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CHAPTER 9

CONCEPT OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION


(DRR) AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
MANAGEMENT (DRRM)
OBJECTIVES
• DIFFERENTIATE DRR FROM
DRRM
• EXPLAIN THE VALUE OF EACH
KEY DRR AND DRMM ACTIVITIES
• DETERMINE HOW DRRM
ACTIVITIES ARE PRIORITIZED
AND RESOURCES ALLOCATED
TO COME UP WITH THE BEST
The huge losses and casualties that had
been incurred in past disasters tell us that the
level of mitigation capabillities and level of
preparedness of a country are related to the
level of its resources. For a vulnerable
country with limited resources, it then
becomes a matter of exlploring all viable and
cost-effective mitigation and preparedness
mitigation.
What is DRR?
•Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) refers to
systematic efforts to minimize vulnerabilities
and disaster risks, to avoid (prevention) or
to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the
effect of hazards.
•Mitigation measures are designed to
minimize disaster-related losses (life,
property or assets, and environment).
Like mitigation measures, preparedness measures such as early
warning are DRR treatments activities which are also done
before a disaster causing event.
Examples of DRR activities, which are done before a disaster
strikes, are the following:
• building code revision and implementation
• hazard and vulnerability analysis
• zoning and land use management
• public awareness and education
• early warning system including forecasting and dissemination
of warnings
COMPONENTS OF
DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION
TAKEN BEFORE A
DISASTER
Risk Identification

RISK ANALYSIS

Risk PRIORITTIZATION
MONITORING AND
Risk TREATMENT EVALUATION
DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION IS A
PROCESS WHICH IS
DONE BEFORE A
DISASTER STRIKES AND
CONSISTS OF FIVE
STEPS: RISK
IDENTIFICATION, RISK
•THE RISK IDENTIFICATION
STAGE IDENTIFIES THE
HAZARDS
•RISK ANALYSIS AIMS TO
ESTABLISH THE MAGNITUDE
AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF
OCCURENCE OF THE EVENT.
•THE RISK PRIORITIZATION
STEP ANALYSES AND
IDENTIFY PRIORITY SUBJECT
•MONITORING AND
EVALUATION
OVERSEES THE
IMPLEMENTATION
PROGRESS OF THE
DISASTER RISK
MANAGEMENT
PROCESS. THIS STAGE
EXAMPLE OF MITIGATION
MEASURES:
• STRENGTHINING BUILDING
• PROPER TIMING OF CROP
CYCLES
• DETERMINING WHICH
FACILITIES REQUIRES FIRE-
SAFING ROOFING MATERIALS
• FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECTS
• CRAFTING AND
IMPLEMENTATIOON OF LAND
PLANNING FOR EVACUATION
ROUTES AND CAMPS, AND
LOGISTICS FOR PROVIDING
RELIEF SUPPPLIES IS A GOOD
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
PRACTICE. IT ALSO INCLUDES
ACTIVITIES SUCH AS
STOCKPILING OF EQUIPMENT
AND SUPPLIES. THE
PROMOTION OF PUBLIC
THE DISASTER
MANAGEMENT CYCLE
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
ACTIVITIES ARE PART AND PARCEL
OF THE WHOLE EFFORT
UNDERTAKEN BEFORE AND UNTIL A
LONG AFTER A DISASTRUS EVENT.
THE ENTIRE ARRAY OF ACTIVITIES
AIMED AT REDUCING THE SEVERITY
OF THE IMPACT OF THE DISASTER-
CAUSING EVENT WHICH ARE
UNDERTAKEN , BEFORE ,
THE ACTIVITIES COMMMONLY LUMPED
TOGETHER AS A DISASTER
MANAGEMENT ARE:
PRE-EVENT: RISK ASSESMENT
MITIGATION OR PRESERVATION
PREPAREDNESS
SYN-EVENT: EMERGENCY RESPONSE
(RESCUE,EVACUATION
RELIEF)
POST-EVENT: RECOVERY
REHABILITATION
RECONSTRUCTION
THE MOST CHALLENGING PERIOD
OF A DISASTER IS PROBABLY RIGHT
AFTER IT HAPPENS SEARCH AND
RESCUE OPERATIONS WILL BE
NEEDED FOR THOSE WHO ARE
TRAPPED,ISOLATED, OR
MISSING.THE DISASTER
AFTERMATH WILL YEILD MANY
INJURED PEOPLE AND
ENVIRONMENT CONDUCIVE TO
MANY KINDS OF DISEASE. MEDICINE
AND MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND
RISK IDENTIFICATION/ POST-EVENT
ASSESSMENT

• HAZARD ANALYSIS • RECOVERY


• VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS • REHABILITATION
• DETERMINATION OF RISK • RECONSTRUCTION

SYN-EVENT
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT EVENT

• HAZARD ANALYSIS
• VULNERABILITY
MITIGATION PREPAREDNESS ANALYSIS
• DETERMINATION OF
RISK
• HAZARD ANALYSIS • HAZARD ANALYSIS
• VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS • VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
• DETERMINATION OF RISK • DETERMINATION OF RISK
Disaster recovery, rehabilitation, and
reconstruction have to start as soon as
disaster response has concluded. This
is a gargantuan task for the
government, requiring tremendous
amount of funds and a huge array of
human resources.
COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT (CBDRRM)
FOR PREPAREDNESS: EMERGENCY PLAN,
MONITORING AND EVALUATION, EARLY
WARNING SYSTEMS, AND SURVIVAL KITS AND
MATERIALS
Who are the Participants in CBDRRM?

CBDRRM engages communities not only in


DRR but also in all phases of the disaster
management cycle. The task of decision-making
and activity implementation rest primarily on
local people and organizations with the national
government assuming a supportive partner’s
role.
CBDRRM aims to create resilient communities
which are able to reduce their vulnerabilities and
exposure, and at the same time enhance their
capacities before, during, and after a disaster.
Capacity refers to the ability to reduce the probability
of failure through risk reduction measures, to reduce
the consequences of failure, and to reduce recovery
time and patterns of vulnerability during
reconstruction.
Ideally, every individual, family, organization,
business, and public service entity within a
community must assume a role in reducing disaster
risks. People from all walks of life are needed to
perform the multitude of actions that are necessary.
Families can practice DRRM with the smaller
hazards they are exposed to at home and later on,
with the hazards affecting bigger areas in mind.

Training for and practice of CBDRRM starts at home


CBDRRM in Schools
When students conduct earthquake or fire drills,
the knowledge and skills they acquire are transferred
directly to their families and to their communities. In
many respects, the school can be perceived as a
microcosm of both the community and it belongs to
and of the country.
Procedure:
1. Planning/Organizing the Earthquake Drill
2. Developing the School Earthquake Evacuation Plan
3. Orientation Prior to the Conduct of Earthquake Drill
4. Actual Conduct of Earthquake Drill
*The alarm phase
*The response phase
*The evacuation phase
*The assembly phase
*The head count phase
The End