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PENGANTAR KULIAH

ANATOMI

Dr. Thontowi Djauhari NS, M.Kes


Laboratorium Anatomi
Fakultas Kedokteran
Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang
Kuliah Perdana
Laboratorium Anatomi

Fakultas Kedokteran
UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

Tanggal, 21 oktober 2013


Sine Anatomi Nihil Medicine
Tidak Ada Ilmu Kedokteran Tanpa
Anatomi
ANATOMI
Asal Kata. Greek “ temnein”
artinya
“memotong”
( dissecting )
Pengertian.
Adalah ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh
melalui pemotongan ( dissecting )
--------- Ilmu Urai.
Selayang Pandang
130-201 : - Galen.Dokter Yunani melakukan dissecting pada
hewan.
- mengetahui bahwa darah mengalir dari jantung.
- Membuat hypotese bahwa susunan syaraf terdiri dari
devisi sensoris dan motoris.
1538 : - Andreas Vesalius Dokter Belgia tinggal di Italia
melakukan dissecting pada manusia
- menerbitkan buku anatomi pertama berjudul

De Fabrica Corporis Humani

1578-1657: William Harvey seorang Anatomis menerangkan


bahwa aliran darah merupakan aliran darah searah
Jantung arteri vena Jantung
Pembagian anatomi
Mikroskopik Anatomi
( Histologi = Ilmu Jaringan).
Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh dengan
menggunakan mikroskop

Makroskopik Anatomi
( Gross Anatomy = Ilmu Urai.)
Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur tubuh tanpa alat
pembesar.
Approaches to Studying Anatomy
Systemic Anatomy
Undergraduate courses
are taught systemically,
mainly because
physiology is taught
along with anatomy.

Regional Anatomy
Medical school courses
are taught regionally.
Dissection of a cadaver
is best done in this
manner.
Regional Anatomy
This course will be divided
into 4 units:

1. Back and Upper Limb


2. Thorax and Abdomen
3. Pelvis and Lower Limb
4. Head and Neck
SISTEM TUBUH MANUSIA

Atoms
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Organism
Organ Systems
Organ Systems
The urinary system, made up of kidneys, urinary
bladder, and tubes that convey urine, rids the body
of nitrogenous wastes, and regulates fluid balance
and pH.
Regio-regio Dalam Tubuh
manusia
Nama Regio Nama Anatomi.
Cephalic Cephalon
Cervicalis Cervicis
Thoracalis Thorax
Brachialis Brachium
Abdominalis Abdomen
Gluteus Glutea
Femoralis Femur
Cruris Crural
Pedis Pes
Regional Terms
Regional Terms
Terminologi
Anatomi
Anatomical Terminology
Directional.
– Anterior = front ---- navel is on the anterior the trunk.
– Ventral = belly side ---- navel is on the ventral surface.
– Posterior = behind ---- spine is on the posterior of the body.
– Dorsal = back = behind.
– Cranial = toward the head --- Chest is cranial to the abdomen.
– Superior = above ( when referring to standing human body superior is
equivalent to cranial)
– Caudal = toward the tail ----- the hips are cudal to the waist.
– Inferior = below; at a lower level. --- the knees are inferior to hips.
– Medial = toward the mid line
– Lateral = away from midline
– Proximal = toward the central of the body
– Distal = away from the central of the body.
– Superficial = toward body surface.
– Profundus = away from body surface.
Abreviation
a. = arteri = artery
v. = vena = vein
n. = nervus = nerve
m. = musculus = muscle
aa. = arteriae = arteries
vv. = venae = veins
mm. = musculi = muscles
nn. = nervi = nerves.
Terms of
Relationship and
Comparison
• Superficial vs. deep
• Medial vs. lateral
• Superior vs. inferior
• Cranial vs. caudal
• Anterior vs. posterior
• Proximal vs. distal
• Dorsal vs. palmar
• Dorsal vs. plantar

Be able to use each term


in a sentence. (See figure.)
Sections
MOVEMENT
Anatomic Positions

Prone

Supine
Anatomic Positions

Trendelenburg’s position

Fowler’s position
Cabang Lain Anatomi
Anatomi Perkembangan
– Embryology. Ilmu yang mempelajari anatomi
sebelum lahir . Disebut juga morphogenesis
– Ontogeny. Ilmu yang mempelajari perkembangan
mahluk dari fertilisasi sampai dewasa
– Anthropology Ragawi. Adalah bagian dari
phylogeny yaitu ilmu yang mempelajari
terjadinya suatu phylum--- ras.
Comparative Anatomi
Radiographic Anatomi
Praktikum
Menghargai preparat/cadaver
Jas Praktikum Rapi + Tanda Pengenal
Membawa alat-alat praktikum sendiri
Kuku dipotong pendek
Masuk Tepat Waktu
Dimulai dengan doa bersama
Keluar Lab. Harus Seijin Dosen
Tempat Sholat disediakan
SISTEM TUBUH PERMUKAAN
MUSCULOSKELETAL

