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for GRADE 9
An entrepreneur is comprehensively defined by Zimmerer & Scarborough (2005) as
someone who “creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose
of achieving profit and growth by identifying significant opportunities and assembling
the necessary resources to capitalize on them” (p.3). They are the ones who act on their
business ideas.

Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies

There has been many studies to characterize “the entrepreneurial personality”; although
there is no isolated set of traits that guarantee success, there were identified behaviors
found common to most successful entrepreneurs. There is a well-known research on
human behavior done by McClelland and McBer which identified 10 behavioral patterns
organized into three general clusters: the achievement, planning, and power clusters
(SERDEF, 2007; 1998). It was found out that these behaviors were also typical
entrepreneurial behaviors. The entrepreneurial qualities, more known as the Personal
Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) are as follows:
Achievement Cluster
 Opportunity seeking – Entrepreneurs have a good eye for spotting business
opportunities and acts on these opportunities appropriately.

 Persistence - Entrepreneurs do not easily give up in the face of obstacles. They will
take repeated or different actions to overcome the hurdles of business. This includes
making a personal sacrifice or extraordinary effort to complete a job.

 Commitment to work contract - Entrepreneur do their best to satisfy customers and

to deliver what is promised. They accept full responsibility for problems when
completing a job for customers.

 Risk-taking - Entrepreneur are known for taking calculated risks and doing tasks that
are moderately challenging.

 Demand for efficiency and quality - Entrepreneur see to it that the business meets or
exceeds existing standards of excellence and exerts efforts to improve past performance
and do things better. They set high but realistic standards.
Planning Cluster
 Goal setting - Entrepreneur knows how to set specific,
measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound (SMART) goals.
It is easy for them to divide large goals into short-term goals.

 Information seeking - Entrepreneur update themselves with

new information about her customers, the market, suppliers, and
competitors. This is rooted to their innate sense of curiosity.

Systematic planning and monitoring - Entrepreneurs develop

and use logical, step-by-step plans to reach their goals. They
monitor progress towards goals and to alter strategies when
Power Cluster
 Persuasion and networking - Entrepreneurs know how
to use the right strategies to influence or persuade other
people. They have naturally established a network of
people who they can turn to in order to achieve their

 Self-confidence - Entrepreneurs have a strong belief in

themselves and their own abilities. They have self-
awareness and belief in their own ability to complete a
difficult task or meet a challenge.
Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Self-rating Questionnaire
Read each statement carefully and answer honestly based on how well it describes you.
There are five choices as follows: 5 = Always, 4 = Usually, 3 = Sometimes, 2 = Rarely
and 1 = Never. Please write the number you have selected on the space before
each statement. Some statements may be similar but no two are exactly alike.
Please go through each statement and answer all the item.

