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SI-032204

Konsep Sistem Informasi


(4-sks)

Oleh :

Solikin WS.,M.T.
solikin2004@yahoo.com

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SI-032204

Konsep Sistem Informasi


(4-sks)

 Prasyarat : Pengantar Teknologi Informasi


 Tujuan :
 memahami dan menguasai konsep sistem
informasi,
 dapat menjelaskan peranan informasi dalam
suatu organisasi,
 struktur dari suatu sistem informasi,
 dukungan komputer terhadap suatu sistem
informasi, dan
 nilai informasi bagi pengambilan keputusan
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• Materi :
1. Pengertian data dan informasi
2. Konsep dasar sistem dan sistem informasi
3. Konsep organisasi dan manajemen dalam
kaitannya dengan suatu sistem informasi
4. Struktur sistem informasi: komponen, aktivitas,
peran, dan tujuan pembangunan sistem informasi
5. Jenis-jenis sistem informasi berbasis komputer
6. Peran sistem informasi untuk pengambilan
keputusan

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• Buku Referensi :
 Couger, J.D. and Mc Fadden, F.R., "Introduction to Computer-
Based Information Systems", John Willey & Sons, Inc., New
York, 1976.
 McLeod Jr., Raymond, “Management Information System  A
Study of Computer-Based Information System”, Macmillan
Publishing Company, New York, 1990.
 Laudon, Kenneth C. dan Laudon, Jane P., “Management
Information System  A Contemporary Perpective”, Macmillan
Publishing Company, New York, 1990.
 Laudon, Kenneth C. dan Laudon, Jane P., “Management
Information System  Management The Digital Firm, Seven
Edt.”, Prentice-Hall,New Jersey, 2002.
 Turban-McLean-Wetherbe, “Information Technology For
Management,Second Edition”, John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1999.
 Steven Alter, “Information Systems Foundation of E-Business,
4Ed”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,2002.
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 Pengertian Data dan Informasi
 Data :
“Streams of raw facts representing events
occurring in organizations or the physical
environment before they have been organized and
arranged into a form that people can understand
and use”, 4.p8-9).
(adalah aliran dari fakta yang direpresentasikan melalui kejadian
dalam organisasi atau lingkungan fisik sebelum diorganisasi dan
di susun ke dalam bentuk yang dapat dimengerti dan digunakan
oleh user).

 Data adalah fakta / sebagian fakta yang mengandung arti


berupa angka, huruf, symbol khusus atau gabungan
darinya.

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 Informasi (1)
 “Data have been shaped into form that is
meaningful and useful to human beings”.
(Informasi adalah data yang disusun kedalam bentuk yang dapat
dimengerti dan bermanfaat bagi user) atau.

 Informasi adalah “hasil dari kegiatan pengolahan


data yang memberikan bentuk yang lebih berarti
berupa suatu informasi” atau

 Informasi adalah data yang mempunyai nilai


(berarti) bagi penerimanya dan dapat digunakan
untuk dasar pengambilan keputusan.

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 Data vs Informasi

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 Informasi(2)

 Untuk menjadi informasi,umumnya data


perlu mengalami proses pengolahan.

Data Process Informasi

 Sifat informasi dapat perfect (sempurna,


tidak mengandung unsur ketidakpastian)
dan dapat pula imperfect (tidak sempurna,
mengandung unsur ketidakpastian).

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 Informasi(3)

 Sumber Informasi :
 Pengamatan lapangan (observasi)
 Kuesioner
 Kejadian / event (pencatatan,
perekaman ataupun penangkapan
sinyal digital secara langsung).
 Pemodelan (forecasting,
econometric, operational research,
simulation, heuristic, dsb).
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 Informasi(4)

 Karakteristik (kualitas) Informasi yang baik :


 Timeliness (informasi harus tepat waktu,
tersedia manakala dibutuhkan)
 Accuracy (informasi harus akurat / teliti)
 Reduced Uncertainty (informasi
ketidakpastiannya harus ditekan /
diminimize/diperkecil)
 Element of Surprise (informasi tidak
mengandung unsur / elemen kejutan)

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 Informasi(5)

 Informasi disampaikan kepada pengguna (user)


dapat direpresentasikan dalam media :
 Kertas/hardcopy
 Tampilan/display-monitor/video
 Suara/audio
 Informasi yang dibutuhkan manajemen umumnya
dalam bentuk laporan. Ada banyak variasi dan tipe
laporan antara lain :
 Loran Periodik
 Laporan Indikator Kunci
 Laporan berdasarkan permintaan (on-call report)
 Laporan Khusus
 Laporan Penyimpangan (exception report)

