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INVESTIGATION ON DISC PLATE BY USING LOW ALLOY STEEL

TREATED WITH ANNEALING AND CRYOGENIC METHODS


Abstract
The major concern of researchers is to improve the tribological performance
of the products with the aim to gain security, energy efficiency and lifetime.

The behaviour of alloy steel to the various influent parameters such as load,
stress, and exposure time has been studied. The study of such parameters has been
done after cryogenic treatments. The weight loss as a function of applied load and
the exposure time was determined at a constant frequency.

The analysis and identification of surface degradation is complex. One must


consider the changes in the microstructure, such as phase changes, precipitation,
aging etc. The weight loss as a function of time at different loads was studied in order
to draw conclusions and identify the likely causes of the phenomena causing fretting
wear. This paper addresses the benefits of annealing on metals like low alloy steel on
a comparative basis and stresses upon the application of disc plate.
Introduction
• The purpose of heat treatment is to soften the metal, to
change the grain size, to modify the structure of the material
and relive the stress set up in the material. The various heat
treatment process are annealing, normalizing, hardening,
austempering, martempering, tempering and surface
hardening. annealing is the process of hardening the surface
of metal, often low carbon steel by infusing elements into the
metal surface forming a hard, wear resistance skin but
preserving a tough and ductile applied to disc plate. The basic
study in my research is Procedural study, Micro structure
study, testing of hardness gradient of automobile disc plate.
LITERATURE REVIEW

• Heat treatment is a process utilized to change certain


characteristics of metals and alloys in order to make them more
suitable for a particular kind of application. In general, heat
treatment is the term for any process employed which changes
the physical properties of steel by either heating or cooling.
When properly performed, heat treating can greatly influence
mechanical properties such as strength, hardness, ductility,
toughness, and wear resistance (Zakharov, 1998).The disc plate
wear rate will be increased, when the load reaches a critical value
for a specific geometry. Most can be heat treated for the purpose
of improving mechanical properties such as hardness and wear
resistance. This is accomplished due to the heat treatment
fundamentally altering the microstructure of the steel.
OBJECTIVES
• Study the wear progression on disc plate .
• Study the change of surface finish throughout
the component
• Assess and analyze the results obtained for
disc plate, and evaluate their performance
based on the effects of the cryogenic materials
used.
PROCESS METHODOLOGY:
CRYOGENIC TREATED MATERIAL TEST FLOW:

• MATERIAL SELECTION( DISC PLATE)


• APPLIED ON CRYOGENIC TREATMENT
• HARDNESS TEST
• MICRO STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
• REPORT ANALYSIS FOR VARIOUS
TEMPERATURE
SELECTION OF METAL

• DISC PLATE (LOW ALLOY STEEL )


DISC PLATE
• Most of the modern bikes have a disc brake on
the front wheel. This is the part of the brake
system that does the actual work of stopping
the vehicle.
DISC PLATE IMAGE
Cryogenic treatment
• Considering the wide uses of steel, it is surprising to many people that there is
still much we do not know about it. This paper will review what is known about
cryogenic tempering and future research plans to improve our understanding of
these important phenomena [1-4]. Cryogenic tempering takes place in a
chamber, where the materials are gradually lowered in temperature. Shallow
cryogenic tempering is performed at about -120ºF (-85ºC) for 10 hours or so,
whereas deep cryogenic tempering takes the material below -300ºF (-185ºC) for
more than 24 hours. The materials are then slowly raised to room temperature
and usually annealed at about 300ºF (149ºC) for several hours. Only deep
cryogenic tempering has shown to give the greatest improvement in wear
resistance. Controlled experiments and industry experience have demonstrated
that many materials benefit from this treatment. Increased wear life and better
corrosion resistance, while at the same time maintaining or even improving
toughness have been observed. However, few materials benefit more than tool
steels.
CRYOGENIC TREATMENT ADVANDAGES:

• Increases abrasive wear resistance,


• Increases tensile strength, toughness and stability,
• Decreases residual stresses,
• Effective Micro Structural changes.
• Decreases brittleness,
• The result is a larger contact surface area that reduces friction, heat and
wear
• Increases durability or wear life,
Testing
• Wear test
• Hardness test
Application
• Used in Automobile fields
Comparison of conventional disc plate vs
cryogenic treated disc plate
conventional disc plate cryogenic treated disc plate
• Wear is high • Less wear
• Brittleness • Less brittleness
• Low hardness • High hardness
RESULT
• To improve the wear strength
• To improve the hardness
• To improve the life of disc plate
Reference
• [1] B. Podgornik, F. Majdic, Leskovsek, J. Vizintin, Improving tribological
properties of tool steels through combination of deep-cryogenic treatment
and plasma nitriding, Wear, (2011), doi:10.1016/j.wear.2011.04.001.
• [2] A. Oppenkowski, S. Weber, W. Theisen, Evaluation of factors influencing
deep cryogenic treatment that affect the properties of tool steels, Journal
of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1949-1955,
doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.07.007.
• [3] S. Zhirafar, A. Rezaeian, M. Pug, Effect of cryogenic treatment on the
mechanical properties of 4340 steel, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology 186 (2007) 298-303, doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.12.046.
• [4] M. Dhananchezian, M. Pradeep Kumar, Cryogenic turning of the Ti–6Al–
4V alloy with modified cutting tool inserts, Cryogenics 51 (2011) 34-40,
doi:10.1016/j.cryogenics.2010.10.011.