_______1. I look for things that need to be done.
_______2. When I am faced with a difficult problem, I spend a lot of time trying to find a solution.
_______3. I complete my work on time.
_______4. It bothers me when things are not done very well.
_______5. I prefer situations in which I can control the outcomes as much as possible.
_______6. I like to think about the future.
_______7. When starting a new task or project, I gather a great deal of information before going
_______8. I plan a large project by breaking it down into smaller tasks.
_______9. I get others to support my recommendations.
_______10. I feel confident that I will succeed at whatever I try to do.
_______11. No matter whom I’m talking to, I’m a good listener.
_______12. I do things that need to be done before being asked to by others.
_______13. I try several times to get people to do what I would like them to do.
_______14. I keep the promises I make.
_______15. My own work is better than that of other people work with.
_______16. I don’t try something new without making sure I will succeed.
_______17. It’s a waste of time to worry about what to do with your life.
_______18. I seek the advice of people who know a lot about the tasks I am working on.
_______19. I think about the advantages and disadvantages or different ways of
accomplishing things.
_______20. I do not spend much time thinking how to influence others.
_______21. I change my mind if others disagree strongly with me.
_______22. I feel resentful when I don’t get my way.
_______23. I like challenges and new opportunities.
_______24. When something gets in the way of what I’m trying to do, I keep on trying
to accomplish what I want.
_______25. I am happy to do someone else’s work if necessary to get the job done on
_______26. It bothers me when my time is wasted.
_______27. I weigh my chances of succeeding or failing before I decide to do something.
_______28. The more specific I can be about what I want out of life, the more chances I have to
_______29. I take action without wasting time gathering information.
_______30. I try to think of all the problems I may encounter and plan what to do if each problem
_______31. I get important people to help me accomplish my goals.
_______32. When trying something challenging, I feel confident that I will succeed.
_______33. In the past, I have had failures.
_______34. I prefer activities that I know well and with which I am comfortable.
_______35. When faced with major difficulties, I quickly go on to other things.
_______36. When I am doing a job for someone, I make a special effort to make sure that person is
happy with my work.
_______37. I am never entirely happy with the way things are done; I always think there must be a
better way.
_______38. I do things that are risky.
_______39. I have a very clear plan for my life.
_______40. When working on a project for someone, I ask many questions to be sure I understand
what that person wants.
_______ 41. I deal with problems as they arise, rather than spend time trying to anticipate
_______ 42. In order to reach my goals, I think of solutions that benefit.
_______ 43. I do very good work.
_______ 44. There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone.
_______ 45. I try things that are very new and different from what I have done before.
_______ 46. I try several ways to overcome things that get in the way of reaching my goals.
_______ 47. My family and personal life are more important to me than work deadlines I
set for myself.
_______ 48. I find ways to complete tasks faster at work and at home.
_______ 49. I do things that others consider risky.
_______ 50. I am as concerned about meeting my weekly goals as I am for my yearly goals.
_______51. I go to several different sources to get information for tasks or projects.
_______ 52. If one approach to a problem does not work, I think of another approach.
_______ 53. I am able to get people who have strong opinions or ideas to change their
_______ 54. I stick with my decisions even if others disagree strongly with me.
_______55. When I don’t know something, I don’t mind admitting it.

