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Rotary Pump

Rotary Pumps
• Rotary pumps operate in a circular motion and
displace a constant amount of liquid with each
revolution of the pump shaft.
• Rotary pumps are useful for pumping oil and
other liquids of high viscosity. In the engine
room, rotary pumps are used for handling
lube oil and fuel oil and are suitable for
handling liquids over a wide range of
viscosities.
Rotary Pumps
• Rotary pumps are designed to operate at
relatively low speeds to maintain these
clearances.
• The operation at higher speeds causes erosion
and excessive wear which result in increased
clearances with a subsequent decrease in
pumping capacity.
Major parts of Rotary Pumps
The major parts of rotary
pumps are the ff.:
• Suction Inlet
• Pumping Element/Drive
shaft*
• Discharge Oulet

*The pumping elemets in each


types are different
Classification of Rotary Pumps
Rotary Pumps: II. Multi rotor-type Pumps
I. Single rotor-type • Gear-type Pump
Pumps  External Gear
• Vane-type Pump  Internal Gear
 Sliding Vane • Screw-type Pump
 Flexible Vane  Two Screw Pump
 External Vane  Three Screw Pump
 Swinging Vane • Lobe -type Pump
 Rolling Vane • Cam-type Pump
Vane-type Pump
• Is a positive-displacement pump that consists
of vanes mounted to a rotor that rotates
inside a cavity.
Vane-type Pump
• Vane pumps can handle moderate viscosity
liquids, they excel at handling low viscosity
liquids .
• Vane pumps have no internal metal-to-metal
contact and self-compensate for wear,
enabling them to maintain peak performance
on these non-lubricating liquids. Though
efficiency drops quickly.
Vane-type Pump
• Vane pumps are available in a number of vane
configurations including sliding vane, flexible
vane, swinging vane, rolling vane, and external
vane.
• Vane pumps are noted for their dry priming, ease
of maintenance, and good suction characteristics
over the life of the pump.
• Moreover, vanes can usually handle fluid
temperatures from -32˚C / -25 ˚ F to 260 ˚ C / 500
˚ F and differential pressures to 15 Bar / 200 Psi.
Vane-type Pump
Types of Vane Pumps:
• Sliding Vane - can run
dry for short periods of
time and handle small
amounts of vapor.

• Flexible Vane- can only


handle small solids but
create good vacuum
Vane-type Pump
• External Vane – good for handling large solids.

• Swinging Vane -

• Rolling Vane -
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
• Handles thin liquids at • Complex housing and many
relatively higher pressures parts
• Compensates for wear • Not suitable for high
through vane extension viscosity
• Sometimes preferred for • Not good with abrasives
solvents, LPG
• Can run dry for short periods
• Develops good vacuum
Vane-type Pump
Applications
• Aerosol and Propellants
• Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing
• Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants
• Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3
• LPG Cylinder Filling
• Alcohols
• Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia
• Solvents
• Aqueous solutions
Gear-type Pump
• Gear pumps are positive displacement rotary
pumps that transport liquids using rotating gears.
• They function through the use of two or more
internal gears that create vacuum pressure,
propelling the fluid media.
• Gear pumps are compact, high pressure pumps
which provide a steady and pulseless fluid flow.
• They are best suited for high viscosity pumping
applications such as oils, plastics, paint,
adhesives, or soaps.
Gear Pump Types
External Gear Pump - usually have two gears
with an equal number of teeth on the outside of
each gear.
Gear Pump Types
• Internal Gear Pump -
have one larger gear
with the teeth turned
inward, meshing with
a smaller gear with
external teeth.
Comparison
External Gear Pump Internal Gear Pump
• A pair of external gears forms the • An internal gear & a external gear form
rotor assembly. the rotor assembly.
• There are four bearings supporting • Rotor is supported on one or (at the
the rotor shafts. most) two bearings.

• Pump design is compact • Pump design is bulky & even inefficient


for higher-spec models.

