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Power System monitoring

Kuliah 3: Kualitas sistem daya


 New York City & Westchester
 3.3 million electric customers
 System peak load 13141 MW

Distribution System 27,13, 4 kV


 62 Distribution Substations
 83 Secondary Networks, and
27, 4 kV
Non-network load pockets
 2,247 Distribution Feeders
 87% System is underground 33,13, 4 kV

13 kV

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


2
Overview of Con Edison
Power Delivery System

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


3
PQ Monitoring for Smart Distribution
at Con Edison
•Area Substations •High Tension Remote
Transformers Monitoring
– Power quality monitors – Power and power quality
•Secondary Networks monitoring
– Power quality monitors •Customer Smart Meters
– Network Transformer RMS – Energy and power quality
Network Distribution Feeders •Distribution and Transmission
– Microprocessor relays SCADA
– Automatic momentary
•Area Substations Capacitors interruption analysis and
– Microprocessor relays correction with IEDs
•Unit Substation Transformers
– Power Quality Monitoring and
Phasor Measurement Sensors
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Con Edison Monitoring System

Area Substation Transformers


•Supply the Con Edison distribution network feeders.
•Each substation has at least one power quality monitor at the
output of one transformer.
•Many area substations have more than one transformer
monitored to allow for redundancy in the automatic fault
location system and other analysis tools.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


5
Con Edison Monitoring System

Network Distribution Feeders


•The network feeders supply underground network customers in
which each feeder supplies transformers that in turn supply a
low voltage distributed secondary network.
•The network feeders are protected using overcurrent relays.
Today, about 800 microprocessor relays on feeder and bus
breakers are monitored.
– feeder energizing
– breaker trip events due
to faults
– short-duration overcurrent
events due to incipient
faults.
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Con Edison Monitoring System

Area Substation Capacitors


• Con Edison has developed an automatic capacitor health analysis system
– Automatic correlation with SCADA operations
– Abnormal switching transients (e.g., restrike or magnification)
– Unbalanced reactive power changes
• Con Edison intends to increase
the number of distribution
capacitors monitored
with power quality monitors
and with microprocessor relays
over the next three years.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


7
Con Edison Monitoring System

Unit Substation Transformers


•The unit substation transformers supply Con Edison’s overhead
distribution feeders system.
•There are few power quality monitoring at unit substations
today, but monitoring is expanding over the next year.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


8
Con Edison Monitoring System

High Tension Remote Monitoring


•Con Edison has several hundred customers that are supplied via
primary feeders via a “high tension service.”
•Over the next three years, many of these sites will be equipped
with remote monitoring capabilities and electronic meters to
capture power and power quality measurements.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


9
Con Edison Monitoring System

Customer Smart Meters


•As part of a US$200 million project funded by federal stimulus
grants, Con Edison is establishing an infrastructure to collect
measurements from a smart grid pilot project in Queens.
•Installation of 1500 smart meters that aim to permit customers
to monitor and potentially improve their energy use.
•These meters will record
power quality measurements
that need to be integrated
with other sensor data being
collected from area, network,
and unit substations.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


10
Con Edison Monitoring System

SCADA RTU Sensors


•PQView Event Correlation
•Automatic Momentary Interruption Analysis (MAIFI)
•Voltage Schedule
•Tap Setting Analysis

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


11
Con Edison Monitoring System

Distribution Capacitors
•Also as part of the federal stimulus grant project, Con Edison will
be initiating the installation of SCADA ready switchable
capacitors on the 4kV distribution system that will be integrated
with PQ monitors and microprocessor relays at unit substations

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


12
Con Edison Monitoring System

Transmission Substations
•Con Edison monitors transmission feeders using digital fault
recorder (DFR) systems in seventeen substations today.
•Each DFR is configured to record waveform and rms samples for
up to 48 voltage and/or current analog signals.
•At present, PQView is used to send e-mail alerts from the DFR
systems and provides correlation with SCADA on transmission
feeders.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


