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NTPC- Ramagundam

By
M. Murali Mohan
Dy. Suptd (O)
What is it ?

Why ?

How ?

Diesel Generator Parts

RSTPS

Functions

O&M
Diesel's story actually begins with the invention of
the GasolineEngine.

“Nikolaus August Otto” had invented and patented


the Gasoline engine by 1876.

This invention used the four-stroke combustion principle, also


known asthe "Otto Cycle“.

In 1878, “Rudolf Diesel” learned about the low efficiency of


gasoline andsteam engines.

This disturbing information inspired him to create an engine


with a higher efficiency, and he devoted much of his time to
developing a"Combustion PowerEngine.“

By 1892“Diesel” had obtained apatent for what we nowcall


the diesel engine. Conti….
1892, Rudolf Diesel obtained apatent.
1893, “Diesel” built his first working
prototype.
1897, “Adolphus Busch” licenses rights to
the Diesel Engine for the USA and Canada.

1899, Diesel licensed his engine to Rudolf Diesel


builders Krupp and Sulzer, who quickly
became majormanufacturers.
Until 1910, MAN produced 82copies of the
stationary dieselengine.

1919, First diesel engine fromCummins.


The world's largest diesel engine is currently
a Wärtsilä - Sulzer RTA96 - C of about A Diesel Engine built
84,420kW. By MAN – A G in 1906
Diesel Generator – What is i t ?
A Diesel Generator is the combination of a diesel
engine with an electric generator (often called as
alternator) to generate Electrical energy.
Diesel Generator – Why ?
Diesel generator sets are used in places without connection
to the power grid, as emergency power supply if the grid
fails, as well as for more complex applications such as peak-
lopping, grid support and export to the power grid.

Specific Requirements:
Lighting: Egress lighting for evacuation, illuminated exit
signs, security lighting, warning lights, operating room
lighting, elevator carlightingetc.
Control Power: Critical drives like oil pumps for
Generators,Turbines. Boiler andaircompressorsetc.
Transportation: Marine & Elevators for fire Dept use.
Mechanical Systems: Smoke control and pressurization
fans, waste water treatment, etc.
Conti….
Heating: Critical process heat.
Refrigeration: Blood banks, Food storage,etc.
Production: Critical process power for Laboratories,
Pharmaceutical production processes, etc.
Space Conditioning: Cooling for computer equipment rooms,
cooling and heating for vulnerable people, ventilation of
hazardous atmospheres, ventilation of pollutants or biological
contamination, etc.
Fire Protection: Fire pumps and jockey pumps etc.
Data Processing: UPS and cooling to prevent data loss, memory
loss, Programcorruption.
Life Support: Hospitals, Nursing homes, and other Health care
facilities.
Communications Systems: Police and Fire stations, Hi-rise
building PA systems, etc.
Signal Systems: Rail, Road, Ship and Air trafficcontrol.
Diesel Engine – How i t works ?
The Diesel Engine works on “Compression
Ignition”. More specifically, the combustion
process in the diesel engine is initiated by
spontaneous ignition of the fuel when it is injected
into ahighly compressed charge of air,which has
reached approximately 750 0C.

Heat engine: An engine that converts the potential


heat energy of a combustible fuel into mechanical
work. The diesel engine is a heat engine that
functions by converting the heat energy of diesel
fuel into mechanical work.
Conti….
Internal Combustion Engine: A Heat engine in which the
combustion of fuel is contained within acylinder.
Diesel Engine: An internal combustion engine in which the
cylinder fuel aircharge is ignited by the heatof compression.

Piston: The piston of an Internal Combustion Engine is acted


upon by the pressure of the expanding combustion gases in
the combustion chamber space at the top of the cylinder. This
force then acts downwards through the connecting rod and
ontothecrankshaft.

Conti….
Top dead center (TDC): The uppermost point of the
piston travel in an enginecylinder.
Bottom dead center (BDC): The lowest point of
piston travel in the enginecylinder.

