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Linear and Nonlinear Analysis of G+4 Storey

Steel Framed Building using STAAD.ProV8i

Presented by
• N110005
• N110036
• N110297
• N110313
• N110408
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies-NUZIVID
• N110541

Contents CEIIIT 3/12/2019

• Why steel structure?

• Rolled and built-up steel sections
• What is PEB?
• Problem with PEB- Solution
• Working with STAAD pro
• Load calculations procedure
• G+3 Linear analysis by STAAD
• Changes made in the structure
• Load calculations for G+4
• Maximum moment force and shear force
• Pushover analysis of G+4
• Purpose of pushover analysis
• Procedure
• Maximum displacement vs. base shear curve
• Finding yield point and failure point of the beam
• Local and global failures
• Future scope

CEIIIT 3/12/2019

Why steel structure?

Adaptation of Pre fabrication
Easily Expanded by adding new bays or wings
Have High strength per unit weight
Fatigue strength

Steel structure do give a lot of advantages as compared to the

concrete and timber, but it still depends on the application and
location of building itself.

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Steel Structure
• Steel is widely used as a building material, because of its design
simplicity, ease and speed of construction.
• Has high strength, ductility, weld ability than concrete.
• It will not break easily, first buckle reaches its maximum
capacity fails.

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Rolled and Built up steel sections


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What is PEB?
• Pre Engineering Buildings are nothing but steel buildings with tapered
beams and columns.
• Based on the bending moment values we provide the tapered sections
at max moment value.

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• Problem with PEB?

• PEB’s are used for only single stored buildings but not for
multi stored buildings due to less compatibility.
• Solution:
• Design the multi-stored building with top floor as PEB and
making linear and non-linear analysis of the structure.
• Here follows the G+3 analysis of the structure.
11 Analysis
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Planning of the building

Modelling the structure by STAAD-PRO

Assign the member properties, supports

Assign the load cases

Run analysis

Design of steel

Results: maximum B.M, Shear force


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Load calculations procedure

• Dead load:
• Due to self weight
• Uniform force from steel wall of thickness 0.05mm.
• Uniform force from slabs.
• Uniform force from floor finishes.

• Live load:
• For office buildings uniform force from IS 875 part 2.

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Load calculations procedure (cont.)

• Wind load:
• Design wind velocity (VZ= VB K1 K2 K3 )
• Design wind pressure PZ = 0.6 VZ2
• Design wind force F = (Cpe – Cpi)A Pd

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Load calculations procedure (contd.)

Seismic load:
 Design of seismic base shear VB = AHW
 Horizontal seismic coefficient AH =
𝑆𝐴 0.09ℎ
 value depends on the fundamental natural period TA =
𝑔 √𝑑

 Based on natural time period and type of soil we can get the
value of
 Remaining required factors are taken from the code book IS
1893: Part 1

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G+3 linear analysis by STAAD

• Used Material properties:
For beams: ISMB 550
For columns: ISMB 600
• Result: Compression members are failed in combined axial
and bending moment.
• Alternatives we have used?
Designed using different rolled sections.
Assigning effective length parameters.
Re-model the structure with bracings.
Reducing G+3 to G+2.

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G+3 with bracings

Changes made
in the structure

G+3 failed in compression members

Assigning effective
length parameters.


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 Still the compression members failed due to combined axial and

bending moment.
 Re- model the structure by changing the materials properties.
 For columns : I80012B50012 (built-up section)
 For beams: ISMB 500
 For bracings : ISMC 250

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Load calculations for G+4 Linear analysis

• Dead load:
• Self weight
• From walls 0.52 KN/m
• From slabs 3.125 KN/m
• From floor finishes 1.5 KN/m
• Live load:
• 2.5 KN/m

Dead load

Live load

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Load calculations for G+4 linear analysis

 Wind load:
 Windward xy plane
 Leeward xy plane
 Windward yz plane
 Leeward yz plane

Windward along xy plane

along yz plane

• Seismic load CEIIIT 3/12/2019

• Eq +x
• Eq –x
• Eq +z
• Eq –z
• Load combinations
• 1.5 (DL+LL)
• 1.2 (DL+LL+Eq)
• 1.5 (DL+Eq) Seismic load in +x direction.