13
Overview of Data Integration
with PQView at Con Edison Today

Web Service, IEEE PQDIF,


Download and Proprietary Files
Server for PQ
Monitors and
Phase Angle
Sensors

PQView
Download Server
for Relays IEEE COMTRADE Files

SCADA
Servers SCADA Historian API
PQView
Database

Download Server
for DFRs IEEE COMTRADE Files

Proprietary Files from Portable PQ Monitors


© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
14
PQView Projects at Con Edison

Automatic Bus Fault Analysis


• Reactance estimates and fault duration calculated from waveforms captured
by power quality monitors and microprocessor relays at area substations.
• PQView also integrates relay digital status values that indicate which
disturbance detection algorithms were triggered by an event in addition to
which channel(s) triggered the operation of a circuit breaker.
• The e-mail notification and web reports produced by PQView assist operators
in determining the source and location of the fault that caused the area
substation bus to trip out; thus ensuring more rapid restoration of the area
substation bus section when the root cause is a feeder fault and overcurrent
trip of the bus.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


15
PQView Projects at Con Edison

Historical Fault Analysis


•Integration with Poly Voltage Load Flow
– Distribution circuit model
– Estimate of voltage at fault location based on substation
measurements
•Integration with CAJAC
– database of laboratory describing the failure of each cable
and joint
– automate root cause association
•Follow-On Fault Analysis Module
– Cascading feeder failures

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


16
PQView Projects at Con Edison

Steady State Regulation


•Voltage Schedule
•Transformer Tap Settings Balance in Phases and Transformers
421LODV,421LODW
421LODV 421LODW

13.8

13.7

13.6
KV

13.5

13.4

13.3

160

140
MW

120

100

80
3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 3PM 6PM 9PM 2 Wed
1 Tue Sep 2009 Time
Electrotek Concepts® PiSlicer
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
17
PQView Projects at Con Edison

Arcing and Partial Discharge Detection


•Con Edison plans to employ PQView with smart meter sensors to
mitigate the dangers associated with arcing events in
underground vaults of the secondary network.
•Con Edison also plans to integrate devices in PQView that
provide partial discharge measurements.
– Partial discharge is localized dielectric breakdown of cable
that is detectable before a cable failure that results in a fault.
– Detection of which cable sections are demonstrating
measurable partial discharge is a goal to proactively replace
cables before they fail and increase the risk to a network’s
reliability

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


18
Example Single-Phase Fault

I0 = 2kA
Total Current
I0 = 4x2 kA = 8kA
I0 = 2kA

I0 = 8kA
IA
I0 = 2kA

I0 = 2kA

VA
Voltage Drop

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


19
Fault Locating Process

PQ Meter PQView
Feeder Trips Match Reactance
Captures Calculates
due to Fault To Feeder Model
Waveforms Reactance

Single-Phase Fault Evolves


Single-Phase Fault Evolves into Two-Phase
into Two-Phase
Va Vb Vc Va Ia Vb Ib Vc Ic Ia Ib Ic XTF
20 17.5
Voltage (kV)
Voltage (kV)

15.0
0 12.5 Visual
10.0 Fault
-20 3 Locator
Current (kA)

5 2
Current (kA)

1
Reactance (ohms)

0 10.0
7.5

-5
5.0
1B 2AB
Dispatch
2.195 2.216
0.00 0.05
2.5
0.10 0.15 Crews
Time (s) 0.05 0.10 0.15
EPRI/Electrotek Time (s)
PQView®

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


20
Relay RTF Website

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


21
Email Fault Notification

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


22
Feeder Fault with GE Relay Targets

Murray Hill 12M77 - 9/10/2008 08:07:15.6374


Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic Ires
15000
10000
Voltage (V)

5000
0
-5000

Digital Channel
-10000
Osc Trig On
PHASE IOC1 OP C
-15000
PHASE TOC1 PKP C
GROUND TOC1 PKP 20000
Trip On

10000
Current (A)

-10000
PHASE IOC1 OP C On PHASE IOC1 OP C Off
-20000
0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70
Time (s)
EPRI/Electrotek PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
23
Fault Location Performance

Distance between Estimated Fault Location and Actual Fault Location


Reactance-to-Fault Method, All Monitored Faults in 2009

12% >10 Manholes

6% 5 to 10 Manholes

7% 3 to 5 Manholes

Within 1 Section Length 57%

18% 1 to 3 Manholes

Con Edison® PQView®


© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
24
Transformer Magnetizing Inrush

•Con Edison uses the term “Cut-In Open-Auto” or CIOA to


describe a feeder that trips immediately upon reenergization.
•A CIOA could be caused by the same or a new fault or by inrush
current.
•If there is no fault, the feeder can be reenergized quickly,
reducing stress and risk to a network.
•In 2007, Con Edison asked EPRI to enhance the functionality in
PQView to detect inrush current and differentiate it from fault
current.