Thontowi Djauhari NS M.Kes


Laboratorium Anatomi
Program Pendidikan Dokter
Univ. Muhammadiyah Malang
SKELETON (Kerangka
Tulang)
Axial skeleton : Axial Skeleton –
Skull 22 merupakan tulang axis dari tubuh :
Auditory ossicles 6
Hyoid bone 1 Contoh : cranium, vertebrae, sacrum,
costae
Vertebral column 26
Ribs and sternum 25
---- Appendicular Skeleton –
80 berbungan dengan penyusun
Appendicular skeleton : tubuh :
Upper extremity 64
Lower extremity 62 Contoh : extremitas atas bawah dan
pelvis
----
126

Total 206
Skeletal System
Structure:
– Bones
– Cartilage
Function
– Protection
– Support
– Movement
– Storage for salts (e.g., calcium)
– Supply of new blood cells
Parts
Axial skeleton
(skull, hyoid, vertebrae/sacrum, ribs,
sternum)
Appendicular skeleton
(bones of limbs including pectoral/pelvic
girdles)
Panjang Pendek
JENIS TULANG Pipih Tak beraturan
Sesamoid
KOMPOSISI TULANG

Water (25%)
Organic Constituent (~25%)
– Collagen.
A fibrous protein that provide flexibility.
Inorganic Constituent (~50%)
– Calcium phosphate and calcium
carbonate.
Mineral salts that provide hardness.
Bone Cell Types

Osteogenic cells- stem cells.


Osteoblasts- bone building cells, secrete matrix & collagen
fibers.
Osteocytes- mature bone cells that no longer secrete
matrix.
Osteoclasts- bone digestion.
Anatomy of a Long Bone

Diaphysis- shaft.
Epiphysis- the distal and
proximal ends of a long
bone.
Metaphysis- regions in a
mature bone where the
diaphysis joins the epiphysis.
Articular cartilage- a thin
layer of hyaline cartilage that
covers each epiphysis.
Medullary cavity- the space
in the diaphysis that contains
fatty yellow bone marrow.
Histology of Compact Bone
Concentric Lamellae- calcified matrix surrounding a vertically
oriented blood vessel.
Lacuna- a small hollow space, contains osteocytes.
Canaliculus- a small channel filled with extracellular fluid that
connects lacunae to each other, and to the central canal.
Central Canal- a circular channel that contains blood and
lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
Lacunae, Lamellae, Canaliculi, Haversian Canals
Structure of Long Bone

Figure 6.3
Bone Growth in Length
Epiphyseal plate
– Cartilage cells in this plate divide
rapidly.
– Zone of proliferating cartilage.
Between ages 18-25, the
epiphyseal plates close.
– Cartilage cells in the plate stop
dividing and bone replaces the
cartilage.
Growth in length stops at age
25.
Long Bone Formation and Growth

Slide
Bone Growth in Width
Factors Affecting Bone
Growth 1
Nutrition
– Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals.
Calcium and phosphorus for bone growth.
Vitamin C for collagen formation.
Vitamins K and B12 for protein synthesis.
Factors Affecting Bone
Growth 2
Hormones
– During childhood growth
factors stimulate cell
division.
Human growth hormone
(hGH)
Thyroid hormones
Insulin
– Sex steroids at puberty
initiate male and female
characteristics.
Hormonal Abnormalities
Oversecretion of hGH during
childhood produces giantism.
Undersecretion of hGH or the thyroid
hormones during childhood produces
dwarfism.
– The epiphyseal plate closes before
normal height is reached.
Estrogen is responsible for closing
the growth plate.
– Both men and women that lack estrogen
receptors on cells grow taller than
normal.
Aging and Bone Tissue
Demineralization- loss of minerals.
– Very rapid in women 40-45 as estrogen levels
decrease.
– In males, begins after age 60, but is gradual.
Decrease in protein synthesis
– Decrease in growth hormone.
– Decrease in collagen production, which gives bone its
tensile strength, this causes bone to become brittle
and susceptible to fracture.
Cold spots
indicate
– Decreased
metabolism of
decalcified
bone.
– Fracture.
– Bone
infection.
Bone Fractures
 A break in a bone
 Types of bone fractures
 Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not
penetrate the skin
 Open (compound) fracture – broken bone
penetrates through the skin
 Bone fractures are treated by reduction
and immobilization
 Realignment of the bone
Slide 5.16
Types of fractures
Pathology Part 2

Complex Incomplete Comminuted Greenstick

Simple (closed) Compound (open) Colles’ Impacted


Common Types of Fractures
Common Types of Fractures
Common Types of Fractures
Common Types of Fractures

Table 5.2

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 5.17
Stages in the Healing of a Bone
Fracture

Figure 5.5

Slide 5.19
Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture
Skeletal Muscle & Muscle Architecture
Muscle Shape
Flat
(with an aponeurosis)

Pennate
(“featherlike”)

Fusiform
(spindle-shaped)

Quadrate
(with 4 sides)

Circular
(surrounds an opening)
Architecture of muscle
Architecture of muscle
Strap/flat
Ex : m. sartorius
m. sternocleidomastoideus
Fusiform
Ex : M. biceps brachii
Pennate :
– Unipennate
m. pronator quadratus
– Bipennate
m. rectus femoris
– Multipennate
m. deltoideus
Circular
m. orbicularis oculi
m. orbicularis oris Sphincter
TERIMA KASIH