Bore: The diameter of a cylinder. Bore is expressed


as the piston sectional area over which cylinder
pressures act.
Compression ratio: A measure of the cylinder
volume when the piston is at BDC versus the
cylinder volume when the piston is at TDC.
Compression ratios in diesel engines fall between
14:1 and24:1.
Conti….
Bore & Stroke Compression Ratio–17:1

Conti….
Stroke: The distance through which a piston travels from
BDC to TDC.
Swept volume: The volume displaced by the piston in the
cylinder as it moves from BDC to TDC. It can be calculated
if both stroke andboreare known.
Engine displacement: The swept volume of all the engine
cylinders expressedin Cubic inches orCubic cmorLiters.

Displacement: Bore X Bore X Stroke X 0.7854 X Number of


cylinders.
Engine displacement calculation data For
6- cylinder engine, bore 126 mm, stroke 166 mm.
Engine displacement is 126 X 126 X 166 X 0.7854 X6=
12,419,134cubic mmOR 12.4 liters.
1 Liter = 60.010Cubic inches
Diesel Engine – How i t works ?
Diesel Engine is mainly works on below strokes.
1) Suction Stroke:-
In this stroke, the piston moves down from the top
dead centre. As a result, inlet valve opens and air
is drawninto thecylinder.

After sufficient quantity of air


with pressure is drawn, suction
valve closes atthe end of the
stroke. The exhaust valve
remain closed during this
s
Conti….
stroke.
2)Compression Stroke:-
In this stroke, piston moves up from the bottom dead
centre. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valve
are closed.
The air drawn into the cylinder during suction stroke, is
entrapped inside the cylinder and compressed due to
upward movementof the piston.
In diesel engine, the compression
ratio used is very high as a result, the
air is finally compressed to a very
high pressureup to 40kg/cm2,atthis
pressure, the temp of the air is reached
to very high which is enough to ignite
the fuel.
Conti….
3)Constant PressureStroke:-
In this stroke, the fuel is injected into the hot
compressed air where it starts burning,maintaining
the pressureconstant.

When the piston moves to its top dead


centre, the supply of fuel is cut- off. It
is to be said that the fuel is injected at
the end of compression stroke and
injection continues till the point of
cut-off, but in actual practice, the
ignition starts before the end of
compression stroke to take care of
ignition tag.
Conti….
Diesel Engine – Working Principle
Working or PowerStroke:-
In this stroke, both inlet and exhaust valve remain
closed. The hot gases (which are produced due to
ignition of fuel during compression stroke) and
compressed air now expand adiabatically, in the
cylinder pushing the piston down and hence work is
done.

At the end of stroke, the piston finally reaches the


bottom deadcentre.

Conti….
4)Exhaust Stroke:-
In this stroke, the piston again moves upward. The
exhaustvalve opens, while inlet and fuel valve are
closed.
A greater part of the burnt fuel gases escape due to
their own expansion. The upward movement of the
piston pushes the remaining gases out through the
open exhaustvalve.
Only a small quantity of exhaust gases
stay in the combustion chamber. At
the end of exhaust stroke, the exhaust
valve closes and the cycle is thus
completed.
Conti….
Diesel Engine – 4 - Strokes

Piston

Connecting rod

Crankshaft

Intake Compression Power Exhaust

Diesel Generator working principle Conti….


Parts of Engine - Detailed

Conti….
Diesel Engine – Overall function
Diesel engines require the four things to run; fuel,
air,ignition, and compression.

Diesel engines use high cylinder compression to


press the mixture of fuel and air into as small of an
areaas possible.

This compression causes heat in the cylinder, which


causes the fuel to ignite and push the piston back
down, causing the crankshaft, facilitating the easy
transfer of the motion produced by the diesel engine
to the magnets of the generator assembly.
Diesel Generator – Its parts
The main components of an Diesel Generator
can be broadly classified as:
(1) Engine.
(2)Alternator.
(3)Fuel System.
(4)Governor.
(5)Voltage Regulator.
(6)Cooling and Exhaust Systems.
(7) Lubrication System.
(8)Battery and Battery Charger.
(9)Control Panel (Automatic Mains Failure panel).
(10)Fly wheel.
Starter Motor
NTPC-Ramagundam DG Set details
Specification Stage - I Stage - II Stage - III
Engine make Kirloskar Kirloskar Cummins India
Cummins Ltd. Cummins Ltd. Ltd.
Type KTA –2300G KTA –2300G KTA-50-G8-I

