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CERTIFICATE OF DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the project report entitled “design of
road pavement” by “Vivek Singh” in partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of degree
of B.TECH. (Civil Engineering) submitted in the Department of CE at “RIMT-MAEC” under
Punjab technical University, Jalandhar is an authentic record of my own work carried out during
a period from--------------- to ------------ under the supervision of Er. Narinder Singh.

Signature of a student.

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my/our
knowledge.

Signature of Supervisor.

The B.TECH viva-voce examination of (Rishikesh Kumar) has been held on------------ and
accepted.

Signature of Supervisor.

Signature of External Examiner.

Signature of H.O.D.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are expressing our deep sense of gratitude to our respected H.O.D Prof. D.K.Dua,
Department of Civil Engineering and our guide Er. Narinder Singh for their constant guidance,
innovative, suggestion, and warm encouragement throughout the programme and preparation of
this project.

We thank profusely that faculty member for their help and suggestions given during course of
program. We are thankful to one and all, which help directly or indirectly in completing this
project report.

We learnt more from this project and build on our carrier to success.

(Vivek Singh)

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INTRODUCTION

The transportation by road is the only road which gives maximum service to one and all. This
mode had also the maximum flexibility for travel and with reference to route, direction, time
and speed of travel. It is possible to provide door to door service only by road transport.
Concrete pavement a larger number of advantages such as a long life span negligible
maintenance, user and environmental friendly and lower-cost. Keeping in this view the whole
life-cycle cost analysis for the black topping and which topping have been done based on
various condition such as type of laying as single lane, two lane, four lane different traffic
namely deterioration of road three categories.
The highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of processed materials
above the natural soil subgrade, whose primary function is to distribute the applied vehicle
loads to the subgrade. The pavement structure should be able to provide a surface of acceptable
riding quality, adequate skid resistance, Favourable light reflecting characteristic, and low noise
pollution. The ultimate aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses due to wheel load are
Suffice, Nightly reduced, so that they will not exceed bearing capacity of the sub low grade.
Two types of pavements are generally recognised as serving this purpose, namely flexible
pavements and rigid pavements. This gives an overview on pavement types, layers and their
function cost analysis.

Various grades of concrete under a similar condition of traffic and design concrete road are
found to more suitable than bituminous road. Since the whole life-cycle cost comes out to be
lower in the range of 30% to 50% but for road having traffic less than 400cv/day and the road
is in good condition, the difference between whole Life Cost of the road is very less. The initial
cost of concrete overlay is 15% to 60% more than flexible overlay.

To design the road is stretch as a flexible pavement by using different flexible methods like
group index method, C.B.R. method as per IRC: 37 – 2001, Triaxial method, California
resistance value method, and as a rigid pavement as per IRC: for the collected design upon a
given black cotton soil subgrade and to estimates the construction cost of designed pavement
by each method. To propose a suitable or best methods to a given condition or problem.
The main objective of this study is to develop a strategy to select the most cost if efficient
pavement design method to carry out for a sections of a highway network and also to identify
the cost analysis of different pavement design method.

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SCOPE OF PROJECT

This section sets out the guideline for design of road pavement to meet the required design life,
based on the subgrade strength, traffic loading and environmental factors, and including the
selection of appropriate materials for subgrade, sub base, base and wearing surface.

The guideline contains procedures for the design of the following forms of surfaced road
pavement construction:
a) Flexible pavements consisting of unbound materials;
b) Flexible pavements that contain one or more bond layers, including pavements
containing asphalt layers other than thin asphalt wearing surface;
c) Rigid pavements (i.e. cement concrete pavements);
d) Concrete or clay segmental pavements

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CONTENTS

Chapter No. Page

1. Pavement 6
 Types Of Pavement 6
 Pavement Materials 7
2. Flexible Pavement 8
 Types Of Flexible Pavement 9
 Layers Of Pavement 10
 Failure Of Flexible Pavement 12
3. Rigid pavement 13
 Type Of Rigid Pavement 14
 Failure Of Rigid Pavement 14
 Joints In Rigid Pavement 15
4. Test On Aggregate And Bitumen 17
I. CBR Test 18
II. Impact Test 26
III. Crushing Strength Test 29
IV. Penetration Test 32
V. Los Ageless Abrasion Test Of Aggregate 34
VI. Flash And Fire Point Of Bitumen 36
VII. Softening Point Of Bitumen 38
5. Comparison Between Flexible And Rigid Pavement 41
6. Role Of The Stabilisation On Pavement Design 42
 Lime Stabilisation 42
 Cementatious Stabilisation 42
7. Design And Cost Analysis Of Pavement 44
 Design Of Flexible Pavement By Group Index Method 44
 California Resistance Value Method 45
 Design of flexible pavement by CBR data 46
8. Conclusion 48
9. Bibliography 49

1. PAVEMENT

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The highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed layers of processed materials
above the natural soil subgrade, whose primary function is to distribute the applied vehicle
loads to the subgrade. The pavement structure should be able to provide a surface of acceptable
riding quality, adequate skid resistance, Favourable light reflecting characteristic, and low noise
pollution. The ultimate aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses due to wheel load are
Suffice, Nightly reduced, so that they will not exceed bearing capacity of the sub low grade.
Two types of pavements are generally recognised as serving this purpose, namely flexible
pavements and rigid pavements.

 TYPES OF PAVEMENT

 Flexible - Pavements with a bitumen bonded surfacing and the road base.

 Flexible composite - The surfacing and upper road base our bituminous on a lower road
base of cement bonded material.

 Rigid - Pavements with a concrete surface slab which can be unreinforced, joint reinforced
or continuously reinforced.

 Rigid composite - Continuously reinforced concrete slab with a bituminous overlay.

 PAVEMENT MATERIAL

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• SOIL:-
Pavements are conglomeration of materials. These materials, their associated
properties, and their interactions determine the properties of the resultant pavement. Thus,
a good under - standing of these materials, how they are characterised, and how they
perform is fundamental to understanding pavement. The materials which are used in
construction of Highway are of intense interest to the highway engineer. This requires not
only a through understanding of the soil and aggregate properties which effect pavement
stability and durability, but also the binding materials which may be added to improve
these pavement features.

• SUB GRADE SOIL:-


Side is an accumulation or deposit of earth material, derived
naturally from the disintegration of rocks or decay of vegetation that can be excavated
readily with power equipment in the field or disintegrated by gen whole the mechanical
means in the laboratory. The supporting soil beneath the pavement and its special under
courses is called sub grade. Undisturbed soil beneath the pavement is called natural sub
grade. Compacted sub grade is the soil contacted by controlled movement of the heavy
compactors.

