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Exploiting of Coiled Tubing

Course Contents

• Coiled Tubing Basic Components


• Coiled Tubing Applications & Forces
Distribution
• Thru Tubing Coiled Tubing Services
• Common Do’d and Don’t
What is the Coiled Tubing
Unit?
Coiled Tubing Unit is a portable, hydraulically powered service system
which is designed to inject and retrieve a continuous string of tubing
concentric to larger ID production pipe or casing strings.
At the present time, coiled tubing constructed for well servicing
application is available in sizes ranging from 0.75”OD up through 3.5”
OD.

Elements of the Coiled Tubing Unit


Coiled Tubing Equipment

• The basic configuration of a coiled tubing


equipment package is dependent on:
– Operating environment
• e.g., offshore, arctic, desert
– Primary applications
• e.g., units prepared for CTD operations will
typically be larger than conventional service units
– CT string dimensions
• e.g., string length/OD and necessary reel dimensions
Basic Equipment Configurations

• Service companies equipment fleet comprises


CT units designed to operate:
• Onshore
– Paved road trucks (road legal for operating area)
– Off-road trucks (all-wheel drive, e.g., desert)
– Mobile mast units (special environment, e.g., arctic)
• Offshore
– Skid mounted units (crash-frame protected)
– Barge mounted units (permanent placement)
– Jacking barge/tender vessel
CTU – Paved Road

Trailer mounted CTU


CT Express

Trailer mounted CTU


CTU – Off-Road

Truck mounted (6 x 6) CTU


CTU – Mobile Mast

Self propelled mast unit for desert operations


CTU – Mobile Mast

Trailer mounted mast unit for arctic operations


CTU – Skid Mounted

Skid mounted for offshore operations


CTU – Skid Mounted

Skid mounted for onshore/offshore operations


CTU – Barge Mounted

Lake Maricaibo barge mounted unit


CTU – Jacking Barge

Gulf of Mexico jacking barge


The Coiled Tubing Unit
• Physical Characteristics
– Self Contained
– Mobile/Modular
– Hydraulically Powered
– Environmentally Friendly
• Operations
– Injects and retrieves a continuous string of tubing into the well
– Can continuously pump fluids into well while moving pipe
– Land or offshore system designs
– No workover rig required when using CT
– Can be and is typically used on live wells(no kill fluids
introduced into well)
Coiled Tubing Advantages
• Efficiency
– Self-Contained unit, requires no rig
– Saves time and money - do not have to kill well
• Reduced potential damage to formation
– Typically used on live wells so no kill fluids necessary
– Act as tool transport medium for deviated & horizontal wells
• Performance
– Computer programs to optimize job design
– Fast
– Utilize internal pressure to generate large downhole forces
• Tubing Management
– Advanced data acquisition system to monitor key job parameters -
on tubing management
INDEX
• Surface Equipment.
• Well Control Equipment
• String Design and Service Life.
• Forces Encountered.
• Well Control Procedures.
• Applications.
CT Surface Equipment &
Performance Specifications
The basic components of a coiled tubing unit are
as follows:
1) Injector
2) Tubing Guide Arch
3) Service Reel.
4) Power Supply / Prime Mover.
5) Control Console.
6) Control and Monitoring Equipment.
7) Down hole Coiled Tubing Connectors.
8) Well Control Equipment.
1- Tubing Injector
The injector assembly is designed to perform three
basic functions:

1) to provide the trust required to snub the tubing into the


well against pressure or to overcome wellbore friction

2) to control the rate of lowering the tubing into the well


under various well conditions.

3) to support the full weight of the tubing.


Injector Head – Principal Components
• Primary components/functions
include: 3
– Hydraulic drive/brake system
(1)
– Drive chains and tensioners 1 5
(2)
2
– Gooseneck or guide-arch (3)
– Weight indicator sensor (4) 4
– Depth system sensor (5)
– Stripper mount (6)
6
Chain System – Hydra-Rig
1

• Typical chain system includes:


2
– Drive sprocket/system (1)
– Inside tensioners (2) 3 3

– Outside tensioners (3)


– Lower idling sprocket (4) 4
Injector Basics
• Hydraulically powered counter rotating chains.
• Linear beam to apply grip to tubing
• Roller chain around linear beam to transmit load to
gripper blocks and then to tubing
• Gripper blocks mounted in hardened steel counter
rotating chain assembly
• Hydraulic cylinders apply beam pressure to tubing
• Bi-directional, twin hydraulic motors with gear
reduction in upper assembly
• Injector designation based on maximum pull capability,
i.e., 30K can pull 30,000 pounds
Injector Specifications
• Maximum Pulling Force: Is the max. tensile force
that the injector can apply to the C.T.
• Maximum Snubbing Force: Is the max.
compressive force the injector can apply to the C.T.
• Maximum Traction: Is the max. axial force that the
injector can apply to push or pull the C.T.
• Maximum Speed : Is the max. rate at which the
injector is capable of deploying tubing into the
wellbore (R.I.H) or extracting the tubing out the
wellbore.
• Chain-gripper blocks:
• these gripper blocks are designed to minimize damage to the
C.T. and may be
- machined to fit the circumference of the C.T. or
- Cast in a “V” shape to accommodate variable OD sizes of C.T.

Chain link pins

Roller bearing Gripper block

Chain link plate


and split pin
Typical Injector Chain System
V-Block Grippers
• Multiple tubing sizes can be
run with the same gripper
blocks
• Grooved surfaces for enhanced
gripping performance
• Reduces cost of operations by
not having additional gripper
blocks for all size tubing.
• It’s grove not a half circle
which avoid damaging the CT
& can be used in a range of CT
sizes
Advanced Chain Components –
HR 480

HR 480 Chain
components
variable insert
Types of Chain Drive
• The chain drive assembly operates on the principle of
frictional restraint, in that the C.T. is loaded by the
opposing gripper blocks with sufficient magnitude of
applied normal force that the resulting tangential
friction forces are greater than the axial tubing loads
(tension or compression).
• This applied normal force can be provided by
one of three ways.
1- set of skates.
2- cam roller or skate roller.
3- dual chain traction loading system.
Injector Head – Typical Specifications
Injector Head Model
HR 240 HR 440 HR 480 SS 800 Dr
Capacities
• Min. tubing size 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-1/4 1-1/2
• Max. tubing size 1-1/2 2-3/8 3-1/2 3-1/2 3-1/2
• Max. pulling force 20,000 60,000 100,000 80,000 120,000
• Max. snubbing force (lbf.) 10,000 20,000 40,000 40,000 40,000
• Max. running speed (fpm) 200 240 150 150 160

• Dimensions
• Length (in.) 53 55 64 56 64
• Width (in.) 34 52 64 52 62
• Height (in.) 65 80 109 76 100
• Weight (lbm) 3,400 7,800 12,650 6,500 22,000
15K Injector
30 K Injector
80K Injector
2- Tubing Guide Arch
The tubing arch supports the tubing through the 90 °bending radius
and guides the C.T. from the reel into the injector chains.
API
Recommendations
Tubing Size Radius
(in.) (in.)
1-1/4 48 to 72
1-1/2 48 to 72
1-3/4 72 to 96
2 72 to 96
2-3/8 90 to 120
2-7/8 90 to 120
3-1/2 96 to 120
Tubing Guide (Guide Arch)
• Guides tubing into injector
25111-281C

• Large radius for best tubing


life
• Designed for all typical job
set-ups and conditions
Weight Indicator Sensor

Front Rear
sensor/pivo sensor/pivo
t t

HR 480 dual weight indicator sensors


Stripper Mounting Point

HR 480 stripper mount


Injector Head – HR 240
Injector Head – HR 480
3- Service Reel
• The services reel serves as the C.T. storage
mechanism during transport and as the spooling
device during C.T. operations.
• The rotation of the service reel is controlled by a
hydraulic motor.
• During R.I.H. slight back pressure is kept on the
reel to allow the injector to pull the tubing off of
the reel (reel back-tension).
• During POOH. This pressure is increased to allow
the reel rotation to keep up with the extraction rate
of the tubing injector.
CT Reel – Functions

• Basic functions of the reel or equipment normally mounted


on the reel include:
– Storing and protecting the CT string (drum)
– Maintaining proper tension between reel and injector
head (reel drive system)
– Efficiently spooling the CT string on to the reel drum
(levelwind system)
– Circulating fluids with the drum rotating (swivel)
– Application of protective coating or inhibitor on tubing
string (tubing lubricator system)
– CT depth measurement system (reel mounted counter)
CT Reel – Primary Components
5

• Typical reel components: 3


– Reel drum (1)
– Reel drive system (2)
– Levelwind assembly (3) 1
– Reel swivel and manifold
– Lubrication system (4) 4
– Depth counter (5)

2
Reel Models and Capacities

Hydra-Rig Reel Model/Configuration


Tubing Size 1015 2015 3015 3020 4122

1-1/4-in. 15,000 22,500 25,000 25,000 25,000


1-1/2-in. 10,000 15,100 22,000 25,000 25,000
1-3/4-in. N/A 11,200 15,000 20,000 25,000
2-in. N/A 8,500 11,000 15,000 22,500
2-3/8-in. N/A N/A N/A N/A 15,300
Reel Drum Capacity Freeboard

