - 18 FLUVIAL DEPOSITS

with c oal 18

NILAM - 115 12815

c lasts

LEVEL G51 13055 5-7

(distributary system ) Sand body 3 12820

m ostly 12 FLOOD-DOMINATED

(shoal)

13060

with large 12

12825 ESTUARINE SHOAL

17 to 20 ophiomorpha

11770 13065

(flood- 12830 (flood-dom in. 5-7

dom inated shoals)

11775 13070

distributary 12835

m ainly system ) 6

11780 13075

fac ies 12840

TIDAL DEPOSITS

flooding surf.

overall forestepping

11 - 14 14

11785 13080

12845

m ostly 15 -

ABOUT 36 METERS

15

Sand body 2

11790 m ainly 14 13085

12 - 13 17 and FLUVIAL DEPOSITS

12850

with some partly 14 rare 20 (BASE INCISED

(fluvial)

11795 16 / 15 D 13090

ophiomorpha 12855 (valley fill) 17 VALLEY FILL ?)

(floods) (DF lobe)

11800 13095

flooding surf. 12860 6 (tidal 18 DEBRIS FLOW

11805 13100 m ainly 7 - 8 fac ies)

ophiomorpha 12865 14 MOUTH BAR

11 - 14

11810 13105 burrows m ostly 17 -

with some 12870

HCS and 20 and 15

16 - 19

11815 13110 c limb. ripples (valley fill) 6

c oaly sst. 12875 SUBTIDAL

(shelf lobes)

11820 burrowed 13115

siltstone 12880

PRODELTA

11825

Sand body13120

1 12885 3 - 4 with 4

(fluvial) 12890

layers of

8 and 19

(delta front 1(A)

12895 and prodelta)

2 BAY-FILL

12900

SEQUENCE

12905 3

Layering Concepts (1/2)

What is the appropriate model of layering? Parallel to top/base of marker or Proportional?

(well

NILAM -core)

87

LEVEL G53B

1(A)

12805

17 FLOOD-DOMINATED

NILAM - 179

LEVEL G61 / H13

12810 17 - 18 FLUVIAL DEPOSITS

with c oal 18

NILAM - 115 12815

c lasts

LEVEL G51 13055 5-7

(distributary system ) Sand body 3 12820

m ostly 12 FLOOD-DOMINATED

(shoal)

13060

with large 12

12825 ESTUARINE SHOAL

17 to 20 ophiomorpha

11770 13065

(flood- 12830 (flood-dom in. 5-7

dom inated shoals)

11775 13070

distributary 12835

m ainly system ) 6

11780 13075

fac ies 12840

TIDAL DEPOSITS

flooding surf.

overall forestepping

11 - 14 14

11785 13080

12845

m ostly 15 -

ABOUT 36 METERS

15

Sand body 2

11790 m ainly 14 13085

12 - 13 17 and FLUVIAL DEPOSITS

12850

with some partly 14 rare 20 (BASE INCISED

(fluvial)

11795 16 / 15 D 13090

ophiomorpha 12855 (valley fill) 17 VALLEY FILL ?)

(floods) (DF lobe)

11800 13095

flooding surf. 12860 6 (tidal 18 DEBRIS FLOW

11805 13100 m ainly 7 - 8 fac ies)

ophiomorpha 12865 14 MOUTH BAR

11 - 14

11810 13105 burrows m ostly 17 -

with some 12870

HCS and 20 and 15

16 - 19

11815 13110 c limb. ripples (valley fill) 6

c oaly sst. 12875 SUBTIDAL

(shelf lobes)

11820 burrowed 13115

siltstone 12880

PRODELTA

11825

Sand body13120

1 4

No Data “Hole”

12885 3 - 4 with

(fluvial) 12890

layers of

8 and 19

(delta front 1(A)

12895 and prodelta)

2 BAY-FILL

12900

SEQUENCE

12905 3

Layering (1/2)

If we have high deviated wells use build along the pilars, if we

have mostly vertical wells use vertical thickness. Anyway, Try

to avoid the deviated /horizontal wells

If use Proportional don’t click use minimum cell thickness because if the cell

thickness is less than the number you put, it will create “holes” in maps.

If use parallel to the top/base (better TZ1 than top/base of SS) then you can select

use minimum cell thickness but make sure that this numbber be higher then the cell thickness

Facies modeling methods - overview

Discrete Choose from Allows the user to Uses the

distribution of the undefined, paint facies classification model

property honoring constant, other directly on the 3D made in the Train

the pre-defined property, surface model. Estimation Model.

histogram and vertical

function.