Business Environment and Market

The study of the business environment in a particular location has far-
reaching and long-term effects on a small or micro enterprise’s viability.
In fact, business ideas and opportunities are partly shaped or
determined by the business location. Unless it is possible to migrate to
more favorable locations, the ideas and opportunities for business will
oftentimes be delimited to the surrounding areas.
The business environment consists of both the tangible and intangible
factors that affect either the external or internal business operations.
They may include the land area available for economic zones, the
physical layout and barriers such as rivers, parks or lakes, and building
obstructions as well as the transportation network; all of which are
considered tangible factors.
They also include the demography of clients and suppliers, the
competitors in the locale/area and the available technology for production.
The intangible factors, on the other hand, include the sub-culture, industry
trends, economic and government activity or the political situations in the
Test I Multiple Choice
Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write the
letter of your choice in your quiz notebook.
1. Any substance that causes contamination
a) Contaminant b) Contamination c) Infection d) Decontamination
2. The loose skin separated from the cuticle.
a) Hangnails b) Bitten Nails c) Bruised Nails d) Split Nails
3. The technical term for nail.
a) Onconail b) Onyx c) Onycholysis d) Onyxil
4. The yellowish fluid that oozes from the wound.
a) Pus b) Fungus c) Bacteria d) Yeast
5. The plastic liners that increase heat retention when used with
a) Plastic bag b) Plastic c) Cling wrap bottle d) Mittens
6. The electronic gadget used to soothe pain of arthritis, muscle
spasms and dry cracked skin of the hands.
a) Paraffin wax b) Hand spa machine c) Foot spa machine d) Handkerchief
7. A condition in which white spots appear on the nails but do
not indicate disease.
a) Leuconychia b) Paronychia c) Koilonychia d) Onychauxis
8. Halfmoon shape found at the base of the nail
a)Cuticle b) Nail bed c) Nail root d) Lunula
9. Visible portion of the nail that is attached to the nail bed.
a)Nail plate b) Nail walls c) Nail grooves d) Nail root
10. The portion of the skin under the free edge of the nail.
a) Nail Walls b) Eponychium c) Hyponychium d) Nail Grooves
11. Any substance or chemical used to destroy bacteria.
a) Antiseptic b) Disinfectant c) Contaminant d) Contamination
12. A Japanese term which means that tools, equipment, and materials must be
systematically arranged and organized.
a) Seiri b) Seiton c) Seiso d) Seiketsu
13. This is immediately applied when the skin is accidentally cut.
a) Hand lotion b) Disinfectant c) Detergent d) Antiseptic
14. If you notice signs of infection such as pain, swelling, redness, and pus, you
must refer your client to a ______.
a) Physician b) Nail technician c) Manicurist d) Manager
15. The proper way to brush the nails.
a) Any direction b) Upward movement
c) Sideward movement d) Downward movement
16. A top coat is applied
A) After color enamel b) Before color enamel
c) After seal coat d) Before base coat
17. A cosmetic which is used to prevent stains against colored nail polish
a) Color enamel b) Base coat c) Quick dry d) Cuticle oil
18. This is used to give color to nail body or nail plate.
a) Liquid polish b) Base coat c) Quick dry d) Cuticle oil
19. It is a new nail-imprinting kit that allows you to put designs by
stamping pre-designed images on your nails.
a) Nail stickers b) Nail stamper c) Nail polish d) Nail file
20. The following are the items used as nail accessories except one
a) Scraper b) Glitters c) Beads d) Rhinestones
21. This technique consists of dropping nail lacquers into clean water
creating a pattern or design of the resulting art on the surface; which is
then transferred to your nails.
A) Water stamping b) Water sticking
c) Water designing d) Water marbling
22. Among the tools used in nail designing, which tool is used
to create a simple flower?
a) Nail stripers b) Nail stickers c) Nail dotters d) Nail scraper
23. These are nail polishes that come with a long, thin brush
rather than the usual flat and broad ones.
a) Nail scraper b) Nail striper c) Nail brush d) Nail polish
24. It protects the polish against chipping or cracking.
a) Base coat b) Color enamel c) Top coat d) Cuticle coat
25. Bea will create fancy nail design as her class requirement.
What preparation will she perform before applying it?
a) Basic cleaning b) Basic brushing c) Basic designing d) Basic trimming
Hand Spa is a hand care treatment to pamper our
tired hands and to keep the nails look healthy and
strong. This treatment is another way to relax and
relieve stress from day to day activities accompanied
by massage and has many beneficial effects. Hand
Spa which is used by professional skin care
technicians done in salon and spa shops was found
helpful to combat anti-ageing.
Once you learned the concepts about hand spa, this
could be your stepping stone to augment personal
income. This activity can be performed at home.
As you go through this module, you will be able to
understand the concepts in performing Hand Spa as an
added service to manicure. Readings and enhancement
activities are provided to serve as a guide for you. So keep
At the end of the lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Analyze condition of the clients’ hand
2. Observe safety precautions and sanitation at all times
3. Prepare the necessary tools, supplies/materials and
equipment for used in hand spa