Capacity of reel drum: A


L = (A + C) (A) (B) (K)
Where:
L = Reel capacity (ft)
A = Tubing stack height (in.) C
B = Drum width (in.)
C = Core diameter (in.)
K = Constant (tubing size dependent)
1-1/4 = 0.168
1-1/2 = 0.116
1-3/4 = 0.086
2 = 0.066 B
2-3/8 = 0.046
Reel Models

Reel size comparison


Reel Drive and Brake Systems

Spoked reel Dished end reel


Floor mounted motor/brake Axle mounted motor/brake
(Levelwind system pump shown)
Levelwind 3System
2

• System components
include:
– Drive chain/system 1
(1)
– Override motor (2)
– Spooling head (3)
Reel Swivel and Manifold with E-Line
Pressure Cable
bulkhead Coiled tubing

CT isolation
Jumper cable valve

Reel Reel Reel


collector axle swivel
60K Embedded Reel
Truck Mounted Reel

Truck (self propelled mast unit) mounted reel


Skid Mounted Reel

Skid mounted, crash-frame protected reels


Completion Spool

Completion spool (3-1/2-in. CT) with custom built


spooler
Depth System Sensor

Spring mounted
assembly and Assembly (including
friction wheel electrical
encoder)mounted at base
of injector head

Typical depth sensor mount (HR 480)


Level Wind
Importance of Accurate Depth

• Current CT Depth System


has accuracy only of 0.5%
• Inaccuracy caused by
slippage, sensitivity to
misalignment and wear on
depth wheel, while
repeatability is very poor.
• New system has accuracy
of 0.03%, through dual
wheel concept, slip
detection, harder material
4- Power Pack/Control Cabin –
Functions
• Basic functions of the power pack/control cabin or
equipment normally mounted therein:
– Providing hydraulic power required by the CTU
(engine and hydraulic pumps)
– Control and limitation on hydraulic systems (hydraulic
control and relief valves/system)
– Hydraulic accumulator storage for secondary well
control equipment (BOP accumulator)
– Enables control and monitoring of all operating systems
from a single operator’s station (control console)
– Providing operations data to enable wellsite design and
monitoring
Power Pack – Primary Components
• Power Pack
– Engine
– Hydraulic pumps
– Hydraulic control systems Layer 1
Temperature
High Coolant

Coolant
Tem perature

Permissive
High Exhaust
Tem perature

Engine
Tac hometer
Low Oil
Pressure
Loss of
Coolant

Oil
Pressure

start

– Onboard accumulators
Start
Engine Emergenc y
Kill Kill Air
Pressure

• Control cabin
– System (CTU)
instruments and controls
– Well/operation
monitoring and recording
equipment
Prime Mover

• In general, the prime mover packages are


equipped with diesel engines and multi-
stage hydraulic pumps which are typically
rated for pressures of 3,000 psig to 5,000
psig. And in addition, the accumulator
package for well control equipment.
5- CTU Instruments and Controls

– Primary instruments and controls


• Weight indicator, circulating and wellhead pressures
– Secondary instruments and controls
• Depth/speed indicator, chain tensioner pressures,
stripper system pressure
– Support instruments and controls
• drive system pressures, BOP system pressure, and
additional systems
Control Console
Control Console

Control console
Control Console
System gauges Principal gauges
CLOSE OPEN

INSIDE TRACTION
PRESSURE DRAIN
BOP PRESSURE STRIPPER #1 STRIPPER SYSTEM STRIPPER SYSTEM SYSTEM
PRESSURE PRESSURE PRESSURE AIR PRESSURE

TUBING WEIGHT INDICATOR


STRIPPER PRESSURE BLEED
BOP SYSTEM STRIPPER #2 BLEED INSIDE TRACTION CHARGE PRIORITY
PRESSURE PRESSURE SUPPLY PRESSURE PRESSURE DEPTH SYSTEM PRESSURE
OUTSIDE TENSION
INJECTOR WELLHEAD PRESSURE CIRCULATING PRESSURE

SHEAR RAM BLIND RAM NEUTRAL INSIDE TRACTION


EMERGENCY
CLOSE OPEN CLOSE OPEN RETRACT PACK TRACTION SUPPLY

ON OFF
STRIPPER PRESSURE ADJUST
#1 INJECTOR LUBE REEL LUBE

HIGH LOW ON OFF


B INJECTOR
O CONTROL
SLIP RAM P PIPE RAM ON OFF
INJECTOR REEL BRAKE ENGINE EMERGENCY
CLOSE OPEN CLOSE OPEN STOP
TOP TRACTION 2 SPEED STOP
INJECTOR TOP IN REEL BRAKE
TRACTION CYL. PRESSURE Schlum berger
NEUTRAL
RETRACT PACK Dowell
ON OFF

STRIPPER MIDDLE TRACTION


#2 OUT
BOP SUPPLY INJECTOR MIDDLE INJECTOR REEL PRESSURE
AUX BOP TRACTION CYL. PRESSURE ADJUST ADJUST
ON
CLOSE OPEN
OFF INJECTOR SLOW THROTTLE
SPEED CONTROL
ON OFF

BOTTOM TRACTION LEVELWIND LEVELWIND REEL CONTROL


STRIPPER OVERRIDE ARM
PRESSURE ADJUST INJECTOR BOTTOM INJECTOR CONTROL INJECTOR MOTOR REEL PRESSURE
TRACTION CYL. PILOT PRESSURE PRESSURE AIR HORN

BOP and stripper Injector head and Reel drive


systems spooling controls controls
Control Console

Control console - split angle


Control Console – CTD Unit

Advanced control console - CTD control cabin


6- Control & Monitoring
Equipment
Critical Job Parameters

A- Load Measurement.
B- Depth Measurement.
C- Speed Measurement.
D- C.T. Inlet Pressure.
E- Wellhead Pressure.
Computerized Data Acquisition system used ( CDA )
7- Downhole C.T. Tool
Connections
Non Yielding Connection:
– slip type : which requires the use of a slip or
grapple-type load ferrule placed on the OD of the
tube body.
– thread type: connection which is secured to the
C.T. with threads.
7- Downhole C.T. Tool
Connections
Yielding Connection:
– dimple type : which is secured onto the C.T.
body through the use of numerous mechanical
screws.
– Roll-on type: connection which incorporates a
machined insert mandrel designed to fit inside
the C.T.
Pressure Control Equipment
Well Control Stack
• The well control stack is composed of the
stripper assembly and a minimum of four
hydraulically -operated rams. The four ram
components are equipped (from top down) with,
– Blind Rams: are used to seal the wellbore off at the
surface when well control is lost.
– Shear Rams: are used to mechanically break the C.T.
In the event the pipe gets stuck.
– Slip Rams : are used to support the weight of the
pipe below.
– Pipe Rams: are used to isolate the welbore annulus
pressure below.
Pressure Control Equipment
• Pressure control equipment associated with
mobilization of a basic CTU for routine service
activities includes:
– Stripper
• generally permanently mounted on the injector head
– Blow-out preventers
• quad configuration most common
– Riser, lubricator
• application dependent
– Auxiliary equipment
• wellhead crossover(s), flow “T”, kill line and valves
– Downhole check valve
• preventing back-flow of wellbore fluids
Pressure Control – “Without
Control”

Situations to avoid No. 1


Coiled Tubing

Situations to avoid No. 2


Coiled Tubing – Uncontrolled Release

Situations to avoid No. 3


Pressure Control/Barrier
Philosophy
Injector head

Primary barrier
Stripper (possible dual)
Secondary barrier Quad BOP

Tertiary barrier Shear-seal BOP

Swab valve and


wellhead
Stripper – Functions
• The primary stripper typically performs the
following functions:
– Maintain a primary barrier against wellbore pressure and fluids
– Secure and align the injector head with the pressure control
and wellhead equipment
– Support the tubing between the injector head chains and the
stripper seal
• Design features enable:
– Servicing of consumables (sealing elements) with CT in place
– control/actuation of primary seal without reliance on CTU
power pack engine
Stripper Configurations

• Basic stripper configurations are available


– Conventional
– Side Door
– Side Door Tandem
Conventional Stripper –
Components
Tubing support/top access

Packing assembly

Hydraulic system

Mounting flange

Lower connection
Typical packing stack
Side-Door Stripper –
Components
Tubing support

Hydraulic actuation system

Access window – with safety lock, stripper


packing assembly and back-up seal

Interlocking stripper
inserts
Lower connection (flange option)
BOP – Functions
• The following functions and requirements
typically apply to CT BOPs:
– Provide a secondary barrier against wellbore pressure
and fluids (pipe rams and shear rams)
– Secure/support the tubing string against the operating
weight or snubbing force (slip rams)
– Shear the tubing string under operating conditions
(shear rams)
– Provide wellbore access for fluid (kill port) and
pressure measurement (pressure port)
– Support the weight (and forces applied) of the CT
equipment under the rated wellbore pressure
Quad BOP – Components
Upper flange/connection adapter

Pressure port

Equalising valve Blind rams


Shear rams
Kill port
Slip rams
Equalising valve Pipe rams

Lower flange/connection adapter


Combi BOP – Components

Upper flange/connection
Pressure port adapter
Equalizing valve
Blind/shear rams
Kill port
Pipe/slip rams
Equalizing valve