Facies modeling methods - overview

Facies modeling methods - overview

Stochastic

Pixel based Object based

Sequential Truncated Truncated Multi-point Object

Indicator Gaussian Gaussian Facies Modeling

Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation

with trends

Distributes the Used mostly Distributes the The variogram Allows to

property, with facies based is replaced by populate a

using the carbonates on a transition a training discrete facies

histogram. where facies between image giving model with

Directional are known to facies and both the different

settings, such be sequential, trend facies and the bodies of

as variogram it deals with direction. The relative various

and large amounts trends are position to geometries,

extensional of input data, converted into each other, facies and

trends, are such as global probabilities to describing the fraction

also honored. fractions and then run TGS. spatial

trends. correlation

from one-to-

multiple

points.

Facies modeling methods - overview

Stochastic

Pixel based Object based

Sequential Truncated Truncated Multi-point Object

Indicator Gaussian Gaussian Facies Modeling

Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation

with trends

Facies Modeling: Scale up Well Logs: NtG_disc

1

2

As lines

Facies Modeling (NtG_disc) for determine Polygon

applied for Res and Non Res

Map of AVG most of NtG_disc from 10 realizations

1

4

Making the AVG Map Most of NtG_disc

Determining the Polygon from AVG Map most of NtG_disc

AVG map

Polygons G53B

Make/edit Surface: Areal Trends Maps

How to create a Surface Probability Map for input in Facies modeling

Areal Trends Maps

P1

P0

Facies Modeling (NtG_disc) using Probability Map

Because impossible to assign values to “non res” or “res” by separate

Facies Modeling (NtG_disc) using Probability Map

Facies Modeling (NtG_disc) using Probability Map

3

4

2

Results in Facies Modeling (NtG_disc) using Probability Map

Petrofacies: Winland/Pittman Method

Porosity vs. Permeability

G52A, G53A, 53B, G55B, G56A, G57B,G61

Swi = ( 1/ Phie m ) 1/n Wells NLM 225, 179, 62, 65, 77D, 30, 36

Cte 1 1000.0000

100.0000

Permeability, mD @ 800psi

Swi 10.0000

1.0000

ka@ 800# = 0.0046e0.6564*Phie@800#

R2 = 0.7489

log(R10 ) = 0.459 + 0.500 * log(K aire ) - 0.385 * log(f 0.0100

0.0010

log(R20 ) = 0.218 + 0.519 * log(K aire ) - 0.303 * log(f 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0

Pittman log(R35 ) = 0.255 + 0.565 * log(K aire ) - 0.523 * log(f

Equations log(R40 ) = 0.360 + 0.582 * log(K aire ) - 0.680 * log(f

log(R45 ) = 0.609 + 0.608 * log(K aire ) - 0.974 * log(f

log(R50 ) = 0.778 + 0.626 * log(K aire ) - 1.205 * log(f

log(R55 ) = 0.948 + 0.632 * log(K aire ) - 1.426 * log(f

log(R60 ) = 1.096 + 0.648 * log(K aire ) - 1.666 * log(f

log(R65 ) = 1.372 + 0.643 * log(K aire ) - 1.979 * log(f

log(R70 ) = 1.664 + 0.627 * log(K aire ) - 2.314 * log(f

log(R75 ) = 1.880 + 0.609 * log(K aire ) - 2.626 * log(f

Calculating Petrofacies (R35) for use in modeling: Pittman Method

Apex Graph log(R10 ) = 0.459 + 0.500 * log(K aire ) - 0.385 * log(f

G Sandstones

Wells N60, N62, N77, N87, N225

log(R15 ) = 0.333 + 0.509 * log(K aire ) - 0.344 * log(f

0.03 log(R20 ) = 0.218 + 0.519 * log(K aire ) - 0.303 * log(f

0.025 log(R25 ) = 0.204 + 0.531 * log(K aire ) - 0.350 * log(f

0.02 log(R30 ) = 0.215 + 0.547 * log(K aire ) - 0.420 * log(f

SHg/Pc

0.01 log(R40 ) = 0.360 + 0.582 * log(K aire ) - 0.680 * log(f

0.005 log(R45 ) = 0.609 + 0.608 * log(K aire ) - 0.974 * log(f

0 log(R50 ) = 0.778 + 0.626 * log(K aire ) - 1.205 * log(f

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

SHg log(R55 ) = 0.948 + 0.632 * log(K aire ) - 1.426 * log(f

log(R60 ) = 1.096 + 0.648 * log(K aire ) - 1.666 * log(f

Porosity vs. Permeability vs. Pore Throat log(R65 ) = 1.372 + 0.643 * log(K aire ) - 1.979 * log(f