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 Informasi(6)

 Laporan dapat di representasikan dengan


berbagai bentuk, antara lain yang umum
digunakan :
 Narasi
 Tabel
 Grafik dan Gambar
 Kombinasi
 Kertas/hardcopy

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• System ?
“A group of elements or parts that are integrated and
coordinated for the purpose of achieving a goal”
(Sekumpulan komponen atau bagian yang terintegrasi dan dikoordinir untuk
maksud mencapai suatu tujuan / gol)

System

Input Output

Feedback

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 information system
An information system (IS) is an arrangement of
people, data, processes, and information technology
that interact to collect, process, store, and provide
as output the information needed to support an
organization

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What is a System?
Environment

Feedback Feedback
Signals Signals
Control Control by Control
Signals Management Signals

Input of Manufacturing Output of


Raw Materials Process Finished Products

System Boundary
Other Systems
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The Internetworked -Business
The Internet
Suppliers and Other Business Partners Company
Boundary
Procurement, Distribution, and Logistics
Extranets

Manufacturing Accounting,
Engineering &
and Finance, and
Research
Production Management

Intranets

Advertising Sales Customer Service

Extranets

Consumer and Business Customers


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A Federation of Information Systems

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Information System Applications

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Focuses for Information
Systems
 Knowledge — the raw material used to
create useful information.
 Process — the activities (including
management) that carry out the
mission of the business.
 Communication — how the system
interfaces with its users and other
information systems.
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The CMM Process Management Model
Capability Maturity Model (CMM) – a standardized framework
for assessing the maturity level of an organization’s information
system development and management processes and products.
It consists of five levels of maturity:
 Level 1—Initial: System development projects follow no prescribed
process.
 Level 2—Repeatable: Project management processes and practices are
established to track project costs, schedules, and functionality.
 Level 3—Defined: A standard system development process (sometimes
called a “methodology”) is purchased or developed. All projects use a
version of this process to develop and maintain information systems and
software.
 Level 4—Managed: Measurable goals for quality and productivity are
established.
 Level 5—Optimizing: The standardized system development process is
continuously monitored and improved based on measures and data
analysis established in Level 4.
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Capability Maturity Model (CMM)

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Types of Information Systems
Information Systems

Operations Management
Support Support
Systems Systems

Transaction Process Enterprise Management Decision Executive


Processing Control Collaboration Information Support Information
Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems

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A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information
system that captures and processes data about business
transactions.

A management information system (MIS) is an information


system that provides for management-oriented reporting
based on transaction processing and operations of the
organization.

A decision support system (DSS) is an information system


that either helps to identify decision making opportunities or
provides information to help make decisions.
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An expert system is an information system that captures the
expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the
benefit of nonexperts.

A communications and collaboration system is an


information system that enables more effective
communications between workers, partners, customers, and
suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate.

An office automation system is an information system that


supports the wide range of business office activities that
provide for improved work flow between workers.

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Other Categories of
Information Systems
Expert Systems

Knowledge Management Systems

Functional Business Systems

Strategic Information Systems

Cross-Functional Information Systems

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The Information Systems
Development Process

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Management Challenges of the E-Business Enterprise

•Business Strategies
•Business Processes
•IS Human Resources •Business Needs
•IS Development

•Customer Relationships
•Business Partners
•IT Infrastructure •Suppliers
•IS Performance •Business Customers

•Organization Structure Ethical Considerations


•and Culture Potential Risks?
•User Acceptance Potential Laws?
Possible Responses?

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Chapter Summary
 Information Systems play a vital role in the
efficient and effective operations of E-
Business, E-Commerce and enterprise
collaboration.
 The business professional must know:
 Foundations (fundamentals) of IS
 Information Technologies

 Business Applications

 Development Processes; and

 Managerial Challenges
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Chapter Summary (cont)
 A system is a group of interrelated components
working toward the attainment of a common
goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs
in an organized transformation process.
 An information system uses the resources of
people, hardware, software, data, and networks
to perform input, processing, output, storage
and control activities.