Lower flange/connection
adapter
Blind/Shear Ram
Ram seal

Ram body
Ram seal

Shear/seal blades

Retainer bar

Shear/seal ram components


Shear-Seal BOP

• Functions
– Tertiary barrier against well bore fluids and
pressure
– Remote actuated safety device (last ditch)
• System Design Features
– Independent supply/accumulator system
– Heavy duty shearing ability
Shear-Seal BOP – Components

Shear seal BOP


Stack Configuration Factors

• Factors influencing stack configuration:


– Location
• e.g., offshore, onshore and local regulatory requirements
– Application
• e.g., wired CT, perforating, fluid circulation requirements
– Worksite limitations
• e.g., height, crane capacity, riser/lubricator stability
– Wellbore conditions
• e.g., high pressure, high temperature
– Tool string dimensions
• e.g., length and OD
Pressure Control Stack
Requirements
• The basic requirements of a pressure control stack
will typically include:
– Provision of required number of barriers
• e.g., secondary or tertiary barrier
– Kill port(s) or means of circulating well control fluids
• i.e., fluid port located beneath sealing rams
– Pressure port or monitoring capability
• i.e., ability to monitor wellhead pressure with sealing rams
closed
– Appropriate contingency and redundancy
• e.g., tandem stripper or dual valves on kill and circulation ports
Auxiliary Pressure Control
Equipment
• Auxiliary equipment commonly used to configure
appropriate pressure control and fluid handling capabilities:
– Riser/lubricator
– Wellhead adopter flange(s)
– Pump in “T”
– Hydraulic actuated kill-line valves
– Hydraulic riser/lubricator connectors
• Hydraulic “Quick Latch”
– Specialised deployment equipment
• Riser window
Riser/Lubricator
• Key features or factors for
selection:
– Construction
• e.g., solid block
– Connection
• e.g., size and
compatibility
– Pressure port or vent
• e.g., for gauge or bleed-
off facility
– Loading
Pin and collar
• forces and stability Flanged riser lubricator
Wellhead Adapter Flange

Wellhead adapter flange features


Flow Cross or Pump-In “T”

Flow cross with hydraulic and manual valves (flanged


connections)
Quick Latch – Function
• Principal functions of hydraulic connectors include:
– Enabling riser/pressure control connections to be made
without exposing personnel to suspended loads
– Enabling a rapid connect/disconnect facility which expedites
rig-up/down time (e.g., faster BHA change outs)
• Design features include:
– Positive indication of locking
– Capable of withstanding/transmitting normal forces resulting
from internal pressure and equipment weight
Quick Latch – Components
Quick latch
stinger flanged
to upper stack
assembly

Quick latch
body flanged
to lower stack
assembly

Hydraulic quick latch


Well Control Procedure
• The principle of well control is to maintain a safe
working condition when performing intervention
services.
• Well control equipment components
1) one stripper or annular-type well control component.
2) one blind ram well control component.
3) one shear ram well control component
4) one kill line outlet with isolation valve(s)
5) one slip ram well control component.
6) one pipe ram well control component.
• The kill line outlet on the well control stack should not be
used for taking fluid from the wellbore.
Pressure Control Stack Examples

• Common examples of pressure control


equipment stacks:
– Onshore – standard
– Onshore – with quick latch
– Offshore – platform or jack-up
– Offshore – semi submersible
– High pressure applications
• 7,000 psi
• 10,000 psi
Onshore – Standard
Upper BOP
adapter

Quad BOP

Lower BOP
adapter

Swab valve
and tree Injector head

Stripper
Onshore – Quick Latch
Quick latch
body

Quad BOP

Lower BOP Injector head


adapter

Swab valve
and tree

• Stripper
Quick latch pin
Offshore – Platform or Jack-up

Riser section
Injector head

Flow cross or “T”


Primary stripper
Wellhead crossover
Shear-seal BOP
Secondary stripper
Wellhead

Quad BOP
Offshore – Semi-submersible
BOP and quick
latch
assembled on
lifting frame
mount
Connector
stinger
assembled on
flow head

Injector head
supported
within lifting
Flowhead or frame
test tree
assembled on
tubing string or Hydraulic
subsea riser releasing
connector
High Pressure – (<7,000 psi)
Flow cross
with choke/kill
lines equipped
with hydraulic
control valves

Tertiary shear/seal Injector head


and pipe slip rams and stripper
(may be combi) assembly fitted
with injection
port
High Pressure – (<10,000 psi)

Flow cross
with choke/kill
lines equipped
with hydraulic
control valves

Tertiary
shear/seal and Injector head and
pipe slip rams dual stripper
(may be combi) assembly fitted
with injection port
String Design and Service Life
C.T. Material

In the manufacturing of C.T., High Strength low alloy (HSLA)


steels are commonly used to achieve the desired.

-Weld ability
- corrosion resistance
- fatigue resistance
- mechanical properties
HSLA Carbon Steel (by weight percent)
Modified ASTM Modified ASTM
A606 Type 4 A607
Carbon 0.08 0.08
C 0.15 0.17
Manganese 0.60 0.60
Mn 0.90 0.90
Phosphorus 0.03 0.025
P Max max
Sulfur 0.005 0.005
S Max max
Silicon 0.30 0.30
Si 0.50 0.45
Chromium 0.45 0.40
Cr 0.70 0.60
Nickel 0.25 0.10
Ni Max Max
Copper 0.40 0.40
Cu Max Max
Molybdenum 0.21 0.08
Mo Max 0.15
Aluminum - 0.02
Cb-V 0.04
Tapered C.T. Strings
• In general, it’s uniform O.D. and variable I.D. to
provide enhanced performance in services.

1) Used to increase the maximum operating


depth of a string.

2) Used to enhanced stiffness, buckling


resistance and in service required the
operation of downhole tools.
Tapered C.T. Strings
3) The change in the wall thickness should not
exceed

0.008” for W.TH. Below 0.110”


0.022” for W.TH. Above 0.110”
Bend Cycle Fatigue Departing
Methods.
1- The “RUNNING FEET” Method
The footage of the C.T. R.I.H. is recorded for each job. And then added to
the existing record of footage.
Values ranges from (250,000-750,000) ft.

2- The “TRIP” Method


The C.T. string divide into section, from (100-500) ft. long, the number of
strips over the tubing guide arch for each section can then be tacked and
recorded, included the effects of internal pressure loading. With this type
of analysis its possible to identify the C.T. section, which have
experienced the most bend-cycle fatigue damage.
Analysis of Bend Cycle Fatigue for
C.T.
1) The working life of the C.T. can be extended by
increasing the bend radii of the tubing guide arch and
reel core for a special tube diameter size.

2) The working life of any size of C.T. can be increased


by selecting a tube with a thicker wall.

3) The working life of the C.T. can be extended by


increasing the material yield strength of a tube.

4) In comparison, as the OD size of the C.T. increases,


the working life (B-C) decreases.
Corrosion in C.T. Service
• Corrosion occurs to the C.T. as a result of exposure to the
atmosphere or through metal loss from pumping corrosive
fluids.
Corrosion Effects:
1) wall thinning and pits >> reduce C.T.
strength
2) reduced pressure integrity in collapse
and yield pressure.
3) poor seal capability at the stripper and
control components.
Corrosion in C.T. Service
• Corrosion Effects:

4) when running C.T. in a wellbore


environment with H2S in brine, it is
recommended to add an inhibitor to the
circulating fluids.
C.T. Collapse Pressure Derating
• As manufactured coiled tubing will have near 100% roundness as
the CT. is continually worked onto & off the service reel and over
the tubing guide arch the ovality of the pipe typically increases.
(Ovality is the major factor in derating tubulars for collapse
presure).

• When tubing is subjected to varying degrees of tensile loads, the


ability of the pipe to resist collapse is diminished.

• As applied tensile loads approach the min. yield strength of the


tube , the pipe will undergo permanent strain and “neck-down” at
the point of max. applied stress.
Once “necking-down” occures, the pipe loses its principal strength
and becomes susceptible to collapse at pressures below the
calculated pressure. Also this region will have a reduced burst
pressure rating pressure rating than the reminder of the pipe string.
Forces Encountered During C.T.
Services
• there are many forces which affect the behavior
of the tubing.
– Well pressure Fwp - Tubing drag FD
– Tube weight Fw - Stripper element FP
– Buoyancy - Chain drive force FC

NUBBING: when well pressure creates an upward force > the weight of the
tubing . (pipe light) Operation.