Radius (R35) log(R70 ) = 1.664 + 0.627 * log(K aire ) - 2.314 * log(f

G sandstones

1000 log(R75 ) = 1.880 + 0.609 * log(K aire ) - 2.626 * log(f

10

Petrofacies

100 5

Megapores

ROCK TYPES

Air permeability, mD

2

10 Macropores

0.8

• Megapore Type Rock (R35 >10 µ)

1 Mesopores • Macropore Type Rock (R35 between 5 and 10 µ)

• Mesopore Type Rock (R35 between 2 and 5 µ)

0.1 Micropores

• Micropore Type Rock (R35 between 0.8 and 2 µ)

• Nanopore Type Rock (R35 < 0.8 µ)

0.01 Nanopores

0 5 10 15 20

Porosity, Dec

Calculating Petrofacies (R35) for use in modeling

Creating new Template for Petrofacies

We generate new template named Untitled, in info tab change the name for

Template Petrofacies (R35), and in colors tab we fill out with nano, micro, etc and it colors

Calculating Petrofacies for use in modeling

Scale up Petrofacies2

As lines

Data Analysis: Petrofacies Modeling

Petrofacies

Most of NtG_disc with trend

Nano

Micro

Meso

Macro

Mega

Petrofacies Modeling

Petrofacies Modeling (Petrofacies Map)

Petrofacies Modeling (Petrofacies Map)

Petrophysical Modeling

Simulation algorithm Function Simulation

algorithm

Honors well data, input It is faster than SGS, and Based on the input it gives an

distributions, variograms and gives better variogram average value and calculates

trends. The variogram and reproduction. It also has a the weigths according to the

distribution are used to fast collocated co-simulation distance from wells.

create local variations, even option using interactive

away from input data. correlation-coefficient as

slide bar.

Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS)

SGS is a krig-based

stochastic method

• Needs a variogram.

• Will honor the distribution

of the input data (upscaled

logs).

• Petrel will automatically do

a Normal score

transformation before the

simulation, and will back-

transform the data.

• The output is distributed in

a blurry manner.

Petrophysical modeling methods - overview

Deterministic

Estimation Interpolation

Kriging Kriging Kriging by Closest Functional Moving

Interpolation GSLIB average

Honors well It performs It has the It uses the I honors well Based on

data, input fastest. It option of closest well and trend the input it

distributions, has a co- collocated data input data gives an

variograms kriging co-kriging for each creating a average

and trends.It option and and you can unsampled 3D function value and

can work in allows user choose location. (parabolic, calculates

real to choose between simple the weigths

coordinates between ordinary or parabolic, according to

and it’s fast. simple and simple planar or bi- the distance

ordinary kriging. linear) used from wells.

kriging. in the

interpolation

.

Petrophysical modeling methods - overview

Deterministic

Estimation Interpolation

Kriging Kriging Kriging by Closest Functional Moving

Interpolation GSLIB average

Petrophysical Modeling: Scale up Well Logs, NtG_cont

2

Data analysis for transformations NtG_cont

Most of Petrofacies

use 0.01 for minimum in input

and output truncation

Data analysis for Variograms NtG_cont

Most of Petrofacies

2

Copy paste in all petrofacies

Tips

Scale up: discrete variables (all related with facies) use as lines, continuous variables (petrophysical properties) use as points.

Vertical search radius: Which is the thickness of the zone to be analyzed? Divide the dimensions by 2 to get z.

Use vertical variogram to find the nugget and variogram type of your data.

Number of lags: does not need to be bigger than the number of wells in the analysis direction. I you have 5 wells in the mayor

direction , it is no necessary more than 5 lags.

Lag distance: which is the mean distance between your well? Try to approach the lag distance to this mean.

Vertical lag distance: Try to make this lag distance similar to the data spacing, cell thickness.

Lag tolerance: Use this when you have directional wells, use 25% of the lag distance.

