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The Respiratory System

Dr. Iziddin Fadhil

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Respiratory System Anatomy

 Structurally
 Upper respiratory system
 Nose, pharynx and associated structures
 Lower respiratory system
 Larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
 Functionally
 Conducting zone – conducts air to lungs
 Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and
terminal bronchioles
 Respiratory zone – main site of gas exchange
 Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and
alveoli

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Structures of the Respiratory System

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Nose

 External nose – portion visible on face


 Internal nose – large cavity beyond nasal
vestibule
 Internal nares or choanae
 Ducts from paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal
ducts open into internal nose
 Nasal cavity divided by nasal septum
 Nasal conchae subdivide cavity into meatuses
 Increase surface are and prevents dehydration
 Olfactory receptors in olfactory epithelium

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Structure of the Nose

Chapter 22, Respiratory System 5


Structure of the Nose

Figure 22.2b
Chapter 22, Respiratory System 6
Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pharynx
 Starts at internal nares and extends to cricoid cartilage of
larynx
 Contraction of skeletal muscles assists in deglutition
 Functions
 Passageway for air and food
 Resonating chamber
 Houses tonsils
 3 anatomical regions
 Nasopharynx
 Oropharynx
 Laryngopharynx

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Larynx

 Short passageway connecting laryngopharynx with trachea


 Composed of 9 pieces of cartilage
 Thyroid cartilage or Adam’s apple
 Cricoid cartilage hallmark for tracheotomy
 Epiglottis closes off glottis during swallowing
 Glottis – pair of folds of mucous membranes, vocal folds
(true vocal cords, and rima glottidis (space)
 Cilia in upper respiratory tract move mucous and trapped
particles down toward pharynx
 Cilia in lower respiratory tract move them up toward
pharynx

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Larynx

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Structures of Voice Production

 Mucous membrane of larynx forms


 Ventricular folds (false vocal cords) – superior pair
 Function in holding breath against pressure in thoracic
cavity
 Vocal folds (true vocal cords) – inferior pair
 Muscle contraction pulls elastic ligaments which stretch
vocal folds out into airway
 Vibrate and produce sound with air
 Folds can move apart or together, elongate or shorten,
tighter or looser
 Androgens make folds thicker and longer – slower
vibration and lower pitch

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Movements of Vocal Cords

Figure 22.5
Chapter 22, Respiratory System 13
Trachea
 Extends from larynx to superior border of T5
 Divides into right and left primary bronchi
 4 layers
 Mucosa
 Submucosa
 Hyaline cartilage
 Adventitia
 16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
 Open part faces esophagus

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Location of Trachea

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Bronchi
 Right and left primary bronchus goes to right lung
 Carina – internal ridge
 Most sensitive area for triggering cough reflex
 Divide to form bronchial tree
 Secondary lobar bronchi (one for each lobe), tertiary
(segmental) bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
 Structural changes with branching
 Mucous membrane changes
 Incomplete rings become plates and then disappear
 As cartilage decreases, smooth muscle increases
 Sympathetic ANS – relaxation/ dilation
 Parasympathetic ANS – contraction/ constriction

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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Lungs
 Separated from each other by the heart and other
structures in the mediastinum
 Each lung enclosed by double-layered pleural membrane
 Parietal pleura – lines wall of thoracic cavity
 Visceral pleura – covers lungs themselves
 Pleural cavity is space between layers
 Pleural fluid reduces friction, produces surface tension (stick
together)
 Cardiac notch – heart makes left lung 10% smaller
than right

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Relationship of the Pleural Membranes to
Lungs

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Anatomy of Lungs

 Lobes – each lung divides by 1 or 2 fissures


 Each lobe receives it own secondary (lobar) bronchus that
branch into tertiary (segmental) bronchi
 Lobules wrapped in elastic connective tissue and
contains a lymphatic vessel, arteriole, venule and
branch from terminal bronchiole
 Terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory
bronchioles which divide into alveolar ducts
 About 25 orders of branching

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Microscopic Anatomy of Lobule of Lungs

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Alveoli
 Cup-shaped outpouching
 Alveolar sac – 2 or more alveoli sharing a
common opening
 2 types of alveolar epithelial cells
 Type I alveolar cells – form nearly continuous lining,
more numerous than type II, main site of gas exchange
 Type II alveolar cells (septal cells) – free surfaces
contain microvilli, secrete alveolar fluid (surfactant
reduces tendency to collapse)

Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Alveolus
 Respiratory membrane
 Alveolar wall – type I and type II alveolar cells
 Epithelial basement membrane
 Capillary basement membrane
 Capillary endothelium
 Very thin – only 0.5 µm thick to allow rapid diffusion of
gases
 Lungs receive blood from
 Pulmonary artery - deoxygenated blood
 Bronchial arteries – oxygenated blood to perfuse muscular
walls of bronchi and bronchioles

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Components of Alveolus

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