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Chapter Summary (cont)
 IS Resources:
 Hardware Resources
 Software Resources
 People Resources
 Data Resources
 Network Resources
 Products:
 Paper Reports
 Visual Displays
 Multimedia Documents
 Electronic Messages
 Graphics images
 Audio Responses

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Chapter Summary (cont)
 Information systems perform three vital roles in
business firms. They support:
 Business processes and operations,
 Business decision making; and
 Strategic competitive advantage
 Major application categories of information
systems include:
 Operations Support Systems; and
 Management Support Systems

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 Data : Tipe Data
Lima tipe utama data pada sistem informasi yang sekarang
yaitu : 6.p132-177)
1. predefined data item,
2. images,
3. text,
4. audio, dan
5. video

Pada sistem informasi tradisional hanya berisi predefined data


item dan text. Pada saat ini, akibat pesatnya kemajuan ilmu
pengetahuan dan teknologi IT data dapat dibuat dalam bentuk
gambar, suara dengan menggunakan teknik seperti
digitization, voice messaging dan video conference
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Predefined data item
 Predefined data item tediri dari numeric atau
alphabetical item, yang mempunyai arti dan
format khusus yang jelas dan selanjutnya
digunakan untuk mengendalikan kalkulasi
dan transaksi yang menggunakan data.
Sebagai contoh credit card number,
transaction date, purchase account, dan
merchant ID.

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Text
 Text terdiri dari letters, numbers, dan
karakter lainnya yang pengertiannya
dikombinasikan tidak hanya bergantung
pada bentuk yang ditentukan
(prespecified format) atau definisi dari
item individual (defined of individual
items).

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Images
 Images adalah data dalam bentuk gambar,
baik dalam bentuk photographs, gambar
yang dibuat tangan (hand-drawn pictures),
atau grafik yang dihasilkan dari data numerik.
Images dapat disimpan, dimodifikasi, dan di
kirim (transmitted) dalam banyak cara yang
sama seperti text.

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 Audio
 Audio adalah data dalam bentuk suara.
 Video
 Video adalah kombinasi gambar dan suara yang
ditampilkan secara bersamaan. Penggunaannya
misalnya melalui video conference.

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Satuan Data
 Bit satuan terkecil data
 Byte satu karakter=8 bit
 Word satu kata=2 byte=16 bit
 Double Word satu kata=4 byte=32 bit
 Data satu data=beberapa byte yang punya arti
 Record satu baris data
 Field satu lajur/kolom data
 Table satu table data (baris dan kolom)
 Library satu kumpulan file data
 Database satu bank data (kumpulan semua data)

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Evolution of DB Systems
 Flat files - 1960s - 1980s
 Hierarchical – 1970s - 1990s
 Network – 1970s - 1990s
 Relational – 1980s - present
 Object-oriented – 1990s - present
 Object-relational – 1990s - present
 Data warehousing – 1980s - present
 Web-enabled – 1990s - present

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Basis Data (Database)
 Elemen Basis Data
 Terdapat 3 elemen basis data yaitu : User, Isi
Data dan Tempat Penyimpan (memori) data.
 Dalam elemen user terdapat 3 golongan yaitu :
 Operator yang memerlukan fasilitas ‘Query’ atau
paket program yang sudah jadi
 Programmer yang memerlukan bahasa
pemrograman DBMS
 DBA (database administrator) yang memerlukan
data dictionary system (DDS)

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Pengertian Basis Data
 Basis Data adalah kumpulan dari data
yang saling berhubungan (berinteraksi)
satu dengan yang lainnya, tersimpan di
perangkat keras computer dan
digunakan perangkat lunak untuk
memanipulasinya.
 Penerapan database dalam sistem
informasi di sebut database sistem.
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Pengertian Sistem Basis Data
 Sistem Basis Data adalah suatu sistem informasi
yang mengintegrasikan kumpulan dari data yang
saling berhubungan satu dengan yang lainnya dan
membuatnya tersedia untuk beberapa aplikasi yang
bermacam-macam di dalam suatu organisasi.
 Software yang digunakan untuk mengatur (manage)
data adalah DBMS (Data Base Management
System). Contoh DBMS : Excell, Access, FoxBase,
FoxPro, Oracle, Informix, Sybase, dll

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Kenapa perlu konsep Basis
Data
 Dalam pendekatan pengolahan data
tradisional sumber data ditangani sendiri-
sendiri oleh masing-masing bagian untuk tiap
aplikasi.
 Sedangkan dalam konsep database,
pengolahan data dilakukan secara
terintegrasi dalam sebuah database, dimana
tiap-tiap orang atau bagian dapat
memandang database dari sudut pandangan
yang berbeda.
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Organisasi File Basis Data
 Organisasi data secara konvensional dirasakan
kurang, karena berorientasi pada file, artinya data
cenderung hanya berhubungan dengan data yang
lainnya dalam satu file saja, kurang ada hubungan
dengan data lain yang berada di file lain.
 Oleh karena itu dikembangkan jenis organisasi data
yaitu :
 Hirarki (berjenjang),
 Network (jaringan) dan
 Relasional (hubungan).