Consider the bandwidth in case of directional wells. For vertical ones, use a small bandwidth. And do not use a big tolerance

angle because it will get large variability. Try to begin with 5 deg.

Simbox mode vs. real mode: while doing variogram analysis, it is recommended to click simbox mode for horizontal variography

as it will ensure that only samples from equivalent geological layers are compared. But for vertical variography Simbox is not to be

used.

Modeling NtG_cont

Modeling NtG_cont

1 2

Most of Petrofacies

Repeat this in each Petrofacies except in shales Use trend in each Petrofacies

Final Map of NtG_cont

Petrophysical Modeling: Scale up Well Logs, Sw

Data analysis for transformations, Sw

Most of Petrofacies

SW[U]

Data analysis for Vertical Variogram, Sw

Most of Petrofacies

Data analysis for Horizontal Variogram, Sw

Most of Petrofacies

Data analysis for Horizontal Variogram, Sw

Modeling Sw

1 2

Final Map of Sw

Gas Water Contact in G53B

Petrophysical Modeling: Scale up Well Logs, PHIE

Variogram Map from the Scale up PHIE

Data analysis for transformations, PHIE

Z

Y

X

Data analysis for Vertical Variogram, PHIE

Data analysis for Horizontal Variogram, PHIE

Data analysis for Horizontal Variogram, PHIE

Modeling PHIE

Final Map of PHIE

QC Results

QC results in a histogram:

• Go to the Settings for the Property 1

and select Histogram tab 2

• Check that the Histogram follows

the distribution from:

Raw logs

Upscaled cells

3D grid

Filter:

1) Use Zone filter

2) Filter on other property values by

pressing the filter button and go to

Property filter in Settings for the

Properties folder.

Volume Calculation

Principle

• Boundary, license block Enhanced volume calculation using a

• Zones, Segments triangulation technique.

• Properties (Net/Gross, porosity, Sw)

• Constants (Bo, Bg, GOR oil, GOR gas)

• Contacts (GOC, OWC, GWC)

• Recovery factors (Rfo, RFg)

Process

Cases pane

Running a volume calculation will create a Case, which will

have a folder in the Cases pane and a volume calculation sub

folder. This will act as a filter for viewing results.

Results pane

Acts as a filter for outputs of the Volume Calculation. The

standard parameters will be calculated for all volume

calculations as long as the appropriate input is supplied.

Note: The Cases and results panes are also where Simulation

cases and results will be stored.

Process Dialog – Create a New Case

(Properties Tab)

existing Case name. 1

menu to run the Volume Calculation on.

You may use the Contacts created earlier.

4

4) Select the contacts from the Fluid Contacts

folder in 3D grid and drop them into the

Contacts tab using the blue arrows.

Process dialog – Create New Case

(Properties Tab)

an already made property (pull down menu)

from the grid, or select the Constant property

box and type in a value.

5

6) Under the General Properties tab, activate

N/G and Porosity properties or use constants.

6

Process dialog – Create New Case

(Results pane)

and volume height maps to generate if needed.

properties are stored in the Properties folder of

the selected grid (useful to create subfolders if

there are many runs).

in a Volume Maps 8

folder in the Input

pane. 7

9

Process dialog – Create New Case

(Boundaries Tab)

run the Volume Calculation. View output

desired. Click Run again

11A

11B

Volume Calculation

Volume Calculation

Volume Calculation

Output – Volume Maps

1 2

(e.g. STOIIP).

– draped over a topographic surface:

a) Output a depth Surface from Horizon

b) Copy the STOIIP map as a surface attribute

and paste it onto the new depth surface. 3b

surface in 3D window.

Uncertainty Analysis

Uncertainty Analysis

Uncertainty Analysis

Uncertainty Analysis

3

Porosity vs. Permeability correlated with Facies

Porosity vs. Permeability vs. Pore Throat

Radius (R35)

G sandstones 100000

1000

10

10000

100 5

1000

Air permeability, mD

2

10

100

0.8

1

10

Distributary channels

0.1 1

Distributary channels with

tidal influence

0.01

0.1 Crevasse splays

0 5 10 15 20

Porosity, Dec Tidal bar

0.01

0 5 10 15 20 25

Porosity (%) Pedogenic profiles

Expon. (Distributary

channels)

Creating new Template for Petrofacies

We generate new template Untitled, in info tab change the name for Template Petrofacies (R35),

and in colors tab we fill out with nano, etc and colors

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