K –Engine Series KTA - 50- G8 - I


T –Turbo Charged
50–Displacement in liters
A –After Cooled
1 Liter = 60.010Cubicinches
2300–Displacement in Cubic Inch. G
–Engine for GeneratorApplication
Engine rating 890BHP 890BHP 1735 BHP
RPM 1500 RPM 1500 RPM 1500 RPM
No. of Cylinders 12, 600Vee 12, 600Vee 16, 600Vee

12, 600Vee Conti….


Specification Stage - I Stage - II Stage - III
Method of 24V DC 24V DC 24V DC
starting
Time required 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec
for starting from
cold
Interval between 10 sec 10 sec 10 sec
starting impulse
No. of starting 3 3
impulses
Type of Woodward hydraulic PSG with (EFC) Electronic
Govern motorized head fuel control /A1
or
Guarantee As per class –A1 Governing limits As per class –A1
d limits of of BS 649/1958(+/-4.5%) of BS 5514
Governing Engine Speed
Full load thrown - Do - within ±1% for
off any steady state
Full load put on - Do - load from no
load to full load
Specification Stage - I Stage - II Stage - III
Guaranteed fuel 158 lit /hr(150 gr/BHP/hr) 310 lit /hr
consumption (150 * 890/1000* 0.84= 158 lit/hr)
At full load (0.84= Sp. Gravity of diesel)
Lubrication oil 0.534lit /hr 0.35lit /hr
consumption
Method of Turbo charged after cooled
aspiration
Method of Radiator cooledEngine
cooling of engine
Method of Water cooled
cooling of
lubricating oil
Air filter cum Dry type with replaceable paper element
silencer
Diesel storage 990liters
tank capacity
Turbo charged after cooled
60 0 - ‘Vee’ Engine
A ’V’ or ’Vee’ engine is a common configuration for
aninternal combustion engine.
The cylinders and pistons are aligned, in two
separate planes or 'banks', so that they appear to be
in a "V" when viewed along the axis of the
crankshaft.
The ‘Vee’ configuration generally reduces the
overall engine length, height and weight compared
to anequivalent inlineconfiguration.
The most efficient cylinder bank angle for a ‘V’
engine is 600,for minimizing size and vibration.
What is Turbo Charged after cooled
The purpose of a turbocharger is to compress the air flowing
into the diesel engine, this lets the engine squeeze more air
into a cylinder and more air means that more fuel can be
added.

The engine burns air and fuel to create mechanical power,


the moreairand fuel it canburnthe morepowerful it is.

In simple terms, a turbocharger comprises of a turbine and a


compressor connected by a common shaft supported on a
bearing system.

The turbocharger converts waste energy from an engine's


exhaust gases into compressed air, which it pushes into the
engine.
Conti….
This allows the engine to burn more fuel producing
more power and improve the overall efficiency of the
combustion process.
An Intercooler removes the heat of compression
between the stages of a compressor whereas an after
cooler reduces the temperature of the air leaving the
compressor. Delivering cold air means that there is more
oxygen percylinder thus moreengine power.
DG Set – Function of parts
1)Engine:
The engine is the source of the
input mechanical energy to the
generator.

The size of the engine is


directly proportional to the
maximum power output of the
generatorcansupply.