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Organisasi Hirarki (1)
 Organisasi Hirarki / berjenjang atau disebut juga
struktur data poon (tree). Suatu pohon dibentuk dari
beberapa elemen grup data yang berjenjang,
disebut dengan node. Node yang paling atas
disebut root (level-1), tiap node dapat bercabang ke
node-node yang lain. Dengan ketentuan setiap
pohon hanya mempunyai satu root saja dan tiap-
tiap node kecuali root hanya dapat mempunyai
sebuah orang tua (parent) saja tetapi tiap-tiap node
dapat mempunyai beberapa anak (child).

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Organisasi Hirarki (2)

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Organisasi Network(1)

 Pada Organisasi pohon tiap node tidak dapat


mempunyai leih dari satu orang tua, maka
pada strukur data jaringan tiap-tiap node
dapat mempunyai lebih dari satu orang tua.

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Organisasi Network(2)

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Organisasi Relasional (1)
 Hubungan di dasarkan pada field kunci (yaitu
field yang unik / tidak ada duanya), contoh
file MHS dan file NILAI dihungkan melalui
field kunci NPM.

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Organisasi Relasional (2)

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Relasi Data

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Data, Informasi dan Sistem Informasi
(..catatan tambahan)

 SI sudah merupakan bagian dari perusahaan untuk


mendukung usaha dengan CBIS (Computer Base
Information System)
 Resources : 5M + I
 Man

 Machine

 Money

 Material

 Method and

 Information

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 Kenapa SI perlu dimenej?, karena resources terbatas,
karena terbatas maka perlu di optimalkan pemanfaatannya
 Sistem pasti mempunyai tujuan, komponen sistem apa saja,
tergantung sistem apa, bisa metode, barang, dll
 Karakteristik sistem :
1. Transformasi input ke output (retrieve, update, representation)
Representasi : Text,suara,gambar, dll
2. Interdisiplinair yang tergabung dalam satu kesatuan
3. Holistik (menyeluruh)
4. Dapat dibedakan dengan yang lainnya (lingkungannya)
5. Sinergi
6. Hierarki
7. Ada aturan (regulasi)
8. Harus punya tujuan (objective)

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Information Systems Architecture
(ISA)
 Overall blueprint for organization’s information
systems
 Consists of:
 Data (Enterprise Data Model – simplified ER Diagram)
 Processes – data flow diagrams, process decomposition,
etc.
 Data Network – topology diagram (like fig 1.8)
 People – people management using project management
tools (Gantt charts, etc.)
 Events and Points in Time (when processes are performed)
 Reasons for events and rules (e.g. decision tables)
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Information Engineering
 A data-oriented methodology to create and
maintain information systems
 Top-down planning approach.
 Four steps:
 Planning
 Results in an Information Systems Architecture
 Analysis
 Results in functional specifications…i.e. what we
want
 Design
 Results in design specifications…i.e. how we’ll do it
 Implementation
 Results in final operational system
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Information Systems Planning
 Strategy development
 IT Planning to meet Corporate
strategy
 Three steps:
1. Identify strategic planning factors
2. Identify corporate planning objects
3. Develop enterprise model
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Identify Strategic Planning
Factors (table 2.1)

 Organization goals – what we hope to


accomplish
 Critical success factors – what MUST work in
order for us to survive
 Problem areas – weaknesses we now have

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Identify Corporate Planning
Objects (table 2.3)
 Organizational units
 Organizational locations

 Business functions – these might become the


users
 Entity types – the things we are trying to
model
 Information (application) systems

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Develop Enterprise Model
 Decomposition of business functions
 See figure 2.2
 Enterprise data model
 See figure 2.1
 Planning matrixes
 See figure 2.3

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Enterprise Data Model
 First step in database development
 Specifies scope and general content
 Overall picture of organizational data, not specific
design
 Entity-relationship diagram
 Descriptions of entity types
 Relationships between entities
 Business rules

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Informasi
 Data yang mempunyai nilai (berarti) bagi penerimanya
dan dapat digunakan untuk dasar pengambilan
keputusan
 Untuk menjadi informasi umumnya data perlu
mengalami proses pengolahan
 Sifat informasi :
1. Perfect (tidak mengandung unsur ketidakpastian)
2. Imperfect (mengandung unsur ketidakpastian)