STRIPPING: when well pressure creates an upward force < the weight of the
tubing. (pipe heavy)Operation,
C.T. Stability AND Physical
Behavior
• Compressional forces in excess of the specific critical load
applied to an unsupported section of C.T. will cause the
pipe to buckle. (sinusoidal) as thurst loads increase from
the surface the pipe will form a helix.
• Once the pipe is forced into a helix, the thrust required
moving the C.T. increases because the increase of wall
frictional drag until it overcome the thrust loads (lock-up)
• once lock-up occurs , the C.T. will fail in shear wherever
the critical buckling angle had developed.
• There are two types of buckling failure (major axis
buckling and local buckling) locate at:
1) between the top of the stripper and lowest fully-supported
chain gripper block.
2) within a large diameter borehole.
Minimum Documentation required
Minimum Documentation required
for

Tubing injector head, well control system,


valve arrangements, riser, lubricator,
spools, high pressure piping and hoses,
high pressure vessels:
Minimum Documentation required
for

Coiled tubing string


Minimum Documentation required
for

Downhole tools
Coiled Tubing Applications

* Pumping Operations
Deliver Fluid(s) at required rate and/or pressure at the
target depth

* Mechanical Operations
Deliver tool(s) to the target depth(s)
Pull,push or activate a mechanism

* Permanent Installations
Coiled Tubing Applications
(Continued)

Pumping Operations
Unloading wells with Nitrogen
Stimulating formations (Acidizing)
Removing Fill (Sand)
Removing(Dissolving) organic deposits
Isolating zones with cement
Cutting tubular with fluid
Removing scale hydraulically
Coiled Tubing Applications
(Continued)
Mechanical Operations
Logging with CT
Perforating
Fishing
Operating Slide Sleeve
Setting bridge plug or packer
Running/Setting completions
Removing Scale(milling)
Cutting Tubular
Coiled Tubing Applications
(Continued)

Permanent Installations

Velocity & Injectivity Strings


CT Completions
Flowlines
Umbilical
Conventional CT Applications
Features of Conventional Applications
• Conventional CT applications generally
utilize the fluid conveying advantages
provided by a CT string:
– Continuous circulation
• no interruptions for tool joint make-up
– Circulation and string movement
• unlimited movement while circulating
– Precise depth control
• accurate spotting of fluids
Conventional CT Applications
• CT applications typically considered as
conventional:
– Wellbore fill removal
– Matrix stimulation treatments
– Squeeze cementing
– Well kick-off (nitrogen lifting)
– Basic scale, wax or paraffin treatment
Wellbore Fill Removal
– Wellbore fill removal operations are designed to:
– Restore the production capability of the well
– Permit the free passage of wireline or service tools
– Ensure the proper operation of flow control devices
• e.g., sliding sleeves or valves
– Maintain a sump (space) below the perforated
interval
• e.g., to allow complete passage of tools or as a
contingency tool drop area
– Removal material which may interfere with
subsequent well service or completion operations.
Wellbore Fill Materials
• Wellbore fill materials include:
– Formation sand or fines
– Produced propant or frac treatment residue
– Gravel pack failure
– Workover debris
• Condition of fill material may be:
– Sludge or fine particles
– Unconsolidated particles
– Consolidated particles
Wellbore Fill Removal - Design Data

• Job design data for wellbore removal is


categorised as:
– Reservoir parameters
– Wellbore and completion geometry
– Fill characteristics
– Logistical constraints
Obtaining accurate data during treatment design is crucial
to the selection of optimum techniques, treatment fluids
and ultimate success of the operation.
Fill Characteristics
• Establishing the characteristics of the fill
material can be the most difficult design
data set to obtain. Useful information:
– Particle size
– Material density
– Solubility
– Consolidation
– Estimated volume of fill material
– Presence of viscous material
Particle Transport
• The ease by which a
particle can be Drag Buoyancy
transported relates to:
– Size Fill particle
• small is good
– Density
• less dense is good Weight

– Fluid characteristics
• can be complex
– Fluid velocity
• don’t stop!
Fluid Selection
• Considerations for fluid selection include:
– Bottom hole conditions
• BHP and BHT
– Particle carrying ability
– Friction pressure
• at necessary pump rate
– Disposal and logistic constraints
– Compatibility
• with wellbore and reservoir fluids
– Cost
Deviated Wellbores

Dunes formed as fill


drops from fluid and Wellbore fill
slips down tubular material (bed)

• Particle behaviour in deviated wellbores


Fluid Types
• Fluid types commonly used to circulate
wellbore fill include:
– Water/brine
– Oil/diesel
– Gelled fluids
– Liquid and nitrogen stages
– Foam
– Nitrogen gas
Fill Removal Fluids - 1
• Water/brine
– Generally low cost
– Ease of handling, recirculation may be possible
– Good jetting characteristics, no static
suspension
– Possible compatibility problems
• Oil/diesel
– Lower density
– Fewer compatibility problems (always check)
– Handling difficulties, no recirculation
– Disposal to production facilities
Fill Removal Fluids - 2
• Gelled Fluids
– Water or oil based fluids
– Improved particle carrying and suspension
– Sensitive to wellbore conditions (fluids and temperature)
– Increased friction pressure - decreased pump rate

• Liquid and nitrogen stages


– Suitable for lower BHP applications
– Assists with high friction pressure difficulties
– Complex pumping and tubing movement schedule
Fill Removal Fluids - 3
• Foam
– Best particle carrying and suspension capability
– Water or oil based
– Poor jetting ability
– Suitable for low BHP applications
– Complex equipment and pumping schedule
• Nitrogen gas
– Limited application in very low BHP wellbores
– Extremely high velocity required for particle carrying
Foam Quality
52% 85% 96%
Nitrified Liquid (Slugs) Wet Foam Dry Foam Mist
FoamViscosity

Stable foam range


suitable for fill removal
operations 80 to 92% FQ.

Liquid
Viscosity Gas
Viscosity

25 50 75 100

Foam Quality (%)

• Foam quality vs. foam viscosity


Foam quality = gas volume / foam volume
Foam Equipment Rig-up

BOP kill port


Nitrogen Pumping T below BOP
package

Production tubing
Base fluid
Choke
manifold CT nozzle
Process
and recirculate
Disposal
(uncommon)
Foam Equipment Rig-up
Downhole Tools
• Possible specialist tools fill removal
operations:
– Jetting nozzles
• matched to fluid rate and tubular size
– Drill motor
• for consolidated fill or fill with scale etc.
– Impact drill
• alternative to drill motor
– Junk removal
• fishing tools or junk basket
CT String Movement
• CT string movement should be coordinated
with fluid pumping
– Tagging fill
• identify fill level to establish fill volume
– Penetrating fill
• must be controlled to avoid overloading annulus
• penetrate only when fluid is exiting nozzle (not gas)

Fluid Type Weight of fill/gallon of fluid (lbm)


Water 1
Gelled fluid 3
Foam 5
Computer Modeling
• Wellbore Simulator (WBS) uses conservation
of mass and momentum equations to
establish:
– Flow in or out of perforations
– Flow out of the wellbore choke (wellbore returns)
– Solids picked up by fluid
– Gas dissolution
– U-tube effects
– Transfer of heat
Equipment Requirements
• Typical equipment requirements include:
– Coiled tubing equipment
• appropriate string size and length
– Pressure control equipment
• configured for solids in circulated fluids
– Downhole tools and equipment
• appropriate to fill characteristics
– Auxiliary equipment
• fluid mixing, handling and pumping equipment
Treatment Execution
• Wellbore fill removal operation issues can
be categorized as:
– Wellbore preparation
• confirm fill type/status, e.g., recovery of fill samples
• completion preparation, e.g., gas lift valve dummies
• fluid loading or well kill
– Treatment and tool operation
• monitoring density and volume of fluids pumped
• multiple passes over key intervals
Fill Removal Evaluation
• Evaluation issues may include reference to:
– Operation objectives
• increased flow
• wellbore access
• operation of completion equipment (sliding sleeve)
– Fill/solids recovered
• volume (predicted vs. actual)
• safe disposal
Matrix Stimulation

• The process of restoring the natural


permeability of the near-wellbore reservoir
formation by injecting treatment fluids at a
pressure less than the formation fracture
pressure.
CT Advantages in Matrix Stimulation
• Advantages brought by the features of CT
equipment and associated techniques include:
– Live well treatments
– Operations completed as an integrated treatment
• e.g., fill removal prior to a treatment
– Protection of completion tubulars
– Accurate placement (spotting fluids)
– Selective treatments or diversion options
• e.g., enhanced treatment of long intervals
Design
• Principal treatment design considerations include:
– Confirm candidate well is “damaged”
– Identify location, composition and origin of damage
– Acquire job design data
– Select appropriate treatment fluid
– Determine optimum treatment parameters (rate/pressure)
– Determine treatment volume
– Select appropriate diversion or selective treatment method
– Prepare a complete pumping/treatment schedule
– Forecast the economic viability of the treatment
Candidate Selection
• Candidate selection confirmation requires
investigation of:
– Drilling
• e.g., mud losses
– Completion
• e.g., completion geometry
– Reservoir
• e.g., contacts, temperature and pressure, por/perm
– Production
• e.g., production test results
– Workover
• details of previous interventions or treatments
Laboratory Analyses
• Depending on wellbore/reservoir conditions, the
following analyses may provide crucial design data:
– Acid solubility tests
– Formation water analyses
– Emulsion and sludge testing
– Iron content testing
– Permeability and porosity
– Flow test response (ARC)
– SEM/Edax
– Petrographic study
– Paraffin and asphaltene content
Formation Damage

