Anda di halaman 1dari 16


A list established under the UNFCCC

of industrialized countries, including
economies in transition, taking on
specific emissions commitments.
A list established under the UNFCCC of
industrialized countries, excluding economies
in transition, that are to provide new and
additional resources to help developing
countries meet existing commitments under
• A list established under the Kyoto Protocol of
the basket of six greenhouse gases that the
Protocol covers and the sectors or source
categories that emit them.
A list established under the Kyoto Protocol
setting out each Party's emission limitation or
reduction target, or QELRC, for the first
Commitment Period, relative to the base year.
Activities Implemented Jointly(AIJ)

• A pilot scheme allowing Parties to invest in

emission-reduction projects in other
industrialized or developing countries.
Effectively a ‘learning by doing’ phase of Joint
Implementation and the Clean Development
Mechanism, with the difference that it does
not allow the investing country to receive
credit for the emissions saved.
• 1990 is the base year used in the UNFCCC and
also for most QELRCs established under the Kyoto
Protocol. However, EITs that chose a different
base year under a decision taken at COP2 shall
use that base year under the Protocol. Also, all
Annex I Parties have the option of choosing 1995
as the base year for their emissions of the three
industrial gases covered by the Protocol – hydro
fluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons and sulphur
• An agreement reached at COP1 in Berlin, in
March-April 1995, that led to the elaboration
of the Kyoto Protocol. The mandate set the
framework for negotiations on action to be
taken after 2000, including strengthening the
commitments of Annex I Parties.
Compliance Action Plan(CAP)
• One of the penalties that could be imposed
on Annex I countries found to be in breach of
their emission target under the Kyoto
Certified Emission Reduction(CER)
• CDM projects will generate these, which
Annex I countries can then add to their
assigned amounts.
• Conference of the Parties serving as the
meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
To avoid duplication, the COP will serve as the
MOP. The first session of the COP/MOP will
take place once the Protocol has entered into
force. Parties to the UNFCCCthat are not
Parties to the Protocol will be able to
participate in the COP/MOP as observers
Central and eastern European
countries (CEECs)
• These countries are among those classified
under the UNFCCC as Economies in Transition
to a market economy. Ten of these countries
are negotiating to join the EU: Bulgaria, Czech
Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
Group of 77
• Main negotiating group of developing
countries within the UN system. Despite its
name, it represents more than 130 countries.
Quantified Emission Limitation and
Reduction Commitment(QELRC)
• Official term in the Kyoto Protocol for the
emission limitation or reduction target taken
on by each Party listed in Annex B.
Second Assessment Report (SAR)
• Issued by the IPCC at the end of 1995, this
provided the scientific basis for the
negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol.
Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (TAR)

• The latest assessment of the policy-relevant

scientific, technical and socio-economic
dimensions of climate change concentrates on
new findings since 1995. The contributions to
the TAR of the IPCC's three working groups,
including their summaries for policymakers
and technical summaries, were released
earlier this year. See
United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change(UNFCCC)
• Adopted at the June 1992 ‘Earth Summit’ in
Rio de Janeiro and in force since March 1994.
The Convention’s ultimate objective, and that
of the Kyoto Protocol and any other
instruments attached to the UNFCCC, is ‘to
achieve ... stabilization of greenhouse gas
concentrations in the atmosphere at a level
that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
[man-made] interference with the climate