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Differences Between
Males & Females

Knuckle Height (standing)

Elbow Rest Height (standing)
Hand Length/Grip Span
Functional Reach
Engineering Anthropometrics
The science that deals with the measurement of
size, weight, and proportions of the human

The use of body dimensions and

measurements to design the system to fit the
Anthropometric Design
1. Design for the RANGE
• Adjustable car seat, elbow rest height

2. Design for the EXTREME

• Height – design clearance for tall people
• Reach – design to be reached by short people

3. Design for the AVERAGE

• Public seating, designed to accommodate the
median of the population in use
Design Guidelines
Why Not Design For Average?
Design Guidelines
Why Not Design For Average?

When you design for the

average, you limit the most!
Design for Adjustability, Extremes, or Average? Design Guidelines

(North American Large Male) (North American Small Female)

Anthropometric Data

Breadth Across Thumb

Standing Seated Other

Standing Height Sitting Height Body Weight
Eye Height Eye Height Arm Reach
Elbow Height Elbow Height Foot Length
Ankle Height Knee Height Shoulder Breadth
Using Anthropometric Data

Calculate Minimum Work Surface Height

If work is to be performed at elbow rest height:

MWSH = + popliteal height

+ shoe height adjustment
+ thigh clearance
+ thigh clearance clothing adjustment
+ table thickness
Source: Tayyari F., and Smith, J.L., Occupational Ergonomics, Principles
and Applications, 1997.
Standing Workstation Challenge - Before Design Guidelines
Standing Workstation Dimensions Design Guidelines
Standing Workstation Challenge - After Design Guidelines
Material Handling Challenge - Before Design Guidelines
Material Handling Dimensions Design Guidelines
Safer Lifting Zone

Power Zone
The power zone for lifting is
close to the body, between
mid-thigh and mid-chest

Comparable to the strike zone

in baseball, this zone is where
arms and back can lift the
most with the least amount of
Material Handling Challenge - After Design Guidelines
Do I have a Problem? The Tools

Ergonomics Hit List™

» Observation tool
» Identify and resolve
ergonomic issues
Practical Approach
Find It Fix It

Wash Rag Tool/Target

The Hands
and Wrists
Total Physical Stress
Stress from Tensile Forces

Stress from Compressive Forces

First Dorsal

Retinaculum APL
Hit List
To Reduce Wrist Stress,

Hit List

Effect of Wrist Postures on Grip Strength
The Elbows
Elbows Out Hit List
Task Design Neutral Postures

Torso - keep back straight

Upper arm - hanging vertical
Forearm - 90˚ to upper arm

Wrist – straight, extension

of the forearm

Hands - palms facing each

Hit List
Bad Vibes
The Shoulders
and Neck
Hit List

Shoulder Too High/Shoulder Too Low

Optimal Work Zone

Work Reach Zone + Vision Arcs = The Optimal Work Area

Hit List

Comfort Zone
Hit List

Hungry Head
The Back
• Unstable Structure
Standing vs. Sitting

Lordosis Kyphosis
• Unstable Structure

• Rubber Tires
• Unstable Structure

• Rubber Tires

• Uneven Forces
Compressive Forces
Tension Forces
Shear Forces
Torsional Forces
Fulcrum - Leverage

Biomechanics of the Back

50 lbs.
50 lbs.

20 in. 20 in.
(50 cm) (50 cm)

F1 X D1 = F2 X D2
F1 X D1 = F2 X D2 F1 x 50cm = 23kg X 50 cm
F1/50 cm = (23kg X 50 cm) / (50cm)
= (1150 kg/cm) / (50cm)
F1 = (23kg)
Fulcrum - Leverage

Biomechanics of the Back

202 lbs. 50 lbs.
(92 kg.) (23 kg.)

8 in. (20 cm) 32 in. (80 cm)

F1 X D1 = F2 X D2
F1 x 20 cm = 23kg X 80 cm
F1/20 cm = (23kg X 80 cm) / (20cm)
= (1840 kg/cm) / (20cm)
F1 = (92kg)
BioMechanics of the Back Fulcrum - Leverage

Our Back as a Crane

Fulcrum - Leverage
Biomechanics of the Back
Biomechanics of the Back Fulcrum - Leverage
Fulcrum - Leverage

Biomechanics of the Back

Hit List

Butts Up
Sitting Vs. Standing
• Unstable Structure

• Rubber Tires

• Uneven Forces

• Inefficient Lever
Hit List

Horizontal Distance
• Unstable Structure

• Rubber Tires

• Uneven Forces
• Inefficient Lever

• Tight Tolerances
Hit List

Twist and Shout

Hit List

Hit List

Don’t Give Me Static