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INPUT PROSES OUTPUT

Data Proses Informasi


- Bisa sangat simple
- Bisa dapat complicated

• Suatu data jika akan menghasilkan informasi yang baik, maka


datanya harus bersih.
• prosesnya meliputi :
1. Verifikasi
2. Validasi
3. Duplication data

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 Macam-macam atribut suatu data :
1. Identifier (sebagai identifikasi)
2. Locater (sebagai penunjuk lokasi)
3. Temporal
4. Classifier
5. Relational

 Faktor yang mempengaruhi ‘nilai suatu informasi’ :


1. Tepat ISI dan TELITI (accuracy)
2. Tepat WAKTU (timeliness)
3. Tepat GUNA (relevancy)
4. Tepat SAJI (presentation)

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 Manfaat Informasi
 Terhadap Proses :
1. Menghemat Tenaga
2. Meningkatkan Efisiensi
3. Mempercepat Proses
4. Perbaikan Dokumentasi
5. Pencapaian Standar
6. Perbaikan Keputusan

 Terhadap Produk :
1. Peningkatan “feature”
2. Perubahan Karakteristik
3. Peningkatan Fasilitas Penyampaian Produk
4. Inovasi Produk barang atau jasa

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 Terhadap Kualitas :
1. Peningkatan kualitas proses (JIT,Feedback, dsb)
2. Peningkatan kualitas produk (standarisasi produk, peningkatan
pelayanan, dsb)

 Komponen SI :
1. Technoware (S/W,H/W, Jaringan)
2. Infoware (Database)
3. Organware (Organisasi dan Prosedur)
4. Brainware (humanware)

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 Technoware (S/W,H/W, Jaringan)
 Merupakan sistem komputer dan jaringan

 Infoware (Database)
 DBMS (Data Base Management System)
 DBA (Database Administrator)
 Kegagalan DBMS pada umumnya pada updating karna
faktor SDM
 Jika data tidak diupdate, maka cutomer kecewa, ini akan
sangat berbahaya. Oleh karena itu perlu dijaga kedisiplinan
agar data tetap up-to-date.

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 Organware (Organisasi dan Prosedur)
 Mencakup Organisasi dan Prosedur
 Prosedur :
1. Prosedur Penyiapan Data
2. Prosedur Perekaman Data
3. Prosedur Pemrosesan Data
4. Prosedur Pengamanan Data
5. Dsb
 Jika sistem sudah “menyimpang terlalu jauh”, maka perlu di “Re-
Design”
 Dengan adanya prosedur baru, terdapat cara kerja baru dan ini
harus disosialisasikan
 Kalau mau mengembangkan SI harus mengacu kepada rencana
induk perusahaan
 Dulu EDP sekarang IT Division atau IS Division

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 Brainware
 Mengatur Brainware paling sulit dibandingkan dengan 3
komponen yang lainnya
 Contoh job dalam bidang IT:
1. Operator Perekam Data
2. Teknisi Perangkat Kerja dan Jaringan
3. Pemrogram APlikasi Sistem (Programmer)
4. Analis Sistem (Analyst)
5. Administrator Database (Database Administrator)
6. Perancang Sistem (System Designer)
7. Perekayasa Perangkat Lunak (S/W Engineering)
8. Perekayasa Jaringan (Network Engineering)
9. Pengelola Proyek SI (IS Project Manager)

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Karakteristik Sistem
Environment

Sub Sistem Sub Sistem

Input Output
Goals

Sub Sistem Sub Sistem


Boundary
(batas sistem)

Interface
(penghubung)

Input Process Output

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Siklus Pengolahan Data
PROSES
(Model)

OUTPUT
ENTRI DATA
(Informasi)
BASIS DATA

USER
CAPTURING (Penerima)
DATA

HASIL KEPUTUSAN
TINDAKAN TINDAKAN

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Understanding Systems from
Business Viewpoint
 Amazon.com : An Evolving Business Models
 The Need for Frameworks and Models
 The Work System Framework
 Work System Principles
 Relationships Beetwen Work Systems and IS
 The Principle Based Systems Analysis Method
 Measurement Work System Performance
 Clasification Related to

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Amazon.com : An Evolving
Business Models
(Work System Snapshot, Amazon.com provides
a different way to shop for books)

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The Work System Framework
 The Customer
 The Product and Services
 The Business Process
 The Participant
 The Information
 The Technology
 Context
 Infrastructure
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The Customer
People who use and
receive direct benefit
from the products and
services

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The Product and
Services
 The combination of
physical things information
and services that the work
system produces for to
customer
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The Business Process
 The sets of the steps or
activities that are performed
within the work system