• GRAVEL:-
These are coarse materials with particle size under 2.36 mm with little or no
fines contributing to cohesion of materials.

• MOORUM:-
These are products of decomposition and weathering of the pavement
rock.

• SILTS:-
These are finer than sand, brighter in colour as compared to clay, and exhibit
little cohesion. When a lump of silty soil mixed with water, alternately squeezed and
tapped Shiny surface makes its appearance, thus dilatency is a specific property of soil.

• CLAYS:-
These are finer than silts. Clayey soils exhibit stickiness, high strength when
dry and show no dialtency. Black cotton soil and other expensive clay exhibit swelling and
shrinkage properties. Paste of clay with water when rubbed in between fingers leaves
strain, which is not observed for silts.

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2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

Flexible pavement will transmit wheel load stresses to the lower layers by grain to grain
transfer through the points of contact in the granular structure. The wheel load acting on the
pavement will be distributed to the wider area, and the stress decreases with the depth. Taking
advantage of this stress distribution characteristic, flexible pavements normally has many
layers. Hence the design of flexible payment uses the concept of layered system. Based on this,
flexible pavement may be constructed in the number of layers and the top layer has to be of the
best quality to sustain maximum compressive stress, in addition to wear and tear. The lower
layer will experience lesser magnitude of stress and low quality material can be used.

Flexible payments are constructed using bituminous materials. These can be either in the form
of surface treatment (such as bituminous surface treatment generally found on the low volume
road is available) or, asphalt concrete surface courses, flexible payment layer reflect the
deformation of lower layer on to the surface layer (e.g., if there is any undulation in sub grade
then it will be transferred to the surface layer). In the case of flexible payment, the design is
based on overall performance of flexible payment, and the stresses produced should be keep
well below the allowable stresses of each payment layer.

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 TYPE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

The following type of construction had been used in flexible payment:


1. Conventional layered flexible payment.
2. Full depth asphalt pavement.
3. Contained rock asphalt mat (CRAM).
4. Conventional flexible payments are layered system with high-quality expensive materials
are placed in the top where stresses are high, and low quality cheap materials are placed in
the lower layers.
5. Full depth asphalt pavement are constructed by placing bituminous layer directly on the
soil subgrade. This is more suitable when there is high traffic and local material are not
available.
6. Contained rock asphalt mats are constructed by placing Dense/open graded aggregate
layers in the between two asphalts layers. Modified dense graded asphalt concrete is placed
above the subgrade will significantly reduce the vertical compressive strain on the soil
subgrade and protect from surface water.

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 LAYERS IN THE FLEXIBLE PAYMENT

• SEALCOAT:-
Seal coat is a thin surface treatment used to waterproof the surface and to
provide skid resistance.

• TACK COAT:-
Tack coat is very light application of the asphalt, usually asphalt
emulsion diluted with water, it provide a bonding between two layer of binder course and must
be thin, uniformly cover the entire surface, and set very fast.

• PRIME COAT:-
Prime coat is an application of low viscous cutback bitumen to an
absorbent surface like granular bases on which binder layer is placed. It provide bonding
between two layers. Unlike tack coat, prime coat penetrate into the layer below plugs and voids,
and forms a watertight surface.

• SURFACE COURSE:-
Surface course is the layer directly in contact with traffic loads
and are generally contains superior quality materials. They are is usually constructed with
dense graded asphalt concrete (AC). The function and the requirements of layer are:

 It provides characteristic such as friction, smoothness, drainage, etc. it will prevent the
entrance of excessive quantities of surface water into the underlying base, sub bass and
subgrade.

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 It must be tough to resist the distortion under traffic and provide a smooth and is skid
resistance riding surface.

It must be waterproof to protect the entire base and subgrade from the weaking effect of water.

• BINDER COURSE:-
This layer provides the bulk of asphalt concrete structure. it’s chief
purpose is to distribute load to the base course the binder course is generally consist of
aggregate having layers asphalt and they do not require quality as high as the surface course, so
replacing a part of the surface course by the binder course results in the more economical
design.

• BASE COURSE:-
The base course is the layer of material immediately beneath the
surface of binder course and it provides additional load distribution and contribute to the
subsurface drainage it may be composed of crushed stone, crushed slag, and other untreated or
a stabilised materials

• SUB BASE COURSE:-


The sub base course is the layer of material beneath the base
course and the primary function are to provide structural support, improve drainage, and
reduce the intrusion of fines from the sub grade in the pavement structure if the base course is
open graded, then the sub base course with the more fine can serve as a filler between
subgrade and the base course. A sub base course is not always needed or used. For example, a
pavement constructed over our high quality, estate subgrade may not need the additional
feature offered by a sub base course. In such situation, sub base course maybe not be provide.

• SUBGRADE:-
The topsoil or subgrade is a layer of natural soil prepared to receive the
stresses from the layer above. It is essential that at no time soil subgrade is overstressed. It
would be contacted to the desirable density, near the optimum moisture content.

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 FAILURE OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

The major flexible payment failures are fatigue cracking, rutting, and the thermal cracking. The
fatigue cracking of flexible payment is due to horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the
asphaltic concrete. The failure criterion relates allowable number of load repetition to the
tensile strain and the relation can be determined in the laboratory fatigue test asphaltic concrete
specimen. Rutting occurs only on flexible payment as indicated by the permanent information
of rut depth along the wheel load path. Two design method have been used to control rutting:

1. To limit the vertical compressive strain on the top of subgrade and


2.To limit to tolerable amount (12 mm normally). Thermal cracking includes both low-
temperature cracking and thermal fatigue cracking.

• FORMATION OF CRACKS:-

CRACKS ON FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

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3. RIGID PAVEMENT

Rigid pavement are those which possess not worthy flexural strength or flexural rigidity .The
stresses are not transferred from grain to grain to the lower layers as in the case of flexural
pavement layers. The rigid pavements are made of Portland cement concrete-either plain,
reinforced or pre-stressed concrete. The plain cement concrete slabs are expected to take-up
about 40kg/cm2. The rigid pavement has the slab action and is capable of transmitting the wheel
load stresses through a wider area below. The rigid pavement does not get deformed to the
shape of the lower surface as it can bridge the minor variations of lower layers. The cement
concrete pavement slab can very well serve as a wearing surface as well as effective base
course. Therefore usually the rigid pavement structure consist of a cement concrete slab, below
which a granular base or sub-base may be provided. The rigid pavements are usually designed
and the stresses are analysed using the elastic theory

RIGID PAVEMENT

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In rigid pavement, load is distributed by the slab action, and the pavement behaves like an
elastic plate resting on a viscous medium (Figure 19:4). Rigid pavements are constructed by
Portland cement (PCC) and should be analysed by plate theory instead of layer theory,
assuming an elastic plate resting on viscous foundation. Plate theory is a simplified version of
layer theory that assumes the concrete slab as a medium thick plate which is plane before
loading and to remain plane after loading Bending of the slab due to wheel load and
temperature variation and the resulting tensile and flexural stress.