Damage Location
Tubing Gravel Pack Perforations Formation
Type of Damage
Scales X X X X
Organic deposits X X X X
Silicates - X X X
Emulsion X X X X
Water block - - - X
Wettability change - - - X
Bacteria X X X X
Completion or Wellbore Characteristics
• Completion and wellbore design factors include:
– Ability to safely run and retrieve CT string in
wellbore
• deviation
• doglegs
– Size restrictions
• CT string and tool string OD
• available flow rate
– Presence of fill or damaging material
• wellbore fill preventing access
• wellbore deposits producing unwanted reaction products
Treatment Fluid
• Key factors in treatment fluid selection:
– Physical characteristics of damage to be removed
– Reaction products
– Corrosion inhibition
– Fluid compatibility
– Fluid friction reduction
– Compatibility with diverting agent
– Clean up and flowback
– Preflush and overflush
Fluid Additives
• Treatment fluid additives may include:
– Corrosion inhibitors
– Alcohol
– Antifoam
– Clay stabilisers
– Diverting agents
– Formation cleaner
– Iron stabilizers
– Mutual solvents
– Organic dispersants
– Surfactants
Corrosion Inhibitors
• Efficient corrosion inhibition is essential in all
treatments using corrosive fluids. Factors
influencing selection include:
– Type and concentration of acid
– Maximum temperature
– Duration of acid contact
– Type of material (tubular/completion) requiring
protection
– Presence of H2S
Fluid Friction Reduction
• Stimulation treatments performed through CT
strings can benefit from fluid friction reducers
by:
– Improving flow (injection) rate as the perforations
typically increases treatment efficiency
– Reducing circulating pressure reduces fatigue induced
during bending cycles
– Reducing exposure time to corrosive fluids
Downhole Sensor Package
• Real-time downhole data acquisition:
– Accurate BHT and BHP
– Helps determine efficiency of a treatment as it
progresses
– Enables design “on-the-fly” or “test-treat-test”
operations
– Optimises use of diverting agents
– Optimizes treatment fluid volumes
DSP - Principal Components

Plastic coated cable


inside CT string

Mechanical
release sub
Cable clamp and assembly
check valve
assembly

Pressure and
temperature sensors
Treatment
ports/nozzl
• DSP downhole tool components e
Diversion
• Ensuring uniform distribution of the stimulation fluid
across the treatment interval. Essential characteristics
include:
– Uniform treatment across varying permeability
– Non damaging to formation (temporary plugging)
– Rapid and complete clean-up
– Compatible with treatment fluids and techniques
• General techniques include:
– Mechanical diversion
– Chemical diversion
– Foam diversion
Mechanical Diversion
• CT matrix treatments are designed with the
following mechanical diversion methods:
– Bridge Plug
• determines lower treatment limit
– Packer
• determines upper treatment limit
– Straddle assembly (or combination of above)
• selective treatment zone
Chemical Diversion
• Chemical diverting agents:
– Benzoic acid flakes
– Water or oil soluble salts
– Oil soluble resins
– Emulsifiers
• Features of chemical diversion techniques:
– Tend to rely on high rate treatments
– Can be problematic to clean-up
– Particulates can interfere with CT tools
– High viscosity diversion fluids not compatible with
CT
Foam Diversion
• Foam diversion offers several advantages in CT
applications - FoamMAT diversion service
developed specifically for CT treatments.
– Efficient diversion technique
– Fast and efficient clean-up
– Treatment designed to suit conditions
– Enables some flexibility to optimize treatment
FoamMAT Diversion Principles
• FoamMAT process comprises five steps:
– Clean near-wellbore region
• clean up oil which will break foam
– Saturate near-wellbore area with foamer
• to ensure a stable foam is generated
– Foam injection
• 55 to 75% foam quality
– Shut-in (recommended)
• reduces time to optimum diversion efficiency
– Inject treatment fluid (containing surfactant)
• surfactant helps maintain foam quality
Execution Precautions
• Precautions to be observed relate to:
– Personnel and environment
• e.g., protective equipment, mixing, spill protection
– Well security
• e.g., H2S may be liberated following treatment
– Equipment
• e.g., prejob pickle, postjob flush
– Post treatment
• e.g., handling and disposal of returned fluids
Equipment Requirements

– Coiled tubing equipment


– Pressure control equipment
– Pumping equipment
– Monitoring and recording equipment
– Downhole equipment
Matrix Stimulation
Matrix Stimulation
through Coiled Tubing

Design, Execution and Evaluation


aspects and considerations
Outline
• Considerations during CT Stimulations
• Challenges in Highly Deviated Wells
• Selective Acidizing
– Zonal Isolation with Packers
– Foam Diversion
• Monitoring & Control of the Treatment
• Case Histories

02
Considerations for Stimulation
• Candidate Selection
– Damage Removal
• Inside Wellbore Coiled Tubing
• Perforation Tunnels Coiled Tubing
• Near Wellbore Matrix Coiled Tubing
• Reservoir
– Creating new flow Paths
• Dissolving Rock
• Fracturing Rock

Coiled Tubing is typically used to remove damage only, due


03
to its limited pump rate and excessive pressure drop.
Treatment Fluid
• Sandstone Formations
– Mud Acid Treatments (HF- HCL mixture)
* Dissolves the damage
* Typically more complex fluid systems
* More corrosive to Coiled Tubing

• Carbonate Formations
– Hydrochloric Acid Treatments
* Dissolves damages and/or rock

04
Corrosion Inhibitors
• Principal Function
– To protect all tubulars and downhole components from
corrosionduring the treatment, without affecting the injectivity
or productivity of the treated formation.
– Tubulars include Coiled Tubing

• CT Considerations
– Smaller tubing, additional tubing on drum, increased exposed
area and higher internal velocities require consideration when
selecting a schedule
– Surfactants, Mutual Solvents and demulsifiers will alter the
effective temperature range of inhibitors
– Performance of inhibitors is significantly reduced in the
05
presence of H2S.
Injection Pressures & Rates
• Pressures
– As high as possible, not exceeding fracture pressure
– Majority of surface pressure could be pressure drop
through the CT
– Friction reducers can significantly reduce surface
pressures.
– 4000 psi is currently the surface limit
• Rates
– Should be as high as possible to get maximum
utilization of the acid.
– Rates are typically low, which results in long treatments
06
Matrix Stimulation Challenges in Highly Deviated
Wells

• Multi-layered Reservoirs
– Vertical Penetration
• Selective Acid Placement
– Zonal Isolation
– Depth Control
• Determination of Effectiveness
• Removal of Spend Acid
– The Solids and Fines in the Spend Acid will
quickly Re-plug Perforations
07
Matrix Stimulation Methods

• 15% HCL with Ball Sealers


• Selective Acid Tool run on Tubing with a
Service Rig
• Acidizing through Coiled Tubing
• Selective Acidizing through CT using
Packers
• Selective Acidizing through CT using Foam
Diversion 08
Selective Acidizing through CT using Packers

• Zonal Isolation
– Straddles a predetermined interval.
– Interval is variable using spacers.
– Treatment is controlled by CT movement and
Pump Pressure

• Depth Control
– Use Tubing End Locators

09
Selective Acidizing through CT using
Packers

Tubing End Locator

10
Selective Acidizing through CT using Packers
• Considerations
– Advantages
• Leaves no diversion residues
• No guessing where fluid is going
• High Positive delta P in any given zone

– Disadvantages
• Inflatables are consumable items
• Limited number of set/unsets
• Narrow specification envelope
• Not applicable in open hole or Gravel Pack Completions
11
Selective Acidizing through CT using Foam Diversion

• Zonal Isolation
– Generation and maintenance of a stable
viscous foam in the matrix of the “thief zone”
– Permeability is temporary reduced and flow is
diverted to the adjacent damaged zone.
– 75’ Zones, depending on flow rates, porosity
and behind pipe channels.

• Depth Control
– Tubing End Locator 12
FoamMAT Diversion - Step 1

Damaged Zone Thief Zone

Clean the Wellbore Area, by displacing oil or condensate

13
FoamMAT Diversion - Step 2

Damaged Zone Thief Zone

1
2

Saturate the near wellbore with foamer

14
FoamMAT Diversion - Step 3

Thief Zone

Damaged Zone 11
2
2

Foam Injection : Foam bank is formed in both layers

15
FoamMAT Diversion - Step 4

Thief Zone

Damaged Zone 11
2
2

3
4

Shut In Period : Foam dissipates rapidly in damaged zone

16
FoamMAT Diversion - Step 5

Thief Zone

Damaged Zone 11
2
2

Inject Treating Fluid Containing Foamer : Acid preferentially


flows into low perm layer.