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The Participant
 People who perform the
work step in the business
process

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The Information
 The information used by
the participants to
perform their work

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The Technology
 The hardware, software
and the other tools and
equipment used by the
participants

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Context
 The organizational,
competitive, technical
and regulatory realm
within which the work
system operates
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Infrastructure
 Is share human and
technical resources that
the work system rellies
on even through these
resources exist and are
managed outside of it.
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CUSTOMER
 People who purchases books
 Whosellers that supply the books
 Amazon.com Shipping departement

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES


 Information about books that might be purchased
 information describing cash book order
 books that are eventually delivered

BUSINESS PROCESS
 Purchaser log on www.amazon.com
 Purchaser identifies desired books or gives search criteria
 Purchaser looks at book related information and desides what
to order
 Purchaser enter order
 Amazon.com finds the books in it inventory and packs thm fpr
dhipping, if the book are no in its inventory, Amazon order
them from a wholeseller and ships them to the customer after
they arrive at the Amazon werehouse
 Shipping departement packages order and sends it to the
purchaser

PARTICIPANTS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


 People interested in  Order for books  Personel computers
purchasing books  price and other used by purchaser
 order fullfillment information about each  computers and
department of book networks use by
wholeseller  purchase hidtory and Amazon.com for order
 Shipping department related information for processing
Amazon.com each customer  the internet
(infrastructure)

Work System Snapshot


Amazon.com provides a different way to shop for
books

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Data and Knowledge
Management (KM)
I. Data Management :
1. A Critical Success Faktor (CSF)
2. Data Life Cyle Process and
Knowledge Discovery
3. Data Source and Collection
4. Data Quality (DQ)
5. Multimedia and OO Databases
6. Document Management
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I. Data Warehousing, Mining and
Analysis :
1. Transaction Vs Analytical
Processing
2. Data Warehousing and Marts
3. Knowledge Discovery, Analysis and
Mining

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I. Data Visualization and
Technology
1. Data Visualization
2. Multidimensionality
3. GIS

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I. Marketing Databases in Action
1. The Marketing Transaction
Database
2. Implementation in Example

II. KM
1. Knowledge Base and Organizational
Learning
2. Implementing KM Systems
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I. Data Management
I. A Critical Success Faktor (CSF)
 The Difficulties
 The Amount of data increases exponentially
 Collected by many individuals, using several
methods and devices
 Organization’s data are relevant for specific
decision
 Raw Data my be stored in different computing
systems, databases, formats, and human and
computer languages
 Data Security, Quality, and integrity

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 These difficulties and the critical
need for
 Timely and Accurated information
 Search effective and efficient
 Data management
 Support TPS
 Relational Databases
 Client/Server Environment
 Finding Data Quiqly and Easly
 Creation of Data Warehouse
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1. Data Life Cyle Process and
Knowledge Discovery
 Trace how and where data flows in
organization
 Business do not run on data, They
run on information and their
knowledge of how to put that
information to uses successfully.
 The transformation of data into
knowledge mybe accomplished in
several ways
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Converting Data to Knowledge

Data Warehousing Data Analysis

Prepro- Trans- Data Interpretation /


Collection Selection cessing formation mining Evaluation
Data
Source iMac
Use

Data Sorage Target Data Preproce- Transfor- Patterns


ssing Data med Data Knowledge

Storage,
Knowledge
Base

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 Data Source and Collection
 The Data life cycle begins with the
acquisition of data from data
sources.
 Data can include :
 Documents
 Pictures
 Maps
 Sound and

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 Animation
 Concepts
 Opinions
 Raw or
 Summarized or extrated data
 Data Source :
 Internal Data
 Personal Data
 External Data

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 Internal Data :
 are organizational internal data are
stored in one or more places
 About : people, product, services,
and processes
 Personal Data
 IS user or other coorporate
employees by creating personal
data

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 External Data :
 Data are available on :
 CD-ROM
 Internet Server (film, music or voice)
 Pictures (diagram, atlases)
 Television
 Large amounts of external data are
available on the internet.
 The internet and commercial databases
services -> Electronic Data Interchange
(EDI)
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 Methods For Collection Raw
Data
 Can be collected :
 Manually or
 Instruments or sensors
 Scanned or
 Transferred Electronically
 Manual Data Collected :
 Time studies
 Surveys
 Observations and
 Constributions from experts

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1. Data Quality (DQ)
 Data are frequently found to be :
 Inaccurate
 Incomplete
 Ambiguous
 The economical and social damage
from poor quality data costs billions
of dollars