• TYPES OF RIGID PAVEMENTS

Rigid pavements can be classified into four types:


 Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP),
 Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP),
 Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP), and
 Pre-stressed concrete pavement (PCP).

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement are plain cement concrete pavements constructed with closely
spaced contraction joints. Dowel bars or aggregate interlocks are normally used for load
transfer across joints. They normally has a joint spacing of 5 to 10m.

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement although reinforcements do not improve the structural
capacity significantly, they can drastically increase the joint spacing to 10 to 30m. Dowel bars
are required for load transfer. Reinforcement’s help to keep the slab together even after cracks.

Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement Complete elimination of joints are achieved by


reinforcement.

• FAILURE OF RIGID PAVEMENTS

Fatigue cracking has long been considered as the major, or only criterion for rigid pavement
design. The
Allowable number of load repetitions to cause fatigue cracking depends on the stress ratio
between flexural
Tensile stress and concrete modulus of rupture. Of late, pumping is identified as an important
failure criterion.
Pumping is the ejection of soil slurry through the joints and cracks of cement concrete
pavement, caused during
The downward movement of slab under the heavy wheel loads. Other major types of distress in
rigid pavements
Include faulting, spelling, and deterioration.

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Failure of rigid pavement

• JOINTS IN RIGID PAVEMENT

Joints are purposefully placed discontinuities in a rigid pavement surface course. The most
common types of pavement joints, defined by their function, are contraction, expansion,
isolation and construction.

Joints In Rigid Pavement

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• CONTRACTION JOINTS:-

A contraction joint is a sawed, formed, or tooled groove in a concrete slab that creates a
weakened vertical plane. It regulates the location of the cracking caused by dimensional
changes in the slab. Unregulated cracks can grow and result in an unacceptably rough surface
as well as water infiltration into the base, sub base and subgrade, which can enable other types
of pavement distress. Contraction joints are the most common type of joint in concrete
pavements, thus the generic term "joint" generally refers to a contraction joint.

Contraction Joints in rigid pavement

• EXPANSION JOINTS:-

An expansion joint is placed at a specific location to allow the pavement to expand without
damaging adjacent structures or the pavement itself. However, expansion joint are not typically
used today because their progressive closure tends to cause contraction joints to progressively
open.

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• ISOLATION JOINTS:-

It is used to lessen compressive stresses that develop at t- and unsymmetrical intersections,


ramps, bridges, building foundations, drainage inlets, manholes, and anywhere differential
movement between the pavement and a structure (or another existing pavement) may take place
they are typically filled with a joint filler material to prevent water and dirt infiltration.

Isolation Joints in rigid pavement

• CONSTRUCTION JOINTS:-

It is a joint between slabs that results when concrete is placed at different times. This type of
joint can be further broken down into transverse and longitudinal construction joints
longitudinal construction joints also allow slab warping without appreciable separation or
cracking of the slabs.

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4. TEST ON AGGREGATE AND BITUMEN

I. CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR TEST)

• STANDARD:-
IS: 2720(part 16) 1979.

• DEFINITION:-

California bearing ratio is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate in to a soil
mass with the circular plunger of 50 mm diameter at the rate of 1.25 mm per minute.

• APPARATUS:-

 Mould 2250 cc capacity with base plate, stay rod and wing nut, confirming to 4.1, 4.3
and 4.4 of IS: 9669-1980.
 coller confirming to 4.2 of IS: 9669- 1980.
 Spacer disc confirming to 4.4 of IS: 9669- 1980.
 Metal rammer confirming to IS: 9189- 1979.
 Expansion measuring apparatus with the adjustable steam, perforated plate, tripod
confirming and to weight confirming to 4.4 of IS: 9669- 1980.
 loading machine having a capacity of at least 5000 KG and equipped with a movable
head of the base that travel at uniform rate of 1.25 mm per minute for use in forcing the
penetration plunger into the specimen.
 Dial gauge two number reading to 0.01mm.
 IS Sieves 37.50 or 22.50 or 19mm and 4.75mm.
 Miscellaneous apparatus such as mixing bowl, a straight edge, scale, soaking tank,
drying oven, filter paper, dishes and deliberated measuring jar.

• PROCEDURE:-

 There are two type of methods in compacting soil specimen in the CBR moulds.
 Static compaction method.
 Dynamic compaction method.
 The material used in the above two method shall pass 19mm sieve for fine grained soil and
37.50mm sieve for coarse material up to 37.50mm.

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 Replace the material retained on 19mm sieve by an equal amount of material passing 19mm
sieve and retained on 4.75mm sieve.
 Replace the material retained on 37.50mm sieve by an equal amount of material passing
37.50mm sieve and retained on 4.75mm sieve.

• STATIC COMPACTION:-

In this method calculate the mass of wet soil at required moisture content to give a desired
density when compacted in a standard test mould as given below.

Volume of mould = 2250 cc.


Weight of dry soil (W) = 2250× MDD
Weight of wet soil = 1+------× W 100

Weight of water = weight of wet soil - weight of dry soil.


Where M = optimum moisture content obtained from the laboratory compaction test.
 Take oven dried soil Sample of calculated weight and thoroughly mixed with water (O
MC) as obtained from the above equation.
 Record the empty weight of the mould with base plate, with extension coller moved
(M1).
 Place the correct mass of the wet soil into the mould in five layer.
 Gently compact each layer with the spacer disc.
 Compact the mould by pressing it in between the plates of the compression testing
machine until the top of spacer disc comes flush with the top of the mould.

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 Held the Load for about 32 seconds and then release.
 In some soil type where a certain amount of rebound occurred, it may be necessary to
reapply load to force the spacer disc slightly below the top of the mould so that on
rebound the right volume is obtained.
 Remove the mould from the compression testing machine.
 Remove the spacer disc and weight the mould with compacted soil (M2).
 Replace the extension Collar of the mould.
 Prepare two more specimens in the same procedure as described above.