4. Perform the steps in hand spa following the steps
Lesson 1.1
It is very essential for a manicurist to have knowledge on the different parts
of the nails for this will be your basis in giving nail care services to your
The nail is an appendage of the skin. Nail is a horny, translucent plate that
protects the tips of the fingers and toes. It is composed mainly of keratin, a
protein substance that forms the base of all horny tissue. The nail is whitist
and transluscent in appearance and allows the pinkish colour of the nail bed
to be seen. The horny plate contains no nerves or blood vessels
Onyx is the technical term for the nail. The condition of the nail, like that of
the skin, reflects the general health of the body. Onychology is the study of
nail. The nails vary in thickness, being heaviest on the thumbs and big toes.
The characteristics of healthy nails are firm and flexible, slightly pink in
color and the surface is smooth, curved and unspotted, without any hollows
or wavy ridges.
Diagram of the nail and its structure
The nail consists of three parts: nail body, nail root
and free edge
 Nail Body or Nail Plate - visible portion of the nail
that is attached to the nail bed.
 Free edge - end portion of the nail plate which
extends beyond the fingertip. It is shaped during
 Nail root - beginning of nail found at the base and
is embedded underneath the skin.
Structures Beneath the Nail
The structures beneath the nail include the nail bed,
matrix and lunula.
 Nail Bed – the skin upon which the nail body or nail plate
rests. It is supplied with many blood vessels and nerves.
The blood vessels supply nourishment for the nail.
 Matrix – part of the nail bed which contains nerves and
blood vessels and is located beneath the nail root. It
produces cells that generate and harden the nail and will
continue to grow as long as it receives nutrition and
remains in a healthy condition.
 Lunula – halfmoon shape found at the base of the nail
where the matrix connects with the nail bed.
Structures Surrounding the Nail
The structures surrounding the nail include the cuticle,
eponychium, hyponychium, perionychium, nail walls and
nail grooves
 Cuticle - the overlapping skin around the nail. A normal cuticle
should be loose and pliable.
 Eponychium - cuticle extension at the base of the nail body which
partly overlaps the lunula
 Hyponychium – portion of the skin under the free edge of the nail.
 Nail Walls – folds of the skin overlapping the sides of the nail
 Nail Grooves - are slits or tracks in the skin at the side of the nail
upon which the nail moves as it grows.
 Mantle – deep fold of the skin in which the nail root is embedded.
Nail Growth
There are factors that can influence the growth of nails
such as nutrition, general health and disease. A nail grows
forward, starting at the matrix and extending over the tip
of the finger. Like hair, nails grow faster in warm weather.
Adult’s nail growth is about 1/8 inch per month whereas
the nails of the children grow faster than those of the
elderly. Toenails grow slowly but they are thicker and
harder than fingernails.
Lesson 1.2
Examine your own fingernails. Check its structure
and analyze its condition. What have you
Have you seen somebody who has nail disorder?
Nail problem? Are you aware what cause it? In your
next lesson, you have to study why some people
have nail problems. In here, you will be aware on
how microorganisms can infect and affect your
body particularly the nails and learn more about
how this can be treated.
Did you know your nails can reveal signs to your overall health? Have
you noticed some abnormalities in your fingernails? Are you aware that
problems in the liver, lungs and heart can show up in your nails? Do you
bite your nails? Watch out and learn what your nails will reveal!
Onychosis refers to any disease, disorder or condition of the nails.
Having knowledge about infections caused by bacteria will prevent the
spread of infectious diseases, preserve the health of the cosmetologist
and the patron and appreciate the value of proper sanitation.
Pus is the yellowish fluid that oozes from the wound. It is a sign of
infection. White blood cells attack the bacteria and consume them. The
pus contains blood cells, body cells and dead and living bacteria.
Bacteria may invade the body through cuts, scratches or punctures in the
skin or through any of the body openings.
Fungi are plant organisms that live on dead, decaying or living
matter. Some fungi are capable of causing serious infections but
some are harmful and beneficial.
Diseases may be considered contagious or non-contagious. A disease
becomes contagious or communicable when it spreads from one
person to another by direct or indirect contact. Some of the common
contagious diseases are tuberculosis, common cold, ringworm,
scabies, head lice, and virus infections. Coughing, sneezing,
unclean hands, eating utensils and salon equipment play a role
in spreading diseases. Diseases that are not able to be spread from
person to person are considered as non-contagious. Genetic
diseases, cancers, mental disorders, autoimmune diseases and
heart disease are some of the many diseases that aren't contagious.
Sterilization is the process whereby
microorganisms are destroyed. Equipments
and tools found in salon are needed to be
sterilized. Sanitizing or sanitation refers to the
physical or chemical means used to keep the
salon and its equipment as clean and free of
germs as possible in order to protect the health
of the public.
Nail Disorders – are condition
caused by injury to the nails, diseases
or imbalances in the body.