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Conduction and convection both

require the presence of a material

medium but convection requires

fluid motion.

Convection involves fluid motion as

well as heat conduction.

Heat transfer through a solid is

always by conduction.

Heat transfer through a fluid is by

convection in the presence of bulk

fluid motion and by conduction in

the absence of it.

Therefore, conduction in a fluid can

be viewed as the limiting case of

convection, corresponding to the

case of quiescent fluid.

2

The fluid motion enhances heat transfer, since it brings warmer and

cooler chunks of fluid into contact, initiating higher rates of conduction

at a greater number of sites in a fluid.

The rate of heat transfer through a fluid is much higher by convection

than it is by conduction.

In fact, the higher the fluid velocity, the higher the rate of heat transfer.

fluid sandwiched between

two parallel plates.

3

Convection heat transfer strongly depends on the fluid properties

dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat, as

well as the fluid velocity. It also depends on the geometry and the

roughness of the solid surface, in addition to the type of fluid flow (such

as being streamlined or turbulent).

Newton’s

law of

cooling

transfer between a solid surface and a fluid per unit surface

area per unit temperature difference.

4

No-slip condition: A fluid in direct contact with a solid “sticks” to the surface

due to viscous effects, and there is no slip.

Boundary layer: The flow region adjacent to the wall in which the viscous

effects (and thus the velocity gradients) are significant.

The fluid property responsible for the no-slip condition and the development

of the boundary layer is viscosity.

comes to a complete stop at the surface

because of the no-slip condition.

5

An implication of the no-slip condition is that heat transfer from the solid

surface to the fluid layer adjacent to the surface is by pure conduction,

since the fluid layer is motionless, and can be expressed as

when the temperature distribution within the fluid is known

The convection heat transfer coefficient, in general, varies along the flow

(or x-) direction. The average or mean convection heat transfer coefficient

for a surface in such cases is determined by properly averaging the local

convection heat transfer coefficients over the entire surface area As or

length L as

6

Nusselt Number

In convection studies, it is common practice to nondimensionalize the governing

equations and combine the variables, which group together into dimensionless

numbers in order to reduce the number of total variables.

Nusselt number: Dimensionless convection heat transfer coefficient

Lc characteristic length

enhancement of heat transfer through

a fluid layer as a result of convection

relative to conduction across the same

fluid layer.

The larger the Nusselt number, the

more effective the convection.

A Nusselt number of Nu = 1 for a fluid

Heat transfer through a fluid layer layer represents heat transfer across

of thickness L and temperature the layer by pure conduction.

7

difference T.

VELOCITY BOUNDARY LAYER

Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow above

the plate bounded by in which the effects of the viscous

shearing forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.

The boundary layer thickness, , is typically defined as the

distance y from the surface at which u = 0.99V.

The hypothetical line of u = 0.99V divides the flow over a

plate into two regions:

Boundary layer region: The viscous effects and the

velocity changes are significant.

Irrotational flow region: The frictional effects are

negligible and the velocity remains essentially constant.

8

Wall Shear Stress Shear stress: Friction force per unit area.

The shear stress for most fluids is

proportional to the velocity gradient, and

the shear stress at the wall surface is

expressed as

dynamic viscosity

kg/ms or Ns/m2 or Pas

1 poise = 0.1 Pa s

The fluids that obey the linear relationship

above are called Newtonian Fluids.

Most common fluids such as water, air,

gasoline, and oils are Newtonian fluids.

Blood and liquid plastics are examples of

non-Newtonian fluids. In this text we

consider Newtonian fluids only.

9

Kinematic viscosity,

m2/s or stoke

1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 0.0001 m2/s

and it is a strong function of temperature.

Cf friction coefficient or

skin friction coefficient

transfer studies since it is directly related to the heat transfer

coefficient and the power requirements of the pump or fan.

10

THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER

A thermal boundary layer develops when a fluid at a specified temperature

flows over a surface that is at a different temperature.

Thermal boundary layer: The flow region over the surface in which the

temperature variation in the direction normal to the surface is significant.

The thickness of the thermal boundary layer t at any location along the

surface is defined as the distance from the surface at which the temperature

difference T − Ts equals 0.99(T− Ts).

The thickness of the thermal

boundary layer increases in the

flow direction, since the effects

of heat transfer are felt at

greater distances from the

surface further down stream.

The shape of the temperature

profile in the thermal boundary

layer dictates the convection

heat transfer between a solid

surface and the fluid flowing

over it.

Thermal boundary layer on a flat plate (the

11

fluid is hotter than the plate surface).

Prandtl Number

The relative thickness of the velocity and the thermal boundary layers

is best described by the dimensionless parameter Prandtl number

about 1, which indicates that both

momentum and heat dissipate

through the fluid at about the same

rate.

Heat diffuses very quickly in liquid

metals (Pr << 1) and very slowly in

oils (Pr >> 1) relative to momentum.

Consequently the thermal boundary

layer is much thicker for liquid metals

and much thinner for oils relative to

the velocity boundary layer.

12

LAMINAR AND Laminar flow is encountered when

highly viscous fluids such as oils flow

TURBULENT FLOWS in small pipes or narrow passages.

Laminar: Smooth

streamlines and highly

ordered motion.

Turbulent: Velocity

fluctuations and highly

disordered motion.

Transition: The flow

fluctuates between

laminar and turbulent

flows.

Most flows encountered in

practice are turbulent.