CBR TEST READING

S.NO. DIAL GAUGE READING(mm) PROVING RING READING


1 0.50 0
2 1.00 0.3
3 1.50 0.8
4 2.00 1.2
5 2.50 1.7
6 3.00 2.2
7 50 3.5
8 0 5.1
9 50 6.9
10 0 8.6
11 50 10
12 0 108
13 50 11.2
14 0 11.6
15 50 12
16 0 12.4
17 50 12.8
18 0 13.4
19 50 14
20 0 14.7
21 50 15.2
22 0 16
23 50 16.4
24 0 17.2
25 50 18

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• DYNAMIC COMPACTION:-

 Take a representative sample of weighing approximately 6 KG and mix thoroughly at


OMC.
 Record the empty weight of mould with this plate, with extension Collar removed (m1).
 Replace the extension Collar of mould.
 Insert the spacer disc over the base plate and place of coarse filter paper on the top of the
spacer disc.
 Place the mould on a solid base such as a concrete floor of plinth and compact the wet soil
into the mould in five layers of approximately equal mass each layer being given 56 below
with 4.90 KG hammer equally distributed and dropped from a height of 450 MM above the
soil.
 The amount of soil used shall be sufficient to fill the mould, leaving not more than about 6
MM to be a struck off when the extension Collar is removed.
 Remove the extension Collar and carefully level the compact soil to the top of mould by
means of a straight edge.
 Remove the spacer disc by inverting the mould and weigh the mould with compact soil
(m2).
 Place of filter paper between the base plate and inverted mould.
 Replace the extension Collar of the mould.
 Prepared two more specimen in the same procedure as described above.
 In both the cases of compacts, if the sample is to be socked, take a representative sample of
the material at the beginning of compaction for determination of moisture content.
 Each Sample shall weigh not less than 100 g for fine grained soil and not less than 500
 Place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the compacted soil specimen in the
mould.
 Place the weights to procedure a surcharge equal to the weight of base material and
pavement to the nearest 2.5 KG on the perforated plate.
 Immerse the whole mould and weights in a tank of water allowing free access of water to
the top and bottom of a specimen for 96 hours.

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CBR Test Apparatus

• TEST FOR SWELLING:-

 Determine the initial height of specimen (h) in mm.


 Mount the expansion-measuring device along with the tripod on the edge of
 The mould and record the initial dial gauge reading (ds).
 Keep this set up as such undisturbed for 96 hours noting down the readings
 Every day against the time of reading.
 This test is optional and may be omitted if not necessary.
 Maintain a constant water level throughout the period of soaking.
 Note the final reading of the dial gauge at the end of soaking period (dh).

• CALCULATIONS FOR SWELLING

df-ds
Expansion ratio = ----------- x 100
H
ds= Initial dial gauge reading in mm

df= final dial gauge reading in mm

h = initial height of specimen in mm

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• PENETRATION TEST

 After 96 hour of soaking take out the specimen from the water and remove the
extension Collar, perforated disc, surcharge weight and filter paper.
 Drain off excess water by placing the mould inclined for about 15 minutes and weigh
the mould.

• TESTING OF CBR SPECIMEN:-

 Place the mould on lower plate of testing machine with top face exposed to prevent
upheaval of soil in to the whole of surcharge weights, place 2.5 KG.
 Annular weights on the soil surface prior to seating that penetration plunger after which
place the reminder of the surcharge weights.
 Set the plunger under a load of 40 KG so that full contact is stabilised between the
surface of a specimen and the plunger.
 Set the stress and strain gauges to zero.
 Consider the initial load applied to the plunger as the zero load.
 Applied the load at the rate of 1.25mm/min.
 Take the reading of the Load at penetration of zero, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4, 5, 7.5,
10 and 12.5.
 Raise the plunger and detach the mould from the loading equipment.
 Collect a sample of about 20 to 50 gms of soil from the top 30 MM layer of a specimen
and determine the water content in accordance with IS: 2720 ( part 4 ) 1973.
 Examine the specimen carefully after the test is completed for the presence of any
oversized soil particle, which are likely to affect the result if they happen to be located
directly below the penetration plunger.

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• CALCULATION OF CBR FROM LOAD PENETRATION CURVE:-

 Plot the load penetration curve in natural a scale, load on Y-axis and
 If the curve is uniformly convex upwards although the initial portion of the curve may
be concave upwards due to surface irregularities may correction by drawing a tangent to
the upper curve at the point of contra flexure as below.
 Take the intersection point of tangent and the X axis as an origin.
 Calculate the CBR value for penetration of 2.50 MM and 5.00 MM.
 Corresponding to the penetration value at which CBR is to be desired, take the
corrected load value from the load penetration curve and calculate the CBR from the
equation,

CBR= load carries by specimen X100


Load carries by standard specimen

Where PT - corrected unit test load corresponding to chosen penetration from Load
penetration curve.
PS - total a standard load for the same depth of penetration, which can be taken from the
table below.

CF - proving a ring correction factor.

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Standard load curve at a specified penetration.

penetration depth (mm) Unit standard load kgf/cm2 Total standard load (kgf)

2.50 70 1370

5.00 105 2055

7.50 134 2630

10.00 162 3180

12.50 183 3600

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• REPORT:-

 Repeat the CBR value to the nearest second decimal.


 Take the average of three test a specimen as the CBR value of the test.
 Generally, the CBR value at 2.50 MM penetration will be greater than that at
 5.00 MM penetration and in such case take the value at 2.50 MM as the CBR value.
 If the CBR value corresponding to a penetration of 5.00 MM exceed that of 2.50 MM,
repeat the test.
 If the identical result follow, take the value corresponding to 5.00 MM as the CBR value.

• PRECAUTIONS:-

 Clean the holes of base plate and that of perforated disc thoroughly.
 Aligns the surcharge weight with the plunger so that the plunger penetrate freely into the
soil.

II. IMPACT TEST

• INTRODUCTION:-
Toughness is the property of material to resist impact due to traffic
load, the road stone are subjected to the pounding action and impact and there is possibility
of stone breaking into a smaller pieces. The road stone should therefore be tough enough to
resist fracture under the impact’s test designed to evaluate the toughness of the stones i.e.,
the resistance of fracture under repeated impact may be called an impact test for road stones.

• OBJECT:
To determine the toughness of road stone material by impact test.

