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Lesson 4.7. Inverse Trigonometric Functions.

Previously you have learned


 To find an inverse of a function, let every x
be y and every y be x, then solve the
equation for y.

 Inverse function notation f¯¹(x)


 For a function to have an inverse it has to
be one-to-one. One x for one y value, and
one y for one x value. It will pass the vertical
and the horizontal line test.

 Two inverse functions on the graph reflect


over y=x
Sometimes you just don’t have a nice or convenient
algebraic process that will give you an inverse function.
Many functions need a special, new rule for their
inverse. Some examples of these functions are:
FINDING INVERSE OF A TRIG FUNCTION :
Given f(x) = sin (x)
y = sin (x) change f(x) for y
x = sin (y) switch x’s and y’s
y = arcsin (x) solve for y
f¯¹(x) = arcsin (x) write using function notation
f¯¹(x) = sin¯¹(x)
Inverse Trigonometric function notation:
Inverse sine arcsin x or sin -1 x
Inverse cosine arccos x or cos -1 x
Inverse tangent arctan x or tan -1 x
FINDING INVERSE OF A TRIG FUNCTION ALGEBRAICALLY :

Given y = sin (x)


- ½ = sin ( -π/6) sin (-π/6) = - ½

(-π/6) = sin (- ½ ) switch x and y values


(-π/6) = arcsin ( - ½ ) solve for y

(-π/6) = sin¯¹( - ½ ) sin¯¹( - ½ ) = (-π/6)

How does this look on the graph ??


Graphing Inverse Trigonometric functions:
The graph of y = sin x

D: all reals R: [-1,1] Period: 2π Y-int.(0,0)

- this function is not one-to-one (different x values yield the same y)


- with domain restricted to [-π/2 ; π/2] y = sin x is one-to one
- therefore, we can use this “piece to finds its inverse
Using the domain restricted to [-π/2 ; π/2] let’s graph y = arcsin x
Remember that y = arcsin x is equivalent to sin y = x
X
y-values of sin x

y = arcsin x
x – values of sin x
Graphs of inverse functions
The graph of y = arc sin x

Domain: [-1,1]
�p p �
- , �

Range: � 2 2 �
NEXT ON THE LIST

• ARCCOSINE
• Sketch the common curve of y = cos x
• Select interval of the cosine that will be one-
to-one
• Sketch the graph of arccosine
The chosen section for the cosine is in the red frame.
This section includes all outputs from –1 to 1 and all
inputs in the first and second quadrants.
Since the domain and range for the section  0, p  and  - 1,1 ,
are the domain and range for the inverse  - 1,1 and  0 , p  .
cosine are
y y = arccos(x) y
y = cos(x)
 p

p

p

p
x
-p -p -p p p p p p p
p

p

x
- 
-
Graphs of inverse functions
The graph of y = arccos x

Domain: [-1,1]

Range: [0, p ]
The other trig functions require similar restrictions on
their domains in order to generate an inverse.
Like the sine function, the domain of the section of
the  p p
- 2 , 2  .
tangent that generates the arctan is
y=arctan(x)
y
y

y=tan(x p

) 

 p



x x
-p -p p p - -   

-

-p
-

-
-p
-

 p p
 p p D   - ,   and R   - , 
D   - ,  and R   - ,    2 2
 2 2
Graphs of inverse functions
The graph of y = arctan x

Domain: (-��
, )

Range: �- p , p �
� �
� 2 2�
The table below will summarize the parameters we
have so far. Remember, the angle is the input for a trig
function and the ratio is the output. For the inverse trig
functions the ratio is the input and the angle is the
output.

arcsin(x) arccos(x) arctan(x)

Domain -1  x  1 -1  x  1 -   x  
Range p p p p p
- x 0 x - x
2 2 2 2 2

When x<0, y=arcsin(x) will be in which quadrant?


y<0 in
IV
When x<0, y=arccos(x) will be in which quadrant?
y>0 in II
y<0 in
When x<0, y=arctan(x) will be in which quadrant?
IV
Evaluating Inverse Trigonometric Functions algebraically.
When evaluating inverse trigonometric functions, you are “looking for the
angle whose (insert: sin, cos, or tan) is x.” Also, keep in mind the
domain and range of each function.

 3
Find the exact value for arcsin 
 2 
 

Solution:
3
For what value of x is sin (x) = 2 ?
3
Sin ( π/3) = therefore  3 p
2 arcsin 
 2  3
 
Evaluating Inverse Trigonometric Functions algebraically.
Find the exact value for

Solution:
For what value of x is cos (x) = - 2 ?
2

Cos ( 3π/4) = - 2 ; therefore


2
 2  3p
cos 

-1
- 

 2  4