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 Problem Data :
 DQ Problem divide into four
catagories and dimension :
1. Instrinsic DQ :
 Accuracy, objectivity, believability,
reputation
2. Accessability DQ :
 Accessability and security
3. Contextual DQ :
 Relevance, Value Added, timeliness,
completeness, amount data
4. Representasion DQ:
 Interpretability, ease of understanding,
concise representation, consistent
representation
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 Problem Data (cont..):
 Data are not correct
 Data are not timely
 Data are not measured or index
properly
 Needed data simply do not exist
 One of the major issues of DQ
is DATA INTEGRITY

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 OOD are sometimes referred to as
multimedia databases and are
manage special Multimedia
Databases Management Systems
(MDMS)
 These manage data in variety of
formats in additional to standard
text or numeric fields.
 The formats include Images such
as digitized photographs or forms
of bit-mapped graphics
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1. Document Management (DM)
 Document Management Systems (DMS)
provide information to decision makers in
an electronic format
 DM is the automated control of electronic
document, page images, spreadsheet,
word processing document, and complex,
compound documents through their entire
life cycle within an organization, from initial
creation to final archiving.
 DMS usually include computerized
imaging systems

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I. Data Warehousing, Mining and
Analysis :
I. Transaction Vs Analytical
Processing
 Data processing in organizations can be
viewed either as transactional or
analytical
 Transactional Processing, in the routine
daily processing of the transactional of
the organizations such as ordering or
billing
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 A good data delivery system
therefore should be able to
support :
 Easy data access by the end
users themselve
 Quicker decision making
 More accurate and effective
decision making
 Flexible decision making

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 This improved option of
analytical processing involves
three concepts :
1. A business representation of data for
end users
2. A client/server enviroment that gives
the user query and reporting
capabilities
3. A server-base repository, the data
warehouse, that allows centralized
security and control over the data
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1. Data Warehousing and Marts
 Data Warehouse, benefits :
1. To reach data quickly
2. To do it easly
 The purpose of data warehouse is to
establish a data repository that makes
operational data accessable in a form
rapidly acceptable for analytical
processing activities such as decision
support, EIS, and other user application.

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 Data Warehouses allow for the
storage of metadata, which
include data summaries that are
easier to index and search,
especially with web tools

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Data Warehouse Framework and Views Access
Application
EIS / DSS

Custom-Built
Application
(4GL Tools)
Replication Flat screen
Data Mart
Production
Reporting
Legacy Metadata Marketing Tools
A
Select Reposition P
Flat screen

I
Extract S Relation
Enterprise Query Tools
OLTP Transform Data Data Mart M Flat screen
Warehouse I
Integrate d
Risk l OLAP /
Maintain e
Management ROLAP
Target w Flat screen
Preparation Database(s) a
External
(RDB, MDDB) r Web Browses
e
Opeparational
System / Data Flat screen
Data Mart

Data Mining
Engineering
Flat screen

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 Characteristic of Data Warehousing
1. Organization :
 data are organized by detailed
subject, containingly information
relevant for decision support
2. Consistency
 Data in different operational
databases my be encoded
differently, e.g gender data ‘0’, ‘1’ or
‘m’, ‘f’ and consistent manner
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1. Time variant
 The data are kept for 5 to 10 years
so they can be used for trends,
forecasting and comparisons over
time
2. Nonvolatile
 Once entered into the warehouse,
data are not update (Tdk dpt
diubah)

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1. Relational
 Typically the data warehouse uses
a relational structure
2. Clent/Server
 The data warehouse uses the
client/server architecture mainly to
provide the end user an easy
access to its data

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 Data Marts is a replicated subset
of the data warehouse and is
dedicated to a functional or
regional area.

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 Summary of strategic Uses
of Data Warehousing

Industry Functional Area of Use Strategic Use


Airline Operations and Marketing analysis of route
profitability
Banking Product Development, Customer service,
operation and marketing trend analysis,
product
and service promotion.
Reduction of IS
expenses
Healt Care Operation reduction of operational
expenses
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1. Knowledge Discovery, Analysis
and Mining
 The program of extracting useful
knowledge from volumes of data is
known as knowledge discovery in
databases (KDD) or just knowledge
discovery.
 KDD’s objective is to identify valid,
novel, potensially usefull, and
ultimatelly understandable patterns in
data
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 KDD support by three technologies :
1. Massive data collection
2. Powerfull multiprocessor computers
3. Data Mining Algorithms
 Tools and Techniques of KDD
 KDD tools over time can be divided into
four major stage :
1. Data Collection (1960s)
2. Data Acess (1980s)
3. Data Warehousing and Decion Support (1990s)
4. Intelligence Data Mining (l-1990)

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 The problem with the data
collection and access techniques is
that they are not suitable for a large
volume of data, nor can they be
used effectively by end user.
 Even though Structured Query
Language (SQL) use is becaming
more user friendly.