17
Selective Acidizing through CT using Foam Diversion
• Considerations
– Advantages
• Not sensitive to pressure fluctuations
• Non-damaging diverter system
• Single trip treatments
• Not temperature sensitive
• Improved clean up through energized treating fluids

– Disadvantages
• Low rates, high pressures
• Shut in period for foam stabilization
18
Monitoring & Control
• Surface Data vs Downhole Data
– Pressure
• Surface pressure read outs have historically been used to
monitor, control or evaluate Downhole events.
• Pressure drop through CT, signal dampening, Nitrogen
break out and response time are causes for in-accuracy
– Temperature
• Surface Temperature read outs are not used.
– Depth
• Surface measurements reflects the length of tubing lowered
in the well.
• End of tubing position is determined by well geometry, CT
19

stiffness, fluid environment and external forces


Downhole Sensor Package

Plastic Coated Wireline

Cable Clamp/Check Valve

Mechanical Release

Pressure/Temperature
Gauge

20
Downhole Sensor Package
CT with Plastic Coated Wireline

P, T Gauge PC for Data


Processing

Flow-by Housing

21
Monitoring & Control
• Downhole data to control treatment
– Interval determination
• Standard Wireline Correlation techniques can be used
to pin point a position in the well, providing the hole is
cased and GR/CCL has been run before.
– On site Adjustments to Foam and Acid Volumes
• Minimum Pressure response required before starting
the initial acid stage
– Optimum Matrix rates below Frac Pressure
• Limits can be set very close to maximum allowable BHP
for optimum results

22
Evaluation
• Downhole data to evaluate treatment

– Foam Diversion Effectiviness


• BHP and Tubing Movement Comparrisons are
used to determinte the Foam Diversion
Effectiviness

– Effectiviness of treatment on vertical


conformance
• BHP data in conjuction with pre and post job
injection profiles
23
Case History 1 - Canada Well 1
Objective
• Remove damage from plugged zones in horizontal water
injector, while diverting away from prolific zones.
– Treatment
• Clean near well bore with Mutual Solvent
• Saturate the near well bore region with surfactant
• Inject 65 Quality Foam
• Shut in
• Inject 15% HCL with foaming agent
– Results
• Treatment was successful in opening plugged zones, but
efficient diverting was not accomplished along the total
length of the well. Combined injection in the two main 24
zones decreased from 60% to 55% of the total fluid.
Case History 1 - Well 2
– Objective
• Remove damage from plugged zones in horizontal water
injector, while diverting away from prolific zones.
– Treatment
• Foam diversion stages were increased in size to obtain
better diversion.
• Standard FoamMAT treatment was pumped
– Results
• 5 plugged intervals are now taking injection
• Treatment was successful in diverting away from zone
which was taking 80% of injection before. Injection after
treatment was less than 15% of total fluid. 27
Case History 2 - North Sea
– Objective
• Verify whether all perforations accept fluid during
injection after a frac treatment
– Programme
• Run in hole with CT and Downhole Sensor Package to
Monitor temperature profiles pre and post fluid
injection.
– Results
• Temperature profile indicates a section of perforations
is not accepting fluid.
• Downhole Pressure Decline Data was generated after
injection was stopped
30
Conclusions
– Horizontal wellbores have successfully been acidized.
– Proper diversion is possible without mechanical means.
– Foam diversion has had positive impact on vertical
conformance and injection gains.
– Generating downhole date using CT E-line technology in
an acid environment is feasible.
– Real time downhole pressure and temperature data is
important for interpretation of foam diversion
effectiveness in horizontal wellbores.
– A Downhole Sensor Package is an efficient means of
evaluating perforations performance during pumping
activities through Coiled Tubing. 33
General Gas & Liquid Well Kill
Procedure
1) Bull head kill fluid from surface
A- mix and pump non-damaging viscous pill or bridging
agent.
B- follow the pill with kill fluid.

2) Circulation kill assisted with C.T.


A- place the end of the C.T. below the source of pressure.
B- spot a bridging agent across the interval of the pressure
source.
C- circulate kill weight fluid to surface 1½ annular volume.
D- S.I. the well for 30 min., break circulation while POOH.
Squeeze Cementing
Squeeze Cementing

• The process of forcing cement slurry


through perforations, holes or leaks in the
casing/liner to obtain an hydraulic seal
Squeeze Cementing Applications
• Squeeze cementing treatments are
commonly designed to resolve:
– Water or gas channelling (primary cement job
failure)
– Injection water (or gas) break-through
– Gas or water coning
– Isolation of unwanted perforations
– Losses to a thief zone or improved injection
profile
Squeeze Cementing Advantages
• Squeeze cementing operations performed through a
CT string have several benefits/advantages:
– Thru-tubing intervention
– Integrated operations
• e.g., fill removal, well kick-off
– Accurate slurry placement
• “mobile” injection point
– Reduced contamination of small volume treatments
– Time, product and cost savings - proven!
Laboratory Testing
• Successful completion of a cement squeeze is
dependent on achieving specific slurry/cement
qualities. Extensive testing may be required for:
– Thickening time
• job time plus 40 to 50% recommended
– Fluid loss
• optimised for filtercake build-up
– Rheology
• optimised for ease of pumping and early gel strength
Thickening Time
• Thickening time considerations for CT
applications include:
– Non standard API conditions
• rate of temperature change
• large surface area - use BHST not BHCT
• greater mixing energy imparted
– Treatment time
• quicker placement
• longer time at BHT
– Early gel strength
• treatment performed with CT string (and tools) in slurry
Fluid Loss
High fluid loss -
resulting in
bridging of
wellbore

Low fluid loss -


Cement filled resulting in
perforation with good ineffective node
node profile build up

• Effects of fluid loss on cement node size


Rheology
• Most slurries behave as Bingham Plastics
– Plastic viscosity
• function of the solids contained within the slurry
– Yield point
• assesses distribution of solids within the slurry
• Key requirements:
– No settling of solids
– Minimal early gel strength
– Good stable slurries produce good (replicable)
qualities
Job Design
• Critical job design parameters include:
– Slurry volume
– Slurry placement
– Depth correlation
– Protection against contamination
– Cement column stability
– Tool (nozzle selection)
Slurry Volume
• Considerations for slurry volume include:
– Length of interval and capacity of casing/liner
– Presence of void areas behind perforations
– Force on CT string
• e.g., additional tension caused by string weight
– Configuration of mixing equipment and surface
lines etc.
– Ability or requirement to use of cement plugs,
pigs or darts
Slurry Placement
• Considerations for slurry placement
include:
– Depth control (including correlation)
– Contamination protection during placement
– Cement column stability
– Isolation of adjacent (untreated or sensitive)
zones
– Tubing movement (control and coordination)
Protection Against Contamination
• Considerations for contamination protection include:
– Protection becomes critical with small slurry volumes
– Contamination results in unpredictable results
• thickening time
• fluid loss
• rheology
– Cleanliness of mixing equipment
– Optimized rig up (especially mixing equipment)
– Mechanical separation
Reel Manifold Sampling Point

CT
string

From pump To disposal

Sample
point

• Reel manifold sampling point (typical)


Cement Column Stability

Slurry settles
on platform
Slurry “ropes”
and contaminates

Sand
plug

• Effect of stable platform


Tool Selection

Small circulation
ports for efficient
placement

Large circulation
ports for efficient
reverse circulation

• Cement nozzle (example)


Squeeze Cementing - Typical Rig-up

Sample
point Squeeze
manifold

Cement
Choke
Water manifold

Displaceme
nt fluid Sample
point

Typical cement equipment configuration


Treatment Execution
• Execution of squeeze cementing operations is
accomplished in four basic steps:
– Wellbore preparation
– Slurry mixing and pumping
– Cement squeeze
– Removal of excess cement
Wellbore Prep - Slurry Placement
Filtered Slurry pumped
seawater (or at maximum
similar) rate

Choke - open Choke - open

Pack fluid

Spacer
Nozzle 50 ft
Slurry
below
interface
Wellbore clean
and packed

Preparing the Placing the


wellbore cement slurry
Slurry Squeeze
Slurry pumped Low rate
at maximum continuous or
rate hesitation squeeze

Choke closed Choke


if wellbore is controlled
packed

Pack fluid Nozzle 50 ft


above
interface
Pack fluid Nozzle Spacer
above thief
Slurry zone Slurry

Pack fluid

Placing thixotropic Commencing


slurry (alternative) the squeeze
Removing Excess Slurry
Contaminant
Pack fluid pumped at
pumped at maximum rate
maximum rate

Choke controlled to Choke


maintain squeeze controlled
pressure

Nozzle
moved
Pack fluid continuousl
y Contaminated
slurry Nozzle
Slurry
penetrates to
mix 50:50
Pack fluid Slurry

Completing the Contaminating


squeeze excess cement
Removing Excess Slurry
Pack fluid Slurry pumped
pumped at Open returns at maximum
maximum rate Choke
rate/pressure
controlled
(1500psi)

Pack fluid Nozzle


Pack fluid reciprocated
Nozzle
across
penetrates
treatment
to mix 50:50
area
Contaminated Back
slurry pressure
maintained

Reverse circulating Commencing


contaminated the squeeze
slurry
Evaluation of Squeeze
• Evaluation method dependent on specific
conditions, options may include:
– Pressure testing wellbore
– Inflow test
– Production characteristics
• GOR, WOR
• Additional checks for:
– Wellbore access
• access past squeezed zone
• access to rat hole
COILED TUBING
DRILLING
Advantages of CTD

Key advantages of CTD techniques and equipment include:


Safety
fewer personnel, reduced pipe handling
Economic
lower mobilisation cost, slimhole technology
Operational
underbalanced drilling, thru-tubing re-entry
Environmental
smaller footprint, reduced noise and emissions
Limitations or Disadvantages
•Limitations or disadvantages of CTD
techniques and equipment include:
– Economic
• new technology in a cost conscious market
– Hole size
• limitations of slimhole
– Rotation
• inability to rotate string
– CT fatigue and life
• confidence in life prediction
CTD Applications
Well Status

Reentry New well

•CTD applications Well Preparation

can be classified by: Tubing or Thru-tubing

– Well status
completion removed operation

Wellbore Trajectory
– Well preparation
– Wellbore trajectory Deepening Side-track