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


25
Fault Current versus Inrush Current
Real Fault

E36THST - 12/16/2006 22:42:25.0650


Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic In Ires

10000

5000
Voltage (V)
Event

-5000

-10000

4000
Inrush

2000
Current (A)

-2000

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
Time (s)
EPRI/Electrotek PQView®

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


26
Incipient Fault Location Functionality

•Incipient Fault Location Functionality

Va Vb Vc Ia
20000

10000
Reactance-to-Fault: 2.6 ohms
Voltage (V)

-10000

Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic
-20000 20000
500
0
10000
Voltage (V)
-500
Current (A)

-1000 0

-1500
-10000
-2000

-2500 -20000
3000
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Time (c) 2000
Current (A)

1000
0
-1000
-2000

-3000

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (c)

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


27
Digital Fault Recorders

•Minimum and maximum rms values of voltage and current,


along with overcurrent duration in cycles, are available for all
channels in an email notification
•The email notification is set to trigger if current on any channel
exceeds 1500 A
•Correlation with breaker tags in OSIsoft® PI System® Historian is
completed not via digital status changes but rather via changes
in analog values

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


28
W72 Line Trip - Email Notification

Station / Timestamp

All Channels
Min/Max RMS Values

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


29
W72 Line Trip - Email Notification

W72 Trip Out

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


30
W72 Line Trip – Max RMS Values

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


31
PI History at Con Edison

•SOCCS/SOCCS-X SCADA System


– Designed by Boeing Company had a very limited data
archiving capabilities. The disk space on its system can only
store data for eight days.
•PI was integrated with the SCADA system at Con Edison in 1997.
•PI offered a solution for providing real-time RTU values and
long-term storage of both analog and digital status values

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


32
Energy Management System

5s 5s

60s 1h

33 Empowering Business in Real Time. 33 © Copyright 2009,


© 2010OSIsoft
ElectrotekInc. All Inc.
Concepts, rights Reserved.
All rights reserved.
PI Data Integration

PI Tag
Bkr Trip
Linking PQView and PI Together

PiSlicer PQView PQ
PI Server PI SDK
Library Data Manager

PiSlicer

Con Edison PQView


Electric Operations Database
PI System

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


37
Example Correlation

Single-Phase Distribution Fault Event


BENSH1 - 3/12/2009 08:25:55.5630
Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic

20000

10000
Voltage (V) 0

-10000
Operation
Point Name BNBX21W.DX -20000
Time Stamp 3/12/2009 08:25:56.0126
Value B_HURST1 BKR 21W (10B66)
Description CLOSE-TRIP
2000
Current (A)

-2000

0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (c)
Electrotek/EPRI Event ID = 510113 PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
38
Example Correlation

Distribution Substation Capacitor Switching Event


GREENWD - 2/13/2009 06:09:39.0000
Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic

20000

10000

Voltage (V) 0

-10000
Operation
Point Name GRBXC2.DX -20000
Time Stamp 2/13/2009 06:09:41.0040
Value G_WOOD27 BKR C2 (CAP_2) 2000
Description TRIP-CLOSE

1000
Current (A)

-1000

0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (c)
Electrotek/EPRI Event ID = 431196 PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
39
Example Correlation

Distribution Feeder Inrush


PLYMST - 12/12/2008 02:03:39.2500
Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic

20000

10000
Voltage (V)
0

-10000
Operation
Point Name PYBX31N.DX -20000
Time Stamp 12/12/2008 02:03:39.0000
Value PLYMOUTH BKR 31N (1B61)
Description TRIP-CLOSE 2000

1000
Current (A)

-1000

-2000

0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (c)
Electrotek/EPRI Event ID = 376712 PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
40
Example Correlation