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 OLAP
(On Line Analytical Processing)
 OLAP refers to such end-user
activities as DSS modeling using
spreadsheets and grahics, which are
done online.
 Unlike online transaction online
processing (OLTP) application.

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 Data Mining
 Data mining derives is name from the
similarities between searching for
valuable business information in a
large database and mining a
mountain for a vein of valuable are.

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IMPACT OF IT ON
ORGANIZATIONS, INDIVIDUALS
AND SOCIETY

I. Impact on Organizations
II. Impact on Individuals at
Work
III. Societal Impacts and The
Internet Community

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I. IMPACTs ON
ORGANIZATIONS

1. Structure
2. Authority
3. Power and
4. Job Content

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I. IMPACTs ON
INDIVIDUALS
AT WORK

1. Job Satisfaction
2. Dehumanization and
Psychological Impacts
3. Impacts On Health and
Safety

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I. SOCIETAL IMPACTS AND
THE INTERNET
COMMUNITY

1. Opportunitis For People With


Disabilities
2. Quality of Life Improvements
3. Other Impacts

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IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS

1.1. Structure
 Structure,Authority,Power and Job Content
a. Flatter Organizational Hierarchies
b. Staff-To-Line Ratio
c. Special Units
d. Centralization of Authority
e. Power and Status
f. Job Contens
g. Role Ambiguity and Conflict

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A. Flatter Organizational
Hierarchies (FOH)
 Increased Productivity and increased span of
control
 Decreased number of experts
 FOH result from :
 reduction in the total number of employees,
 reengineering of business process, and
 ability of lower-level employee to perform higher –
level job

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B. Staff-To-Line Ratio

 The number of professional and


specialists could decline in relation to
the total number of employees in the
organizations.

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C. Special Units

 Creating a technology centre


 Internet/electronic commerce unit
 Decision support system departement
 Intelligent system departement

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D. Centralization of Authority

 Because of the trend toward smaller


and flatters organizations, centralization
become more popular.
 Example : introduction of expert
systems in general electric’s
maintenance area increased the power
of the desentarlization units because
they become less dependent on the
companys headquarters.
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E. Power and Status

 Knowledge is power
 Changing the power structure within
organization
 Example : expert system may reduce
the power of certain professional group,
becaise their knowledge will be in the
public domain.

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F. Job Contens
 Job Conten is important not only because it is
related to organizational structure, but also
becase it is interrelated with employee
satisfaction, compensation, status, and
productivity.
 Changes in job content occuur when work is
redesigned.
 Example : when BPR (Business Process
Reenginerring) is attempted or when
electronic commerce changes the marketing
system.
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IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS

1.2. Personnel Issues

 Employee Career Ladders


 Changes in Supervision
 Other Considerations
 The Manager’s Job

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IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS

1.3. The Manager’s Job


 Automation of routin decision
 Less expertise required for many
decisions
 Less reliance on experts to provide
support to top executive
 Power distribution among managers
 Electronic support of complex decision
(intelligent agents, DSS)

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Impacts On Health and Safety

 Job Stress
 Repetitive Strain Injuries

 Lessening The Negative Impact


on Health and Safety
 Other Impacts

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Dehumanization and Psychological
Impacts

 Dehumanization :
 Negative effect on people’s individuality,
such : many people feel loss of identity.
 Expert systems or artificial intelligence
are increasingly replacing people in the
creative arena.

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Dehumanization and Psychological
Impacts(2)

 Psychological Impacts :
 Isolating influence : depression and
loneliness
 Distance learning : lack of social impact.

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IS and Individual
Drug Store Hotel
Department
Reservation
Store
Theater and
Supermarket Entertainment

Money Card
Consumer
Real Estate Laisure Time
System Travel
Stocks System Reservation

Integrated
Financial E-funds transfer
Financial
System
Database
Library
Educational The
and Adm Individual
The Individual
Record
Public and Police
Computer Education and
Private Service and Fire
Assisted Medical System e-Commerce
System
Education
Accounting
and Legal
Home
Hospital
Informatio
Adm and
n System Insurance
treatment
and
Centre Brokerage
Medical
Database Entertainment Security
Environment
business and
and
education
application

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