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Course : Artificial Intelligence

Effective Period : September 2018

Introduction to Machine
Learning

Session 17

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of this session, students will be able to:

 LO 5: Apply various learning algorithms to solve the problems

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Outline
1. Introduction

2. What is Machine Learning?

3. Why is Machine Learning?

4. Machine Learning Application

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Machine Learning

“If you were a current computer science student what area would
you start studying heavily?
–Answer: Machine Learning.

–“The ultimate is computers that learn”

Bill Gates, Reddit AMA

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Machine Learning

“Machine learning is the next Internet”

Tony Tether, Director, DARPA

“Machine learning is today’s discontinuity”

Jerry Yang

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Google Trends

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2015 Edition

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2016 Edition

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2017 Edition

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What is machine learning?

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Example: Netflix Challenge
• Goal: Predict how a viewer will rate a movie
• 10% improvement = 1 million dollars

slide by YaserAbu-Mostapha 11
Example: Netflix Challenge
• Goal: Predict how a viewer will rate a movie
• 10% improvement = 1 million dollars
• Essence of Machine Learning:
– A pattern exists
– We cannot pin it down mathematically
– We have data on it

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AlphaGo vs Lee Sedol

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NVIDIA BB8 AI Car

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What is Machine Learning?
• [Arthur Samuel, 1959]

– Field of study that gives computers

– the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed

• [Kevin Murphy] algorithms that

– automatically detect patterns in data

– use the uncovered patterns to predict future data or other


outcomes of interest

slide by Dhruv Batra


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Comparison

slide by Pedro Domingos, Tom Mitchel, Tom Dietterich 16


What is Machine Learning?
• If you are a Scientist

• If you are an Engineer / Entrepreneur

– Get lots of data

– Machine Learning

– ???

– Profit!
slide by Dhruv Batra
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Why Study Machine Learning?
• Develop systems

– too difficult/expensive to construct manually

– because they require specific detailed skills/knowledge

– knowledge engineering bottleneck

• Develop systems

– that adapt and customize themselves to individual users.

– Personalized news or mail filter

– Personalized tutoring
slide by Dhruv Batra
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Why Study Machine Learning?
• Algorithms

– Many basic effective and efficient algorithms available.

• Data

– Large amounts of on-line data available.

• Computing

– Large amounts of computational resources available.

slide by Ray Mooney


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Where does ML fit in?

slide by Fei Sha 20


Machine Learning (by examples)

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Pose Estimation

slide by Alex Smola 22


Collaborative Filtering

slide by Alex Smola 23


Spam Filtering

slide by Alex Smola 24


Search Ads

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Important challenges in ML
• How important is the actual learning algorithm and its tuning

• Simple versus complex algorithm

• Overfitting

• Model Selection

• Regularization

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References
• Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig. 2010. Artificial Intelligence : A
Modern Approach. Pearson Education. New Jersey.
ISBN:9780132071482

• https://web.cs.hacettepe.edu.tr/~aykut/classes/fall2017/bbm40
6/

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