• Larger outlet sizes and high capacities. • Small outlet sizes and medium/low
capacities.
• Possible gear designs include spur, • All gears are spur design, further a
helical or herringbone. wedge is required to separate the two
gears.
• Medium/low temperature and high
• High temperature, moderate pressure,
pressure pumping.
low capacity pumping.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
• Easy to operate and maintain - some • Can wear noticeably over time,
can operate in two directions reducing output efficiency

• Ideal for pumping high viscosity fluids • Cannot run dry

• Cannot properly handle suspended


• Compact and simple construction
solids or abrasives

• Steady, controlled, pulseless flow • High shear placed on fluid

• Self-priming
Screw-type Pump
• A screw pump is a type of rotary pumps
consist of two or three screws motor so
arranged that as the rotors turn liquid fills the
shape between screw threads and is displaced
axially as the rotor threads mesh.
Screw Pump Types
• Two/Double screw pump (twin screw pump)
- Is the most common type for high power
applications such as heavy oil pipeline
transfer.
- One of the screws is driven from the power
source (motor, engine, etc.), and timing gears
are usually incorporated to rotate the second
screw.
Screw Pump Types
• Two Screw Pump
Screw Pump Types
• Three screw pump (triple screw pump)
- Is typically used for small applications, such as
lubrication systems.
- One of the screws is driven from the power
source, which then rotates the other two
screws around it, without the use of timing
gears.
Screw Pump Types
• Three screw pump
Screw-type Pump
Applications:
• chemical-processing
• liquid delivery
• Marine
• biotechnology
• Pharmaceutical
• food, dairy, and beverage processing.
• fuel-injection
• oil burners
• lubrication
Screw-type Pump
Advantages:
• Slow Speed
• Can run without water
• Simple and Rugged design
• Screw pumps allow a wide
• Pumps raw water with heavy range of flows and pressures
solids and floating debris
• They can also accommodate a
• 'Gentle handling' of biological wide range of liquids and
flock viscosities
• Long lifetime ( > 20-40 years) • Screw pumps have high speed
• Pump capacity is self-regulating capability and this allows the
with incoming level freedom of driver selection
• Easy maintenance (no 'high • All the screw pumps are Self-
skilled' staff required) priming which allows them to
• Constant high efficiency with have good suction
variable capacity characteristics
Screw-type Pump
Disadvantage:
• Cost of manufacturing is high because of close
tolerances and running clearances
• Any changes in the viscosity of the fluid results
in high fluctuations in the performance.
• A screw pump with high pressure capability
will require high pumping elements which
increases the overall size of the pump.
Cam-type Pump
• The main part of the pump is a cam which is mounted
on a rotating shaft that rotates in a cylindrical casing.
• The cam is designed in such a way that it always
maintains contact with the walls of the casing as it
rotates. A spring loaded blade acts as the cam follower
and moves in an accurately machined slot in the casing.
Blade separates suction and delivery sides of the
pump. Inlet and outlet ports are placed on either sides
of this blade.
• The discharge from the pump is continuous. It also
eliminates the crank and connecting rod mechanisms
and delivers a smooth operation.
Cam-type Pump
a) The water is sucked in during the counter clockwise rotation of the cam.
b) The apex of the cam is at top, displacing the follower blade to maximum. At
current position, the whole cavity is filled completely by water. Now suction
process is complete.
c) further advancement of the cam pushes the water out via the outlet port, which
is connected to the delivery pipe.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
• The pump operates smoothly • The discharge was found to be
• It has less noise and vibration decreasing with increase of head
due to the increase of leakage
• The delivery is at a constant rate around the cam with increase in
• The suction and discharge pressure.
happens simultaneously. • The tolerances are not close
• The absence of unidirectional enough to seal the leakages.
valves and other linkages like • There is excessive leakage through
crank and connecting rods reduce the rectangular groove provided
the complexity and floor space for the movement of the follower
required blade, at high pressures.
• The volumetric efficiency was also
found to be decreasing with
increase of head.
Lobe -type Pump
• Lobe pumps are similar to
external gear pump in
operation in that fluid
flows around the interior
of the casing.
• However, the lobes do
not contact. Lobe contact
is prevented by external
timing gear located in the
gearbox
Lobe -type Pump
