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Research Methodology

(RM4111)

Chapter 1: Introduction

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1. Introduction
• Research is defined as the systematic and
objective process of data to generate
information for creation of new knowledge or
improving current practices.

• Research follows the scientific method of


inquiry.

• Scientific method refers to the methodology


used to analyze empirical evidence in an attempt
to confirm or disprove prior conceptions
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2. Research Types

Research can be classified in terms of the


Goal of research as basic and applied research
 Specific objectives of research as descriptive ,
exploratory, and casual (or explanatory ) research
 Approaches of research ( qualitative and
quantitative research )
 Research designs ( experimental, quasi –
experimental , and non –experimental research)
 the type of data used in research ( primary or
field research , and secondary or desk research)
Fields of study ( Natural science research, social science
research, educational research, behavioural science research,
health science research, etc. 3
• Basic Research: Attempts to expand the limits of
knowledge. It is not directly involved in the solution
to a pragmatic problem.
• Applied Research is conducted when a decision
must be made about a specific real-life problem
• Descriptive research is designed to describe
characteristics or state of affair of a phenomena
• Exploratory research is an initial research
conducted to clarify and define the nature of the
problem
• Casual or explanatory research is conducted to
identify cause – and -effect relationships among
variables when the research problem has already
been narrowly defined 4
Criteria for determining Whether or not to
Conduct Research
• Time constraints
• Availability of data
• Nature of the decision
• Benefits versus costs

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Availability of Benefits
Time Constraints Data Nature of Decision vs. Costs

Yes Yes Yes Yes


Is the infor- Does the value
Is sufficient time Is the decision
mation already of the research
available before
on hand
of considerable
information
Conducti
a managerial strategic
decision
inadequate
or tactical
exceed the cost Research
for making of conducting
must be made? importance?
the decision? research?

No No No No

Do Not Conduct Research


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2. The Research Process
Problem Discovery
and Definition

Research
Design Conclusions and
Report

Sampling
Data Processing
and Analysis
Data
Gathering

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3. Research Ethics
• Ethical responsibility to do the work honestly and
with integrity.
• Fraud must be avoided that comes in the form of
– Being selective in sampling
– Deliberately biasing data collection
– Not reporting survey responses rates
– Making up data
– Falsifying results
– Biased or inappropriate analysis , and the like
• Maintain the Rights and Obligations of the
Respondents / participants
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