Wellbore
– Wellbore conditions Conditions

Underbalanced Overbalanced
Drilling Drilling
Underbalanced Drilling

•Definition:
Drilling while maintaining the equivalent circulating
density of the wellbore fluid less than reservoir
pressure, I.e..., the well is capable of flowing reservoir
fluid while tripping and drilling.
Underbalanced Drilling

•Advantages:
– Reduced formation impairment from fluid invasion
– Improved penetration rates

•Disadvantages:
– Borehole stability
– Fluid/pressure management requirements
– A technique against conventional thinking!
Creating Underbalanced Conditions

•The means of creating underbalanced


conditions depend on specific reservoir
conditions:

– Reservoir pressure above water column hydrostatic


pressure
• use low density fluids while closely monitoring the
equivalent circulating density
Creating Underbalanced Conditions

• The means of creating underbalanced


conditions depend on specific reservoir
conditions:

– Reservoir pressure below water column hydrostatic


pressure
• use very low density fluid (foam)
• annular gas lift
• kick-off well and use appropriate pumping/fluid
schedule
Drilling Fluid
•Drilling fluids in underbalanced applications
differ from conventional overbalance:
– Not required to balance the formation pressure
– Formation compatibility not so critical
•However fluids should:
– Efficiently transport cuttings from the wellbore
– Cool and lubricate the bit
– Control corrosion
– Provide sufficient inhibition over shale
Surface Equipment
•Surface equipment for CTD operations:
– CT substructure or rig
– CT equipment
– Well control equipment
– Pumping equipment
– Mud storage and treatment equipment
– Pipe handling equipment
– Ancillary surface equipment
– Monitoring and recording equipment
– Safety and emergency equipment
– Rig camp and wellsite facilities
CTD Substructures and Jack Systems

•CT and pipe jack substructure - pipe jack mode


Pressure Control Rigup

Mud cross - manual valve


Annular

BOP - manual valve


Mud cross - choke line
(manual and remote valve)
Mud cross - kill line

•Hole size up to 4-in. (with annular)


Downhole Equipment

•Downhole equipment for CTD operations:


– Bits
– Downhole motors
– Downhole CT equipment
– BHA for vertical well or well deepening
– Directional drilling BHA
– Special BHA components
– Fishing tools
Bits
•Bit selection is made after considering:
– Formation type, hardness and abrasiveness
– Motor speed (RPM) and torque characteristics
– Available WOB
– Drilling fluid type and available flow rate
•Two basic types of bit are used in CTD
applications:
– Rock bits
– Drag bits
Downhole Motors

•Three basic categories of motor for CTD


applications:
– Vane motors
• Volker Stevin
– Turbines
• Neyrfor Weir
– Positive displacement motors (PDM)
• Anadril, Drilex, Slimdril etc.,
Positive Displacement Motors

•PDM specifications relate to:


– Outside diameter (OD)
• determines flowrate required and torque output
– Number of stages (lobes)
• determines speed and torque
– Operating flowrate
• ability to operate efficiently within a range of flow
rates
CTD Downhole Equipment

•Downhole equipment for CTD operations:


– CT connectors
• dimple/grub screw type preferred
– Disconnecting subs
• incorporated into CTD drilling head
– Check valves
• incorporated into CTD drilling head
BHA for Vertical Wellbores
CT string

CT connector Hole size Collar OD


+/- 3ft Check valves (in.) (in.)
>6 4-3/4
Release joint
3-3/4 to 4-3/4 3-1/8
WOB Drill collar(s) < 3-7/8 2-7/8

Motor
+/- 10ft

Bit
BHA for Deviated Wellbores
CT string

CT connector

+/- 3 ft Check valves

Release joint

+/- 10 ft Orienting tool

+/- 30 ft Nonmagnetic housing

+/- 10 ft
Motor

Bit
Components of a Directional
BHA
•Directional BHAs are assembled from
several key components or subsystems, for
example:
– MWD tool/system
– Wireline steering tool
– Monel - non magnetic drill collar
– Orienting tool
– Pump actuated oriented tools
– Electrically operated orienting tools
Some of Down Hole Tool
FISHING GRAB

• Features/Benefits
• Flow through facility
• Simple flexible design
• Robust construction
• External fish neck available
FLOW ACTIVATED ALLIGATOR GRAB

Features/Benefits
Variable grab lengths available
Optional external fishneck
FLOW ACTIVATED RELEASABLE
FISHING/BULLDOG SPEAR

• Features/Benefits
• Flow or drop ball activated
• Hardened & double tempered slips
• Robust construction
• Variable slip sizes for each tool
FLOW ACTIVATED
RELEASABLE OVERSHOT

• Features/Benefits
• Internal hammer action assists release
• Flow or drop ball activated
• Hardened & double tempered slips
• Robust construction
• Variable slips sizes for each tool
Common DO’s & DON’T
DO

Rig up and pressure test equipment as per the recommended guidelines.


Request that the service vendor provide a flow tee to direct the returns flow out of
the borehole. Place the flow tee directly below the well control stack.
Install an adjustable choke on the returns line and have a replacement stem
available on location. Verify the calibration of the choke with documentation
provided.

Rig-up full bore pipe tee’s and bull plugs on all “hard-90°” turns in the returns
line. This will prevent erosion of the pipe by the sand laden returns.
Be prepared for wash fluid losses to the formation and make provisions for
addition wash fluid to be available on location.
• Tankage on location should should be sufficient to capture
all returns and solids removed from the well. Plan to have
the liquids treated through the production facilititeies or
sent to an approved disposal site. Solids should be cleaned
and dumped, or sent to the proper disposal site.
• Run into the borehole with the coiled tubing at an injection
rate no faster than 30-40- feet per minute if the top of sand
is unknown. If the top of fill has been located in the
borehole, run-in rates should not exceed 60-90 feet per
minute.
• Maintain returns throughout the wash program! If the
observed returns decrease or cease, pull up the hole with
the coiled tubing until returns are reestablished.
• TAKE YOUR TIME WHEN WASHING SOILDS OUT
OF THE WELL!!! When breaking through solids bridge
s, allow sufficient time to circulate solids out of the hole
before continuing downhole.
• Check tubing drag every 1000’-1200’. Also, keep
the coiled tubing moving during the wash program
to prevent sticking in the solids laden returns.
• Monitor the surface pump pressures and returns
choke pressures (if used) when circulating up
slugs of solids-laden fluid.
• When the bottom of the desired wash section is
reached, circulate a minimum of two annular
volumes up the borehole prior to extracting the
coiled tubing from the well.
DON’T

• Do not allow the coiled tubing to remain stationary for a


period of time longer than 25% of the bottoms-up
circulation time when transportation solids up the annulus.
• Do not shut down pumps for any reason, unless you are out
of the borehole. Wells circulate clean can have sand
accumulated up the hole which can have sand accumulated
up the hole which can fall back when circulation is
interrupted.
DON’T

• Do not ignore the pump pressure requirements for


accommodating increases in hydrostatic pressure and
frictional pressure losses generated during the solids wash
portion of the program. If washing large slugs of sand, the
annular frictional pressure losses and increases in “dirty”
fluids density will cause surface pump pressures to
increase accordingly.
• Do not wash out of production tubing into casing without
circulation at least one tubing volume (at depth) up the
annulus.
Back up slides
Tool Deployment Systems
Deployment Systems
• Required to enable safe deployment and retrieval of
long tool strings in live wells. Basic requirements
include:
– Provide necessary test and check facilities
• e.g., provision for pressure testing before RIH
– Provide necessary contingency options
• e.g., annular seal redundancy
– Provide necessary pressure/fluid barriers
• e.g., North Sea requirement for two barriers at all times
– Minimize exposure of personnel to risk
• e.g., fall or suspended load hazards
Evolution of Safe Deployment
• Deployment systems have evolved to meet
necessary operational and safety requirements
– Tower or Structure
– Conventional lubricator deployment
• adapted from wireline techniques
– Tool deployment system
• First system to reduce working height
– Safe tool deployment
• Incorporated operational and safety features
– CIRP
• Special system developed for perforating operations
Lubricator Deployment

Injector head

Stripper

Assembled
Wireline
height up
lubricator
to 60ft

Quad BOP

Wellhead
connection

Lubricator deployment - equipment configuration


Tower Deployment
Lubricator Deployment
• Advantages
– System utilizes “conventional” equipment and tools
• Disadvantages
– A large crane (capacity and height) is required to
support the injector head - dependence on crane operator
– Operator visibility of all CT and pressure control
components is severely limited
– Injector head access is restricted
– Personnel are exposed to suspended loads during the rig
up procedure
Tool Deployment System -1
Sheeve wheel
and stuffing box

Toolstring passing
through lubricator

Wireline
lubricator

Blind rams

Shear rams

Slip rams
Quad BOP
Pipe rams
Wellhead
connection

Installing the toolstring


Tool Deployment System - 2
Lubricator removed
leaving deployment
bar exposed

Lubricator
removed

Blind rams
Quad BOP Shear rams

Slip rams
Wellhead
connection Pipe rams

Hanging off the toolstring


Tool Deployment System - 3

Injector head
assembly lifted
and connected
to lower Tool connection
pressure control made
assembly