Application:
• Polymers
• Paper coatings
• Soaps and surfactants
• Paints and dyes
• Rubber and adhesives
• Pharmaceuticals
• Food applications
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
• Pass medium solids • Requires timing gears
• No metal-to-metal • Requires two seals
contact • Reduce with lift thin
• Long term dry run liquids
• Non-pulsating discharge
Pump Impeller Types
Impeller
• Are rotating devices designed to
alter the flow and/or pressure of
liquids, gases, and vapors.
• Impellers consist of various
vanes — often blade-shaped —
arranged around a short central
shaft.
• Impellers are typically found
in pumps, agitation tanks, washing
machines, and other devices
requiring fluids or gases to move in
a specific direction.
How an Impeller Pump Works
• Fluid enters through the orifice on the right and is moved through the pump using
a combination of suction and pressure until the fluid is moved through the output
orifice on the left. Note that this particular impeller is designed to rotate clockwise
this rotation coupled with the design of the vanes causes the pump impeller to
move fluid in a roughly clockwise direction.
Impellers vs. Propellers
• Impellers appear very similar (or even identical) to
propellers, and the two are often used interchangeably
in the fluid power industry. Indeed, the two base terms
involved propel and impel are both defined as "driving
or moving forward."
• Propellers commonly refer to devices which move an
attached object. For example, a ship's propeller moves
the ship itself forward or backward. Impellers, on the
other hand, are designed to move the substance fluid
or gas passing through it without moving the object it
is attached to.
Applications
• Impellers in Pumps
Impellers are integral components in
centrifugal pumps and vacuum pumps, among
other pumping devices.
Pump impellers rely on Bernoulli's
principle which states that “an increase in
fluid velocity is accompanied by a decrease in
pressure or potential energy” (and vice
versa) to operate.
Applications
• Impellers for Mixing -
Impellers are
frequently used in
agitation tanks as a
means to mix fluids
and slurries. Mixing
impellers typically
employ an open
design and are fitted
to a central shaft
which is placed in the
center of the tank.
Flow Characteristics
• Axial flow impellers move media parallel to the impeller.
• Radial flow impellers move media at right angles to the
impeller itself.
• Mixed flow impellers have characteristics of both axial
and radial flow. They may move media at an angle which
is different from right angle radial flow.
Impeller Design
• Open Design
• Semi-Open Design
• Closed Design
Open Impeller Design
• As the name suggests, has vanes
open on both sides. Because vanes
do not have support on either
side, they tend to be weaker.
Though they can handle
suspended solids, these pumps are
smaller and less powerful in order
to reduce the frequency of braking
vanes. Additionally, due to the
open design, the liquid flowing
into the pump interacts with the
liquid already in the casing,
causing this type of centrifugal
pump to be the least efficient.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
• Easy maintenance – efficiency • Impeller-to-casing clearance –
can be maintained through tolerances must be manually
frequent vane adjustment. Open adjusted to compensate for heat.
design allows for ease of cleaning This adjustment must be done at
and clearing of clogs. Pump need operating temperature
not be disassembled for
adjustment or maintenance.
• Less expensive to manufacture
and inspect due to open design.
• Vane alteration (cutting and filing
to increase capacity) is possible
and economical.
Closed Impeller Design
• Have vanes that
are “sandwiched” between
two solid, circular plates. The
liquid travels through the
channels between the
impellers and between the
plates. This design creates the
most efficient flow from the
eye to the discharge port.
While this is the most
common type of impeller,
centrifugal pumps with this
design are intended for clear
liquids.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
• Increased efficiency • Maintenance and
• Suitable for volatile fluids inspection is impossible to
perform without
and explosion-prone disassembly
environments
• Prone to clogging
• Compensates for thermal • Periodic wear ring
growth maintenance is necessary to
maintain efficiency
• More expensive to
manufacture
Semi-Open Design
• Have vanes that are attached
to a single plate, leaving the
other side of the impeller
exposed to the interior of the
pump housing. This design is
less efficient than the closed
impeller because the liquid is
immediately interacting with
the rest of the liquid in the
pump casing. However, this
design is also more forgiving
of suspended particles in the
liquid and can handle more
viscous fluids.