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THE IMPACT OF UTILIZING

PSYCHOANALYTIC AND
SOCIO – CULTURAL
APPROACH INTO TEACHING
NICK JOAQUIN’S WORK:
BASIS FOR PROPOSED
LEARNING PLAN
Grace O. Dial
Diana Christine S. Limbo
Paolla Mae Rubio
BACKGROUND OF
THE PROBLEM
Although names such as Shakespeare, Bronte,
and Dickens might cross someone’s mind when
literature is mentioned, the Philippines can have
its share of literary figures that it can be proud
of, one of which is Nick Joaquin; a Filipino
novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, and
biographer whose works present the diverse
heritage of the Filipino people. His works are
found in most literature books and he is indeed
a Filipino pride in the literary word. One cannot
study Philippine literature and not read his
work.
Nick Joaquin is an active writer, who authored
various genres, such as short stories, novels,
children’s stories, poems, plays, biography, and
essays, from the young age of seventeen during the
pre-war up until late 1990s. His reading audience
reaches generations and varies among the educated
elite and the popular viewing public of classic movies
like Kisapmata (1981 film, directed by Mike de Leon
and based on his reportage, “The House on Zapote
Street”) and Tatarin (2001 film, directed by Tikoy
Aguiluz and based on his short story “The Summer
Solstice”) (Devilles and Martin, 2018).
STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM
It seeks to answer the following questions:

•What are the differences between the


psychoanalytic and cultural approach in
discussing the works of Nick Joaquin?
•What are the advantages and
disadvantages of the two approaches?
•What is the impact of utilizing
psychoanalytic and socio-cultural
approach in teaching works of Nick
Joaquin?
THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic approach is a theory
propounded by the Austrian physician
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and continued
by many others. It is primarily focused to
the study of human psychological
functioning and behavior. It focuses on the
inner workings of the mind of the characters
that contribute to his behavior in the literary
text.
Socio-Cultural Theory
The Socio-Cultural Theory is a
developing theory in psychology that
looks at the important contributions
that society makes to individual
development. This theory emphasizes
the interaction between developing
people and the culture in which they
live.
CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK
Input
• Utilizing Psychoanalysis and Socio-Cultural approaches in teaching
Nick Joaquin’s work

Process
• Pre-test is conducted before utilizing each approaches
• Conducting the lesson using the learning plan devised for the students
• Post test is conducted to see if there is a manifested learning after the
lessons.

Output
• Students' better understanding of Nick Joaquin's works with the use of
the devised learning plan and the literary approaches mentioned.
• The professors have further knowledge on what better approach to
use in analyzing works of Nick Joaquin.
SIGNIFICANCE OF
THE STUDY
REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE AND
STUDIES
RELATED
LITERATURE
Freud has influenced literature immensely.
Concepts like psycho – somatic growth of
human beings have given a very important and
effective tool of analysis to authors as well as
critics to dig deep into the hidden aspects of an
individual’s personalities and their thoughts,
especially secret thoughts (Sharma, n.d.).
Psychoanalytic literary criticism used
biographical as well as socio – cultural materials
to draw conclusions on the author’s intended
meaning.
When considering theories of learning professionals should
also consider sociocultural perspectives and the role that
culture, interaction, and collaboration have on quality
learning. Modern social learning theories stem from the
work of Russian psychologist Vygotsky, who produced his
ideas between 1924 and 1934 as a reaction to existing
conflicting approaches in psychology (Kozulin, 1990).
Vygotsky’s ideas are most recognized for identifying the
role social interactions and culture play in the development
of higher-order thinking skills, and it is especially valuable
for the insights it provides about the dynamic
“interdependence between individual and social processes
in the construction of knowledge” (John-Steiner & Mahn,
1996, p. 192).
RELATED
STUDIES
In a recent study by Mahroof Hossain entitled
Psychoanalytic theory used in English Literature: A
Descriptive Study (2017), he aims to aims to explore where
psychoanalysis has been used by the author’s in his/her
literary works in English literature. He argues that
“psychoanalysis is one of the modern theories that are used
in English literature” (Hossain, 2017). According to him,
psychological interpretation has become one of the devices
to find out the veiled meaning of a literary text. It also helps
to discover the “innate conglomerate” of the author’s
nature and disposition as factors that donate to his
experience from birth to the period of writing a book. The
aim of psychoanalysis was to show that behavior which was
triggered by the communication between unconscious and
unco-nsciousness.
RESEARCH
DESIGN
For the sake of credibility and validation of
the paper, the researchers used
quantitative methodology.
Quantitative research can be described as
“entailing the collection of numerical data
and exhibiting the view of relationship
between theory and research as deductive, a
predilection for natural science approach,
and as having an objectivist conception of
social reality” (Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2015).
To test the research questions established in the
Introduction, experimental research
was conducted. The rationale for using this
research strategy is that it allows for a variety of
methods to recruit participants, collect data, and
utilize various methods of instrumentation.
Experimental research is any research
conducted with a scientific approach, where a
set of variables are kept constant while the other
set of variables are being measured as the
subject of experiment.
SAMPLING
PROCEDURE
Purposive sampling was applied to
select academic programs within The
National Teachers College. Purposive
sampling (also known as judgment, selective
or subjective sampling) is a sampling
technique in which researcher relies on his
or her own judgment when choosing
members of population to participate in the
study.
Two Philippine Literature
professors from The National
Teachers College with approximately
40 students each were selected to
conduct the research.
DATA GATHERING
PROCEDURE
The researchers used a pretest –
posttest design as an experiment
where measurements are taken both before
and after a treatment. The design means
that the researchers were able to see the
effects of some type of treatment on a group.
SCOPE AND
LIMITATION
This study “The Impact of Utilizing Psychoanalytic
and Socio – cultural Approach into Teaching Nick
Joaquin’s Work: Basis for Proposed Learning Plan” is
limited only to the following short stories by Nick
Joaquin, namely: Summer Solstice, Mayday Eve and
The Woman with Two Navels. The scope of the study
involves utilizing Psychoanalysis and Socio - Cultural
Approaches in teaching literary works by Nick
Joaquin. The research will be taking place at The
National Teachers College and the respondents will
be 2 professors, who teach Philippine Literature with
approximately 40 students each. The research will
also be administered in one school semester only.
STATISTICAL
TREATMENT
To interpret the data effectively, the
researchers employed t-test as their
statistical treatment. The t test is one type of
inferential statistics. It is used to determine
whether there is a significant difference
between the means of two groups.
Where,
x1¯x1¯ = Mean of first set of
values
x2¯x2¯ = Mean of second set
of values
S1 = Standard deviation of
first set of values
S2 = Standard deviation of
second set of values
n1 = Total number of values in
first set
n2 = Total number of values in
second set.
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