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• APPARATUS:-

a) Impact testing machine.


b) Measure: a cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 75 MM and depth 50 MM
for measuring aggregate.
c) Tamping rod: a straight metal tamping rod of circular cross-section, 10 MM in diameter
and 230 MM long, rounded at one end.
d) Sieve: IS sieve of size 12.5 MM, 10 MM, and 2.36 MM for sieving the aggregate.
e) Balance: a balance of capacity not less than 500 GM to weigh accurate up to 0.1 gm.
f) Oven: a thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of maintaining constant
temperature between 100°C to 110°C.

Impact Test Machine

• PROCEDURE:-

The test sample consist of aggregates passing through 12.5 MM sieve and retained on 10 MM
sieve and dried in an oven for four hour at the temperature of 100°C to 110°C and cooled. Test
aggregate are filled up to about one third full in the St cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times
with the rounded of the tamping rod. Further quality of aggregate is then added up to 2/3 full in
the cylinder and 25 stocks of tamping rod are given. The measure is now filled with the
aggregate to overflow, tamped 25 times. The surplus aggregate are struck off using the tamping
rod as a straight edge. The net weight of aggregate in the measure is determined to the nearest
gram and this weight of aggregate is used for carrying out duplicate test on the same material.
The impact machine is placed with its bottom plate flat on the floor so that the hammer guide
columns and vertical. The cup is fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the
whole of the test sample from the cylindrical measure is transferred to the cup and compacted
by tamping with 25 strokes.
The hammer is raised until its lower face is 380 MM above the upper surface of the aggregate
in the cup, and allow it to fall freely on the aggregate. The test sample is subjected to a total 15
blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. The crusted aggregate is

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 27


then removed from the cup and the whole of it sieved on the 2.36 MM sieve until no further
significant amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed accurate to 1.0 gm. The
fraction retained on the sieve is added it should not be less the original weight of the specimen
by more than 1 g, if the total weight is less than the original by over 1 g the results should be
discarded and fresh test made.

• CALCULATIOS:-

The aggregate impact value is expressed as percentage the fine formed in term of the total
weight of the sample.

Weight of aggregate sample in the cylindrical measure, W1 = 325 gm.


Weight of crushed aggregate after passing through 2.36 mm sieve W2 = 70 gm.
Aggregate impact value = W2/W1 ×100
=70/325 ×100
= 21.53 %
Where, W1 = original weight of sample.
W2 = weight of fraction passing 2.36 MM IS sieve.

• RESULTS:-

The impact value of aggregate obtained in test reported = 21.53%

• LIMITS:-

Impact value Surface strength

less than 10% exceptionally strong

10 to 20% as strong

20 to 30% satisfactory for road surfacing

greater than 35% weak road surfacing

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III. CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST

• INTRODUCTION:-

The principal mechanical property in the road stones are Q satisfactory resistance to crushing
under the roller during construction and adequate resistance to surface of abrasion under traffic.
also surface a stress under rigid tyre rims of havlely loaded animal, drawn vehicle are high
enough to consider the crushing strength of road stones may be determined either on aggregates
are all cylindrical is specimen cut out of rocks. These two test are quite different in not only the
approach but also in the expression of I results.
Aggregate used in road construction, should be a strong enough to resist crushing under traffic
wheel thought load if aggregates are weak, the stability of the pavement structure is likely to be
adversely affected.

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The strengths of coarse aggregate is assessed by aggregate crushing test. The aggregate
crushing value provider.
A relative measure of resistance to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load.to
achieve a high quality of pavement, aggregate possessing low aggregate crushing value should
be preferred.

• APPARATUS:-

The apparatus for the standard aggregate crushing test consist of following:
1) Steel cylindrical with open ends, and internal diameter 25.2 cm, a square base plate plunger
having a piston of diameter - with a hole provided across the stem of the plunger. A rod
could be inserted for lifting or placing the plunger in the cylinder.
2) Cylindrical measure having internal diameter of 0.5 cm and height 18 cm.
3) Steel temping load with one rounded end, having a diameter of 1 cm and length 45 to 60
cm.
4) Balance of capacity - KG with accuracy up to 1 g.
5) Compression testing machine capable of applying load of 40 tons, at uniform rate of
loading of four tons per minute.

• PROCEDURE:-

 The aggregate passing 12.5mm IS sieve and retained on 10 MM IS sieve selected for a
standard test.
 The aggregate should be in surface dry condition before testing. The aggregate may be
dried by heating a temperature 100̊ C to 110°C for a period of four hour and is tested after
being cooled to room temperature.
 The cylindrical measure is filled by the test sample of aggregate in three layers of
approximately equal depth each layer being tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the
tamping rod. After the third layer is tamped .the aggregate at the top of the cylindrical
measure is a level off by using the tamping rod as a straight edge. About of aggregate is
required for preparing two test samples. The test sample thus taken is then weighed. The
amount weight of sample is taken in the repeat test.

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 The cylinder of the test apparatus is placed in position on the base plate; one Thired of the
test sample is placed in the cylinder and tamped 25 times by the tamping rod. Similarly, the
other two part of the test specimen are added, each layer being subjected to 25 blows. The
total depth of the matter is; in the cylinder after attempting shall however be… The surface
of the aggregate is labelled and the plunger inserted so that it rests on this surface in the
level position. This cylinder with the test Sample and plunger in the position is placed on
compression testing machine. Load is then applied through the plunger at the uniform rate
of 4 tons per minute until the total load is 40 tons and then the load is released.
 Aggregate including the crushed portion are removed from the cylinder and sieved on a
2.36 MM IS sieve. The material which passes this sieves is collected.
 The above crushing test is repeated on second sample of the same weight in accordance
with above test.

• CALCULATIONS:-

Weight of empty cylinder W1 = 1981 gm.


Weight of full cylinder W2 = 4745 gm.

Weight of aggregate = WA = W2 – W1
= 4745 – 1981 gm.
= 2764 gm.
Weight of aggregate passed from sieve 2.36 mm = Wb = 608 gm.
Crushing value of aggregate = Wb/Wa ×100

= 608/2764 ×100

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= 22%

• RESULTS:-

The crushing value of aggregate obtained in test reported = 22%

IV. PENETRATION TEST:

• INTRODUCTION:-
The consistency of bituminous materials varies depending upon
several factors such as constituents, temperature etc. The penetration test determines the
consistency of these materials for the purpose of grading them, by measuring its depth to which
standard needle is penetrate under specific condition of standard load, duration and
temperature. Thus the basic principal of the penetration test is the measurement of the
penetration of a standard needle in a bitumen sample maintained at 25c during five seconds, the
total weight of the needle assembly being 100g.

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• OBJECTIVE:-
To determine the penetration value of a given sample.