The behavior of

colored fluid

Laminar and injected into the

turbulent flow flow in laminar

regimes of and turbulent

candle smoke. flows in a pipe. 13

Reynolds Number At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial

The transition from laminar to turbulent forces, which are proportional to the

flow depends on the geometry, surface fluid density and the square of the fluid

roughness, flow velocity, surface velocity, are large relative to the viscous

temperature, and type of fluid. forces, and thus the viscous forces

cannot prevent the random and rapid

The flow regime depends mainly on the fluctuations of the fluid (turbulent).

ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces

At small or moderate Reynolds

(Reynolds number).

numbers, the viscous forces are large

enough to suppress these fluctuations

and to keep the fluid “in line” (laminar).

The Reynolds number at which the

flow becomes turbulent.

The value of the critical Reynolds

number is different for different

geometries and flow conditions.

viewed as the ratio of inertial

forces to viscous forces

14

acting on a fluid element.

DERIVATION OF DIFFERENTIAL

CONVECTION EQUATIONS

15

The Continuity Equation

16

The Momentum Equations

17

18

19

Conservation of Energy Equation

20

21

22

Tubes and Pipes

• Pipe ─ circular cross section.

• Duct ─ noncircular cross section.

• Tubes ─ small-diameter pipes.

• The fluid velocity changes from zero at the

surface (no-slip) to a maximum at the pipe

center.

• It is convenient to work with an

average velocity, which remains

constant in incompressible flow

when the cross-sectional area

Average Velocity

from the conservation of mass principle

m Vavg AC u r dAC

Ac

(8-1)

radius R

u r dA

C

R

u r 2 rdr 2

R

Vavg 2 u r rdr

Ac 0

AC R 2 R 0

(8-2)

Average Temperature

• It is convenient to define the value of the mean

temperature Tm from the conservation of energy

principle.

• The energy transported by the fluid through a

cross section in actual flow must be equal to the

energy that would be transported through the

same cross section if the fluid were at a constant

temperature Tm

p c (8-3)

m Ac

• For incompressible flow in a circular pipe of radius R

c T r m c T r u r 2 rdr

p p

Tm

m Ac

mc p Vavg R 2 c p (8-4)

R

2

2

T r u r rdr

Vavg R 0

• The mean temperature Tm of a fluid changes

during heating or cooling.

Idealized Actual

Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Tubes

• For flow in a circular tube, the Reynolds number

is defined as

Vavg D Vavg D (8-5)

Re

• For flow through noncircular tubes D is replaced

by the hydraulic diameter Dh.

4 Ac

Dh (8-6)

P

• fully turbulent: Re>10,000.

The Entrance Region

• Consider a fluid entering a circular pipe at a

uniform velocity.

• Because of the no-slip condition a velocity

gradient develops along the pipe.

• The flow in a pipe is divided into two regions:

– the boundary layer region, and

– the and the irrotational (core) flow region.

• The thickness of this

boundary layer Irrotational Boundary

layer

increases in the flow flow

direction until it

reaches the pipe

center.

• Hydrodynamic entrance region ─ the region from the

pipe inlet to the point at which the boundary layer merges

at the centerline.

• Hydrodynamically fully developed region ─ the region

beyond the entrance region in which the velocity profile is

fully developed and remains unchanged.

• The velocity profile in the fully developed region is

parabolic in laminar flow, and

somewhat flatter or fuller in turbulent flow.

Thermal Entrance Region

• Consider a fluid at a uniform temperature entering a circular tube

whose surface is maintained at a different temperature.

• Thermal boundary layer along the tube is developing.

• The thickness of this boundary layer increases in the flow direction

until the boundary layer reaches the tube center.

• Thermal entrance region.

• Thermally fully developed region ─ the region beyond the

thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless temperature

profile expressed as

(Ts-T)/(Ts-Tm)

remains unchanged.

Entry Lengths

Laminar flow

Hydrodynamic

Lh ,laminar 0.05 Re D (8-11)

Thermal

Lt ,laminar 0.05 Re Pr D Pr Lh,laminar (8-12)

Turbulent flow

L

Hydrodynamic

h,turbulent 1.359 D Re14

(8-13)

Thermal (approximate)

Pressure Drop

• One implication from Eq. 8-37 is that the pressure

drop gradient (dP/dx) must be constant (the left

side is a function only of r, and the right side is a

function only of x).

• Integrating from x=x1 where the pressure is P1 to

x=x1=L where the pressure is P2 gives

dP P2 P1

(8-43)

dx L

• Substituting Eq. 8–43 into the Vavg expression in

Eq. 8–40

8 LVavg 32 LVavg

P P1 P2 2

2 (8-44)

R D

• A pressure drop due to viscous effects

represents an irreversible pressure loss.

• It is convenient to express the pressure loss for

all types of fully developed internal flows in

terms of the dynamic pressure and the friction

dynamic pressure

factor

friction factor

L V 2

(8-45)

PL

avg

f

D 2

and solving for f gives

Circular tube, laminar: 64 64

f

DVavg Re (8-46)

Heat Transfer

numbers:

Film temperature:

Average friction

coefficient:

coefficient:

34

PARALLEL FLOW OVER FLAT PLATES

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the surface geometry,

surface roughness, upstream velocity, surface temperature, and the type of fluid,

among other things, and is best characterized by the Reynolds number.

The Reynolds number at a distance x from the leading edge of a flat plate is

expressed as

the Critical Reynold number

critical Reynolds number for a flat plate

may vary somewhat from 105 to 3 106,

depending on the surface roughness, the

turbulence level, and the variation of

pressure along the surface.

35

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