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Research Methodology


Chapter 1: Introduction

1. Introduction
• Research is defined as the systematic and
objective process of data to generate
information for creation of new knowledge or
improving current practices.

• Research follows the scientific method of


• Scientific method refers to the methodology

used to analyze empirical evidence in an attempt
to confirm or disprove prior conceptions
2. Research Types

Research can be classified in terms of the

Goal of research as basic and applied research
 Specific objectives of research as descriptive ,
exploratory, and casual (or explanatory ) research
 Approaches of research ( qualitative and
quantitative research )
 Research designs ( experimental, quasi –
experimental , and non –experimental research)
 the type of data used in research ( primary or
field research , and secondary or desk research)
Fields of study ( Natural science research, social science
research, educational research, behavioural science research,
health science research, etc. 3
• Basic Research: Attempts to expand the limits of
knowledge. It is not directly involved in the solution
to a pragmatic problem.
• Applied Research is conducted when a decision
must be made about a specific real-life problem
• Descriptive research is designed to describe
characteristics or state of affair of a phenomena
• Exploratory research is an initial research
conducted to clarify and define the nature of the
• Casual or explanatory research is conducted to
identify cause – and -effect relationships among
variables when the research problem has already
been narrowly defined 4
Criteria for determining Whether or not to
Conduct Research
• Time constraints
• Availability of data
• Nature of the decision
• Benefits versus costs

Availability of Benefits
Time Constraints Data Nature of Decision vs. Costs

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Is the infor- Does the value
Is sufficient time Is the decision
mation already of the research
available before
on hand
of considerable
a managerial strategic
or tactical
exceed the cost Research
for making of conducting
must be made? importance?
the decision? research?

No No No No

Do Not Conduct Research

2. The Research Process
Problem Discovery
and Definition

Design Conclusions and

Data Processing
and Analysis

3. Research Ethics
• Ethical responsibility to do the work honestly and
with integrity.
• Fraud must be avoided that comes in the form of
– Being selective in sampling
– Deliberately biasing data collection
– Not reporting survey responses rates
– Making up data
– Falsifying results
– Biased or inappropriate analysis , and the like
• Maintain the Rights and Obligations of the
Respondents / participants