• APPARATUS:-
The apparatus for conducting penetration test on bitumen consist of
penetrometer, Container, Thermometer, controlled water bath, stop watch and transfer dish.

Standard Penetrometer

• PROCEDURE:-

 The bitumen is heated to a pouring consistency, about 75̊C to 100̊C. above the
temperature at which bitumen softens.
 The sample material is thoroughly stirred to make it homogeneous and free from air
bubbles and water.
 The sample is then poured into the containers of 35mm depth.
 The sample is then placed on transfer tray and cooled in atmosphere at temperature
between 15-30̊c for 60-90 minutes.
 The sample is then placed in controlled water bath at a temperature of 25̊c for a period
of 60-90 minutes.

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 The sample is then placed under the needle of the penetrometer.
 Now the tip of needle is made to just touch the top surface of the bitumen sample.
 The initial reading of penetrometer is adjusted to zero and then the needle is released
exactly for a period of 5 seconds by pressing the knob and final reading is taken on dial.
 The needle assembly is then raised and the penetration needle is removed and replaced
by clean, dry needle.
 The test is repeated on the sample in the other container, after keeping in the water bath
maintained at a temperature of 25̊c.

• OBSERVATION TABLE:-

Penetrometer Dial TEST-1 TEST-2 TEST-3


Reading

Initial 155 240 290

Final 260 295 345

Penetration Value 10.5 5.5 5.5

• RESULTS:-

The difference between the initial and final penetration readings is taken as the
penetration value.

V. LOS ANGELES ABRASION TEST OF THEAGGREGATE

• INTRODUCTION:-

The principal of Los Angeles abrasion test is to find the percentage wear due to relative rubbing
action aggregate and steel ball used as abrasive charge the pounding action of these balls also
exists while conducting the test some investigator believes that this test to be more dependable
on rubbing and pounding action simulate the filled condition where both abrasion and impact
occur. Los Angeles abrasion test has been standardised by the ASTM, AAHO and also by the

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 34


ISI. A standard specification of Los Angeles abrasion value is also available for various type of
pavement construction.

• APPARATUS:-

The apparatus consist of hollow steel cylinder, enclose at both ends having are inside diameter
70 cm and inside length of 50 cm maintained and stuff about which it rotate on a horizontal
axis. An opening is provided in such a way that when closed and fixed bolt and nut. It is dust-
tight and the interior surface is preferably cylindrical. A removable steel shelf projecting
radially 8- 8 cm into the cylinder into the cylinder rigidly parallel to the axis. The self is fixed
at a distance of 125 cm from the opening measured along the circumference in the direction of
rotation. Abrasive charge consisting of cast iron sphere approximately 4.8 cm in the diameter
and 390 to 445 g in weight are used. The weight of sphere used as the abrasive charge and the
number of sphere to be used are a specified depending upon the grading of the aggregate tested.
The aggregate grading has been standardised as a, B, C, D, E, F, and G for this test and the IS a
specification for the grading and the abrasive charge to be used are in the given table IS sieve
with 1.70 MM opening is used for separating the finer after the abrasion test.

Los Angeles abrasion resistance

• PROCEDURE:-

Clean aggregate dried in an oven at 105°C to 110°C to constant weight. Confirming to anyone
of the grading as to go as per table is used for the test. The grading or gradation used in the
test should be nearest to the grading to be used in the construction. Aggregate weighing five
KG for grading a, B, C, D and 10 KG for grading E, F, or G may be taken as test a specimen
and placed in the cylinder. The abrasive charge is also chosen in accordance with the table.
Depending upon the grading of the aggregate and placed in the cylinder of machine. The
cover is then fixed in dust tight. The machine is rotated of speed of 32 t 33 roll per minute.
The machine rotated Fe 500 revolution for grading a, B, C, and d and for grading E, F, and G

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 35


it shall rotated Fe 1000 revolution. The machine should be balanced and delivering in such a
way as to maintain uniform speed
After the desired number of revolution the machine is stopped and the material is discharge
from the machine taking care to take net entire stone dust. Using the sieve of size larger than
1.70 MM IS sieve the material is first separated into the two part, and the finer portion take
net and see further on A 1.7 MM IS sieve. The portion of material coarser than 1.7 MM size
washed and dried in an oven at 105°C to 110°C to constant weight and weighed correct to 1 g.

• CALCULATION:-

The difference between the original and final weight of Sample expressed as a percentage of
original weight of the sample is reported as the percentage wear.

Sample number Weight


Total weight of dry Sample(w1) grams 5000 g
Weight of aggregate retained on 1.7 MM 3935 g
IS sieve after the test (w2) grams

Loss in weight due to be (W1-w2) gram 1065 g


Los Angeles abrasion value (w1-w2/w1 10.65/5000 ×100 = 21.3%
×100)

• RESULT:-

The result of the Los Angeles abrasion test is expressed as percentage WEAR and the average
value of two test may be adopted as the Los Angeles abrasion value. The abrasion value of
given aggregate sample is 21.3%

VI. FLASH & FIRE POINT OF BITUMEN

• INTRODUCTION:-

The flash and fire point of bitumen grade 30-40.

• APPARATUS:-

Pensky-Marten Closed Tester, Thermometer.

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Pensky-marten closed tester

• THEORY:-

Bituminous material leave out volatiles at high temperatures depending upon their grade. These
volatile vapours catch fire causing a flash. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which
flash occurs due to ignition of volatile vapours when a small flame is brought in contact with
the vapours of a bituminous product, gradually heated under standardised condition. When
bituminous material is further heated to a higher temperature, the material itself catches and
continues to burn; the lowest temperature causing this is the fire point. Fire point is always
higher than flash point. The flash point of a material is the lowest temperature at which vapour
of a substance momentarily take fire in the form of flash.

The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the material gets ignited and burns under
specific conditions of test.

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 37


• PROCEDURE:-

All parts of cup are cleaned and dried thoroughly. Material is filled into cup upto filling mark.
Lid is placed to close the cup in a closed system. All accessories including thermometer of
specified range are suitably fixed. Bitumen sample is then heated. Stirring is done at regular
intervals. The test flame is lit and applied at intervals depending upon expected flash and fire
point. First application is made at about 17°C below actual flash point and then at every 1°C.
Stirring is discontinued during the application of the test flame.

• RESULT:-

Flash point of bitumen = 176°C

Fire point of bitumen =180°C

• RECOMMENDED VALUES:-

The minimum value of flash point by Pensky Martens closed type apparatus is 175°C for all
grades of bitumen.