Multiple Breaker Trips due to Substation Fault


PKCHEST1 - 3/2/2009 02:18:28.1250
Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic
Operations 15000
Point Name PKBX32E.DX
Time Stamp 3/2/2009 02:18:31.0241 10000
Value PARK_CH1 BKR 32E 7X78

Voltage (V)
Description CLOSE-TRIP 5000

Point Name PKBX33E.DX 0


Time Stamp 3/2/2009 02:18:31.0241
Value PARK_CH1 BKR 33E 7X81 -5000
Description CLOSE-TRIP
-10000
Point Name PKBX3BT.DX
Time Stamp 3/2/2009 02:18:31.0241 -15000
Value PARK_CH1 BKR 3BT
Description CLOSE-TRIP 10000

Point Name PKBX3TR.DX


5000
Current (A)

Time Stamp 3/2/2009 02:18:31.0242


Value PARK_CH1 BKR 3TR 38X03
Description CLOSE-TRIP 0
Point Name PKBX7TR.DX
Time Stamp 3/2/2009 02:18:31.0242 -5000
Value PARK_CH1 BKR 7TR 7X24
Description CLOSE-TRIP
-10000

0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (c)
Electrotek/EPRI Event ID = 460896 PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
41
Follow-On Fault Analysis Module

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


42
I²T Calculation and Notification

Ia Ib Ic

1
Cu rrent (kA)

Ia Ib Ic
1.1
-1

1.0
-2
0.9

-3
0.8

-4 0.7
Cu rrent (kA²·t)

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14


0.6 0.16 0.18
Time (s)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
Time (s)
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
43
Automatic Distribution
Capacitor Analysis
•Capacitor Switching Transient Identification
•Capacitor Bank Direction Indication
•Capacitor Bank Health Analysis
•Abnormal Capacitor Bank Switching Operation

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


44
Electrotek/Dranetz Capacitor Switching
Answer Module®
•Development begun in 1998 as an optional component of the
Electrotek/Dranetz-BMI Signature System.
•Provides answers to these questions:
– Do the voltage and current waveforms captured by the
power systems monitor appear to be a capacitor switching
transient?
• Does the capacitor event appear to be normal?
• Does the capacitor event appear to be magnified?
• Was the reactive power change on all three phases
balanced?
• What was the reactive power change on each phase?

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


45
Capacitor Switching Answer Module
Ported to PQView Module

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


46
Example of Answer Module Output

GREENWD - 2/26/2009 10:39:51.5630


Va Vb Vc Ia Ib Ic Ires

Event ID 33 20000
GPS Synch No

Voltage (V)
Event Base Voltage 15242 10000
Event Fund Frequency 60
Reference Cycle Number 31650
System Event ID 0
Valid Yes
M.E. RMS Variation No
M.E. Interruption No
-10000
Monitor Availability No
Load Interruption No -20000
B1 No
B2 No
B3 No 2000
Capacitor Directivity Direction Downline
Capacitor Directivity Confidence High
Current (A)

Capacitor General General 1000


Capacitor Magnification No Magnification
Capacitor Normal Normal
Capacitor Q Balance Balanced 0
Capacitor Q Delta A -2224263
Capacitor Q Delta B -2205492
Capacitor Q Delta C -2239395 -1000
Capacitor Q Delta Total -6669149

-2000
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
Time (s)
Electrotek/EPRI PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
47
Example of Answer Module Output

GREENWD - 2/26/2009 10:39:51.5630


Reactive Power
?Qa=-2.216 Mvar ?Qb=-2.160 Mvar ?Qc=-2.235 Mvar

Qa Qb Qc

5.5

5.0
Reactive Power (Mvar)

4.5

4.0

3.5

-2.235
3.0
-2.160
-2.216

2.5

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
Time (s)
Electrotek/EPRI PQView®
© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.
48
Capacitor Identification: Next Steps

•Link SCADA Correlation Module and Automatic Capacitor


Analysis Together
•Abnormal Capacitor Bank Switching Operation
– Restrike, and Magnification
•Synchronous Closing Performance
•Harmonic Resonance Identification and Trending

© 2010 Electrotek Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved.


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