Blind rams
Quad BOP Shear rams

Slip rams
Wellhead
connection Pipe rams

Connecting the toolstring and running string


Tool Deployment System - 4

Lubricator riser
Injector assembly connection made
and pressure and tested
control stack
connected and
tested
Blind rams

Shear rams
Quad BOP
Slip rams
Wellhead Pipe rams
connection

Running the toolstring


Tool Deployment System - 5
• Advantages
– Enables reduced height working for injector head
– Requires minimal special equipment
• Disadvantages
– There is a high dependency on crane operator skills
during crucial stages of the operation
– Injector head weight must be “stabilized” to enable tool
connection
– Operators are still exposed to suspended loads during
the rig-up and rig-down periods
Safe Deployment System Components
Hydraulic Injector head
supply and
return
Stripper
1 - QL Open
2 - QL Close Short riser
3 - Pressure
4a - Return
4b - ABOP Return Quick latch
All system functions 5 - Stripper
6 - SDDT Close
controlled from
7 - SDDT Open Side door
central control panel 8 - ABOP Close deployment tool
9 - ABOP Open

Hydraulic Control
Panel Annular BOP

Quad BOP

Wellhead
connection
System components
Safe Deployment System - 1
Toolstring
run/assembled using Tools run through
lubricator and wireline system to place
deployment techniques deployment bar
within BOP

Quick latch

SDDT Blind rams

Shear rams
Annular BOP
Slip rams
Quad BOP
Pipe rams
Wellhead
connection

Installing the toolstring


Safe Deployment System - 2
Lubricator removed at
quick latch for second
tool stage Running string
removed from
deployment bar
Quick latch

SDDT

Annular BOP
Blind rams

Shear rams
Quad BOP
Slip rams

Pipe rams
Wellhead
connection

Hanging off the toolstring


Safe Deployment System - 3
Injector head assembly Second tool stage
connected to lower connected to
pressure control stack deployment bar

Quick latch

Blind rams

Shear rams
Annular BOP
Slip rams

Pipe rams
Wellhead
connection

Connecting the running string and toolstring


Safe Deployment System - 4

Swivel connection
to enable
connection to be
made up without
rotating assemblies

Guide tool to enable


safe and easy
stabbing to
connections

Guide tool and swivel connector


Safe Deployment System - 5
Window closed

Injector head assembly


connected to lower
pressure control stack,
window closed and
assembly tested
Blind rams

Shear rams
Annular BOP
Slip rams

Pipe rams
Wellhead
connection

Running the toolstring


Safe Deployment System - 6
Wireline
PEH - E head
AH - 38 adapter

Wireline adapter with


landing collar for Balance housing
guide tool location
Spacer (for
ABOP)

Conductor
deployment bar
assembly Turndown section
(for pipe and slip
rams)

Tool string

Safe deployment system toolstring


Safe Deployment System - 7
• Advantages
– Minimum operator exposure to suspended loads
– Positive position indication for tools in running
equipment
– Improved redundancy/contingency options
– Dual pressure barriers in place throughout operation
– Greater stability during running/connection
procedure
• Disadvantages
CIRP Deployment System
Conveying Guns on CT
• Life well perforating
– Retrieval of long tool strings without killing the
well.
• Highly deviated and horizontal holes
• Complex wellbore paths
– Corkscrewed tubing
– Dog legs
• Long and heavy gun strings
• HPHT wells
– Need for simple and reliable systems (CBF-AA
Head)
CIRP System
• CIRP: Completion Insertion and Retrieval of
long gun strings under Pressure
– Enables safe deployment of long perforating gun
strings
• satisfies special requirements for explosives handling
– Eliminates requirement for rat hole to drop guns
• spent gun string retrieved
– Enables long intervals to be perforated with controlled
underbalance
• advantage over multiple runs
– Avoids necessity for well kill and associated damage
• perforating through the completion (thru-tubing)
Conventional CT Equipment Configuration

Injector head

Stripper
(dual)
Quick latch

Quad BOP

Shear/seal BOP

Wellhead

Equipment configuration (general) for conventional


CT operations
CIRP CT Equipment Configuration
Injector head
and stripper
assembly
above quad
BOP

Quick latch

Gate valve

Quad BOP
adapted for CIRP
system

Shear/seal BOP
on wellhead

Typical equipment configuration for CIRP


operations
Conveying Guns - CIRP System
• Features
– Pressure activated
firing mechanism
– Surface Deployment
System
• Advantages
– Any lenght of guns
• Dis-advantages
– Depth Correlation

CT Connector Firing Head CIRP Connectors Guns


CIRP - Toolstring Components - 1

Pinion teeth Deployment


Stinger
Sleeve

Deployment
connection

Fork sub

Latch spring Deployment


Receiver
CIRP - Toolstring Components - 2

Before firing After firing

CBF firing head components


CIRP - BOP Ram Components

CIRP BOP
with
toolstring in
place

CIRP system components


CIRP System Sequence - 1
Wireline conveyed
toolstring
Inner Ram - OPEN
Outer Ram - OPEN

Inner Ram - OPEN


Outer Ram - OPEN

Run in to position the slick joint


CIRP System Sequence - 2

Inner Ram - OPEN


Outer Ram - OPEN

Inner Ram - OPEN


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Close no-go rams and set down tool weight


CIRP System Sequence - 3

Inner Ram - OPEN


Outer Ram - OPEN

Inner Ram - CLOSED


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Close locks and perform pull test


CIRP System Sequence - 4

Inner Ram - CLOSED


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Inner Ram - CLOSED


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Close guide rams and engage rack to disconnect running


tool
CIRP System Sequence - 5

Inner Ram - CLOSED


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Inner Ram - CLOSED


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Run in with next tool section


CIRP System Sequence - 6

Inner Ram - OPEN


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Inner Ram - CLOSED


Outer Ram - CLOSED

Stab male stinger, open rack and pull test connector


CIRP System Sequence - 7
Inner Ram - OPEN
Outer Ram - OPEN

Inner Ram - OPEN


Outer Ram - OPEN

Open guide rams, locks and no-go rams and RIH


CIRP System Specification
•CIRP connector specifications (includes Safecon and
sealed balistic transfer components:

• Outside diameter (in.) 3.0 4.5


• Effective BOP spacing (in.) 11.5 11.5
• Tensile strength (000 lbf) 147 200
• Guns size (OD - in.) 2-7/8, 3-3/8, 3-1/2 4-1/2, 7
• Explosive HNS HNS
• Pressure (000 psi) 25 25
• Temperature (OF) 400 400
• BOP size/type 4.06 quad/combi 5.125 custom
CIRP Case Histories - Q1 1997
Job Dowell No.of Conveyance Gun Total No. of Wellbore Surface
No. Unit Runs Method Size Length Connectors Deviation Pressure
(ft) per Run (psi)

1 EAF 1 CT-TCP 2-7/8 900 23 90o 2000


2 NSR 10 WL 3-3/8 1200 2 60o 200
3 NSR 2 CT-TCP 2-7/8 721 11 18o 1100

4 EAF 1 CT-TCP 2-7/8 870 21 82o 1900


5 NSR 1 CT-TCP 3-3/8 197 5 29o 500
6 MEA 1 CT-TCP 2-7/8 50 2 90o 100

7 NSR 4 CT-TCP 2-7/8 1235 14 90 3000

Job 4 - CT connector released unintentionally. Job 6 - Severe dogleg limted gun length.
Job 7 - 44 connectors with 1 trigger charge failure
CIRP Operational Issues
• CIRP operation issues identified in early
experience include:
– System is technique sensitive
• training/education essential
• good coordination of operating personnel essential
– Contingencies must be well planned and understood
• potential for complex pressure control conditions
– Areas of responsibility
• for explosives, guns and connections
• operation of pressure control equipment
• operation of deployment equipment
CoilCADE

Computer Aided Design and Planning


for Coiled Tubing Operations
Job Design Objectives
• Job Feasibility
– Penetration and Forces
– Circulation and Solids Transport

• Conform to Minimum Safety Standards - SLP 22


– Operating Envelope
– Safety Margins for Pressure, Tension, Ovality and
Fatigue

• Equipment & Material Requirements


– Tubing Wall thickness and length
– Pump and tank sizes
– Fluid, additives and Nitrogen
Feasibility
Tubing Forces Model
• Principal functions:
– Stress and Reach : Confirm the selected toolstring can
be run to the specified depth within applicable
operating limits
– Downhole Force : Confirm the availability of force
(push/pull) for BHA operation
– Doglegs : Verify toolstring will pass within the
wellbore profile and geometry
– Predict weight indicator readings Vs. depth for RIH
and POOH
CT Limitations
One Dimension Vs Two Dimensional
Mat. Spec. Values

Neutral

Axial Stress Radial Stress Combination Combination


Pressure & Tension Limits

• Effects of pressure and Pressure, tension Pressure


and bending and bending
tension are closely
related (cumulative
forces) consequently Tension
operating limits should and
compression
consider both factors
• For example,
increasing tension:
Pressure,
– Lowers collapse tension and
resistance possible torque

– Increases burst
resistance
CT Limitations

Burst

Burst

Tensile
Compression

Compression Tensile

Collapse Collapse