VII. SOFTENING POINT OF BITUMEN/ TAR.

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 38


• INTRODUCTION:-
The Softening Point of bitumen or tar is the temperature at which the
substance attains particular degree of softening. As per IS: 334-1982, it is the temperature in ºC
at which a standard ball passes through a sample of bitumen in a mould and falls through a
height of 2.5 cm, when heated under water or glycerine at specified conditions of test. The
binder should have sufficient fluidity before its applications in road uses. The determination of
softening point helps to know the temperature up to which a bituminous binder should be
heated for various road use applications. Softening point is determined by ring and ball
apparatus.

• APPARATUS:-
(i) The ring and ball apparatus consisting of
(a) Steel balls-two numbers each of 9.5 mm diameter weighing 3.5 ± 0.05 g.

(b)Brass rings-two numbers each having depth of 6.4 mm. The inside diameter at bottom and
top is 15.9mm and 17.5 mm respectively.

(c) Ball guides to guide the movement of steel balls centrally.

(d)Support -that can hold rings in position and also allows for suspension of a thermometer.
The distance between the bottom of the rings and the top surface of the bottom plate of the
support is 25mm.

(i) Thermometer that can read up to 100° C with an accuracy of 0.2° C.

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 39


(ii) Bath–heat resistant glass beaker not less than 85 mm in diameter &1220mm deep.

(iii) Stirrer

• PROCEDURE:-

(i)Preparation of test sample: Heat the material to a temperature between 75-100° C above its
softening point; stir until, it is completely fluid and free from air bubbles and water. If
necessary, filter it through IS sieve 30. Place the rings previously heated to a temperature
approximating to that of the molten material, on a metal plate which has been coated with a
mixture of equal parts of glycerine and dextrin. After cooling for 30 minutes in air, level the
material in the ring by removing the excess material with a warmed, sharp knife.

(ii) Assemble the apparatus with the rings; thermometer and ball guides in position

(iii)Fill the bath with distilled water to a height of 50mm above the upper surface of the rings.
The starting temperature should be 5° C.

Note: Use glycerine in place of water if the softening point is expected to be above 80° C; the
starting temperature may be kept 35° C.

(iv) Apply heat to the bath and stir the liquid so that the temperature rises at a uniform rate of 5
± 0.5 °C per minute.

(v)As the temperature increases the bituminous material softens and the balls sink through the
rings carrying a portion of the material with it.

(vi)Note the temperature when any of the steel balls with bituminous coating touches the
bottom plate.

(vii) Record the temperature when the second ball touches the bottom plate.

The average of the two readings to the nearest 0.5°C is reported as softening point.

• PRECAUTIONS:-

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 40


(i) Distilled water should be used as the heating medium.

(ii) During the conduct of test the apparatus should not be subjected to vibrations. (iii)The bulb

Temperature when the ball touches bottom, 1 2


°C 46.4 °C 45.8 °C
of the thermometer should be at about the same level as the rings.

• OBSERVATIONS:-

• RESULT:-

Softening point of bitumen / tar = 46.4+45.8 /2 =46.1 °C.

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5. COMPARISON BETWEEN FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENT

PROPERTIES FLEXIBLE REGID


DESIGN PRINCIPLE Empirical method based on Designed and analysed by
load distribution using the elastic theory
characteristics of the
complements
MATERIAL Granular material Made of cement concrete
either plan, reinforced or
prestressed concrete
FLEXURALSTRENGTH Low of negligible flexible Associated with rigidity or
strength flexural strength or slab
action so the load is
distributed over a wide area
of sub- grade soil
NORMALLOADING Elastic deformation Acts as beam or cantilever
EXCESSIVELOADING Local depression Causes cracks
STRESS Transmits vertical and tensile stress and
compressive stresses to the temperature increases
lower layer
DESIGN PRACTICE Constructed in number of Laid in slabs with steel
layers reinforcement
THE TEMPERATURE No stress is produced Stress is produced
FORCE OFFRICTION Less deformation in the sub- Friction force is high
grade is not transferred to
the upper layers
OPENING TOTRAFFIC Road can be used for traffic Load cannot be used until 14
within 24 hour day of curing
SURFACING Rolling of surfacing is Rolling of surfacing is not
needed needed
Difference between flexible and rigid pavement

6. ROLE OF STABILISATION

Pavement materials include a combination of coarse and fine aggregate with a proportion of a
smaller clay/silt -sized particles. The objective is to ensure a final grading matrix that will allow
maximum compaction of the product with the least void present. This is to achieve a solid layer
that is in part impervious to water infiltration. Pavement materials can be used in different
layers of the pavement and requirement of such a layers will be determined by applied load and
payment compaction selected by designer.

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 42


For the pavement containing mechan1ically stabilised materials and/or modified materials, the
limiting design criteria is the vertical strain at the top of the subgrade. For a stabilised and
higher binder content materials, the vertical strain at the top of subgrade is not only design
criteria as the fatigue life of cemented material must also be considered. The fatigue life of
cemented material is usually the governing criterion.

High-performance quarried materials will likely be obtained from the nearest possible source in
order to minimise transport costs. Often, however, imported material may not be sufficiently
strong payment design requirements. in such cases, the solution is found in the design of either
stronger payment layers or a reduction in the stresses requirement for the layer.one of the most
cost effective ways to make the pavement stronger is to modify or a stabilised the pavement
material.as an alternative, it is possible to reduce the stress requirement by the stiffening for
foundation. Again, this can be done by either modifying are stabilising the foundation

• LIME STABILISATION

Lime stabilisation or modification is used in the road construction to improve the quality of
existing material within the construction project. Lime is an effective addictive for plastic soil,
improving both workability and a strength. Lime stabilisation can be used to:
 modify marginal material to bring it within specification or for performance
requirement
 increases strength as an alternative to cementetious stabilisation
 enhance volumetric stability for various layers of select material
 improve surface stability of unsealed road

• CEMENTITIOUS STABILISATION

When stabilising the cement, the working time of the resultant material can be critical. The time
available to deliver, incorporate and compact a pavement layer needs to be understood before
project commencement. With cement as the only binder, the time for performing placement and
compaction process is limited to approximately two-hour from the incorporate of the cement
into the moistened payment materials. No rework time is normal provided for. This can be
create a demanding schedule with little opportunity for error management on the site.
Cement as the only binder is not often used due to working time restrictions. In
addition, higher shrinkage rates can result in an increased cracking tendency. Addition of FA to
the binder extends the working life of the stabilised material, allows more time placement in
compaction of the material and mitigates risks typically associated with a single cement binder.