Seismic load in -x direction.


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• Parameters selection:
 Beam: based on performing design
 DFF: deflection length/max. allowable local deflection
 FYLD: yield strength of steel
 Main: allowable L/R in compression
 Ratio: actual to allowable stress
 Track: printing of details
 Effective length parameters

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 Now assign the loads to the structure and design the steel
 Then run analysis
 From the post- processing results:
 Maximum Bending Moment
 Maximum Shear force
 Steel quantity can be known(steel takeoff)

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Maximum moment = 236.31 KN-m for beam 63

 Maximum moment is
due to DL+EQ(+X)

Maximum shear force=1379.344KN for beam 105

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 Max shear force is

due to live load +
dead load.

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Push over analysis

• Push over – static nonlinear analysis method where a structure
is subjected to gravity loading and
• Monotonic displacement -Controlled lateral load pattern which
continuously increases until an ultimate condition is reached.
• Two methods:
▫ Force control method
▫ Displacement control method

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Purpose of Pushover analysis

Approximate tool to understand the building performance
Helps in understanding how structure behaves after some
damage on structural members
Designer to make use the behavior of the structure when
would it receive some damage to avoid total collapse
Understanding the deformation of building and formation of
plastic hinges in the structure

Push over analysis of G+4 CEIIIT 3/12/2019

Planning of the building

Modelling the structure by STAAD PRO

Assign the member properties

Parameter to be provided for pushover definitions

Assign the load cases(gravity loads)

(Design capacity
Iterative push over analysis curve, sequential
hinge formation)

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Pushover definition parameters

• Type of frame- moment frame
• Define loading pattern-auto, number of push load steps
• Spectrum pattern
• Joint displacement value, direction, node

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Plastic hinge pattern

 Refer FEMA codes for reading hinge conditions
 After the section has reached its maximum resistance it can no
longer increase its resistance
 It will deform if any additional load is applied till strain reaches its
breakage point
 This phenomenon when it deforms without any breakage is
essentially hinge like behavior
 Plastic range- plastic hinge

Procedure CEIIIT 3/12/2019

• In push over analysis the magnitude of the lateral load is increased

monotonically maintaining a predefined distribution pattern along the height
of the building
• Building is displaced till the control node reaches target displacement or
building collapses
• The sequence of cracking, plastic hinging and failure of the structural
components throughout the procedure is observed
• The relation between base shear and control node displacement is plotted for
all the push over analysis

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Plastic hinges

 The intensity of the colour indicates the severity of the failure of the structure
 By observing above, the SF and BM will be more at ground level and it will decrease
towards fourth floor. It clearly indicates the failure of the structure occurred because
of maximum shear force and maximum bending moment at ground level.
 If the moment resisting capacity of the floor will reach its ultimate point and failure
will propagate to second floor and third floor etc.

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For beam 53 ,at load step 5

Moment at yield value= 735.223 KNm (at 0 m)
Moment at yield value= 474.637KNm(at 3.5m)
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For beam 53,at load step 6

Moment at failure point = 771.292KNm(at 0 m)
Moment at failure point= 457.386KNm(at 3.5m)

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Base shear vs. Displacement(capacity curve)

 Maximum base shear value 4286 KN

and max displacement 200.033mm.

Local and global failure CEIIIT 3/12/2019

Local failure:
Initiate from one column and transfer to total floor results in failure of the structure
Global failure:
when the maximum base shear value drastically decreases results in global failure and
that maximum base shear value represents the ultimate strength of the building.

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• Linear analysis- max bending moment, shear force and max
• Push over-Push the building until you reach its max capacity to
• sequence of plastic hinge formation
• Base shear vs., deflection curve
strength of the building - 4,286 kN
Max displacement – 200.272 mm
• Local and global failures

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Future Scope:
• Use the PEB for top storey of the structure and
making linear and push-over analysis for the structure

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