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 43


7. DESIGN AND COSTANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLEAND RIGID PAVEMENT

The structural capacity of flexible payment is attended by combined action of the different
layer of the payment. The load is directly applied on the wearing course and it gets dispread
with the depth in base, sub base and subgrade layers and then ultimately to the ground. Since
stress induced by traffic load is highest at the top, the quality of top and upper layer of material
is better. The subgrade layer is responsible for transferring the load from above layers to the

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 44


ground. Flexible payments are design in such a way that the load transmitted to the subgrade
does not exceed its bearing capacity. Consequently, the thickness of the layer would vary with
CBR of soil and it would affect the cost of pavement.

The thickness design of flexible payment also varies with the amount of traffic. The range of
variation in volume at a different highways has direct effect on the repetitions of traffic loads.
The damaging effect of different axle loads is also different. The Indian Road Congress method
of flexible pavement design uses the concept of ESAL for the purpose of flexible pavement
design and the same has been used in this study also.

 DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT BY GROUP INDEX METHOD

in order to classify the fine grained soil within one group and for judging their suitability as
subgrade material, and indexing system has been introduced in HRB classification which is
term it as group index. Group index is the function of percentage materials passing through 200
Mesh sieve (0.074 mm), liquid limit and plasticity index of soil and is given by equation:
(0.074 mm). Liquid limit and plasticity index of soil is given by equation:

G.I = 0.2a + 0.005ac + 0.01bd


Here, a = that portion of material passing through0.074 mm sieve, greater than 35 and not
exceeding 75%.
b = that portion of material passing through 0.074 mm sieve, greater than 15 and not
exceeding 35%.

c = that value of liquid limit in excess of 40 and less than 60


d = that value of plasticity index exceeding 10 and not more than 30
Or, GI = (F-35)0.2 + 0.05(WL-40) + 0.01(F-15) (IP-10) DATA:

F = 66%
WL = 55%
IP = 31%
GI = (F-35)0.2 + 0.05(WL-40) + 0.01(F-15) (IP-10) = 17.35
So pavement thickness = 700mm
Thickness of surface course = 35mm
Thickness of DBM = 145mm
Thickness of base course = 200mm
Thickness of sub base = 320mm

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 45


 CALIFORNIA RESISTANCE VALUE METHOD

F.M Hakeem and R.M.carmany in 1948 provided design method based on stabilometer R-value
and Cohesimeter computer value. Based on performance data it was estabilised by Hveem and
Car many that payments thickness varies directly with R value and logarithm of load
repetitions. It varies inversely with fifth root of computer value. The expression for pavement
thickness is given by the empirical equation.

T = K (TI) (90-R)/C1/5
Here K = total thickness of pavement in centimetre.
TI = numerical constant = 0.166.
R = stabilometer resistance value.
C = Cohesiometer value

The annual value of the equivalent wheel load (EWL) here is the accumulated some of the
products of constant and the number of axle loads. The various constant for the different
number of the axles in group are given below:-

Number of axles EWL constant (yearly basis)


2 330
3 1070
4 2460
5 4620
6 3040

DATA

K = 0.166, TI = 9.66, R = 44, C = 61


Pavement thickness is given by the empirical equation:-
T = K (TI) (90-R)/C1/5

CALCULATION

TI = 1.35(EWL) 0.11

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 46


TI = 1.35(32729750)0.11
TI = 9.66
T = K (TI) (90-RC)/C1/5
T = 0.166(9.66) (90-44)611/5
T = 730 mm
So pavement thickness = 730 mm
Thickness of surface course = 35 mm
Thickness of DBM = 145 mm
Thickness of base course = 210 mm
Thickness of sub base = 340 mm

 DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT BY CBR DATA

 Length of road = 3.45 km


 Traffic intensity as worked out = 1001 cv/d average
 Growth rate of traffic (assumed) = 7.5 %
 Total period of construction = 4 months
 Design C.B.R of sub grade soil = 5.00 %
 Design period of the road = 10 years
 Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction
 A = P×(1+r)×r
 A = traffic in the year of completion of construction
 P = traffic at last count April 2013
 r = annual growth rate of traffic
 x = number of years between the last census and the year of completion of
construction
 A =1001x(1 + 0.075)x 11076 CV/day
 Vehicle damage factor = 3.5 ; standard axle per CV (as per Clause 3.3.4.4 table 1 of
IRC -37-2001) design calculation
 Initial traffic in design lane = initial traffic x distribution factor = 1076 x 0.75 = 807.05
CVPDN = [365 x {(1+r)x-1}xAxF]/r = 365x[{(807(1+0.075)^101 }x3.5]/0.075 =
14.58 msa or say 15.00 msa
 Total pavement thickness for design C.B.R = 660 MM

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 47


 (As per plate – 2 of IRC -37-2001)
 the thickness of the individual component layer of flexible pavement by CBR method
is given below: so pavement thickness = 660 mm
 thickness of the surface course = 40 mm thickness of DBM = 70 mm thickness of
base course = 250 mm thickness of sub base = 300 mm

CONCLUSION

From this report on payment it is observed that flexible payment are the most economical for
lesser of volume of traffic. The life of flexible payment is near about 15 years whose initial cost
is low needs a periodic maintenance after a certain period and maintenance costs are high. The

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 48


life of rigid payment is much more than flexible pavement of about 40 years approx. 2.5 times
life of flexible payment whose initial cost is much more than flexible payment but maintenance
cost is very less.

The pavement is designed as flexible pavement upon a black cotton soil subgrade, the CBR
method as per IRC 37-2001 is most appropriate method than other methods.

The pavement is designed as a flexible method from which each method is design on the basis
of their design thickness from which each method has different cost analysis of a section, from
which CBR as per IRC is most appropriate in term of cost analysis.

The pavement is designed as a rigid pavement, the method suggested by IRC is more suitable.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DESIGN OF ROAD PAVEMENT Page | 49


 AASHTO 1993, “AASHTO guide for design of pavement structure” American
Association of State Highway and transportation officials passing Washington, D.C.
 IRC: 37-2001 “code of guideline for design of flexible pavement”, Indian Road
Congress, New Delhi 2001.
 IRC: 58-2002 “code of guideline for design of plain jointed rigid payment for
Highway”, Indian Road Congress, New Delhi 2002.
 Khanna, S.K. justo, C.E.G, (1993)
 “highway engineering” new Chand and bros, seventh edition, New Delhi
 Prasad, bageshwar (2007) “life-cycle cost analysis of cement concrete road VS
bituminous road” Indian Highway, Vol.35, No.9.

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