There are several factors that


you need to keep in mind
while assessing the engine of
your generator.
Conti….
Diesel Engine – Fuel system
The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep
the generatoroperational for 6to8hours.
Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine:– The supply
line directs fuel from the tank to the engine and the
returnline directs fuel fromthe engine to the tank.
Ventilation pipe for fuel tank:– The fuel tank has a
ventilation pipe to prevent the build-up of pressure or
vacuum during refilling and drainage ofthe tank.
Fuel WaterSeparator/Fuel Filter:–This separates water
and foreign matter from the liquid fuel to protect other
components of the engine from corrosion and
contamination.
Conti….
Fuel Injector:– This atomizes the liquid fuel and
sprays the requiredamountof fuel into the
combustion chamber of theengine.
Fuel return lines take the hot excess fuel not used
in the engine cycle a way from the injectors and
back to fuel storage tank. The heat from the excess
fuel is dissipated in the tank.
Caution: Never run a fuel return line directly back
to the engine fuel supply lines. The fuel will
overheat and break down.
The fuel return lines should always enter the
storage tank above the highest fuel level.
DIESEL TANK (Stage–I) DIESEL FILTERS
PT (Pressure –Time), self adjusting direct injection
type fuel pump is provided for fuel supply.
Clean fuel filter –100mmHg, Choked fuel filter –
203mmHg.

Ball check
Oil Injector PT Fuel pump
Float
Bowl

Drain valve

Oil Injection
Combustion A i r Intake system
Air for engine combustion must be clean.

Normally this air can be drawn from the area surrounding


the generating set via the engine mounted air filter.

Clean filter = 250mmwcl, Choked filter = 500mmwcl


Dry type replaceable paper element air cleaner with Restriction Indicator
Diesel Engine – Governor
Mechanical Governors:– As the name suggests,
controlsengine fueling based on mechanical
sensing of engine RPM through flyweights or
similar mechanisms.

These systems exhibit about 3-5% speed droop


fromnoload to full load inherent in the design.

This type of system is generally the least expensive


and is suitable for applications where the
frequency droop is not a problem for the loads
being served.

Conti….
Diesel Engine – Woodward PSG Governor
The Woodward PSG governor is a
speed droop governor for controlling
speed of small diesel, gas, and
gasoline engines, orsmall steam or
industrial gasturbines.

The governor is used to control


engines or turbines driving
alternators, DC generators, pumps, or
compressors.

Pressure compensation provides the


PSG governor with the necessary
stability to controlisochronously.

Conti….
Diesel Engine – Governor
Electronic Governors :– Electronic governors are used for
applications where isochronous (zero droop) governing is
required or where active synchronizing and paralleling
equipment isspecified.

EFC Governor is used on PT fuel system. The governor


contains amagnetic pick up, actuator mounted in housing.

The magnetic pick up senses the engine speed at the


flywheel ring gear and generates an AC voltage with its
frequency proportional to the enginespeed.

Signal from magnetic pick up is sensed by a governor


controller andis used asaspeed feed back.

The actuator mounted in the housing is used to control the


fuel flow fromthe fuel pump to theinjectors.
Conti….
Diesel Engine – EFC Governor
Actuator valve is normally closed. It opens depending on
the amountof currentthrough theactuator.

The governor controller compares the electrical signal from


the magnetic pickup with apresetspeed reference point.

If there is a difference in the two signals, the controller will


change the currentto the actuator.

This advanced governing system can be retrofitted engines


with hydraulic governors.

A change in current in the actuator coil will make the


actuator shaft rotate. The fuel flow and the engine speed or
power will change, when the actuator shaftrotates.
Features:-
Accurate speed sensing & PID control achieves steady state
speed stability of +/-0.25% at any constantload.
A1 class governing with transient response of 15 msec.
Both isochronous & droop governing arepossible.
Solid state potentiometer is available for faster synchronizing
& load sharingfunctions.
Diesel Engine – Governor
Over speed
solenoid
Cable from
Over speed pickup

PT type fuel
pump

Woodward PSG
Governor

Fuel line

Fuel Return line

Governing oil
Dip stick
Diesel Engine – Cooling system
Continuous usage of the generator causes its
various components to get heated up. It is essential
to have a cooling and ventilation system to
withdraw heatproduced in the process.

Liquid-cooled engines are cooled by pumping a


coolant mixture through passages in the engine
cylinder block and head(s) by means of an engine-
driven pump.

The Generator set configuration has a mounted


radiator and an engine-driven fan to cool the
coolant and ventilate the generator room.
Conti….
Water for coolant should be clean and free
from any corrosivechemicalssuch
as chlorides,
sulphates and acids. It should be kept slightly
alkaline with a pH value in the range 8.5to 10.5.
Mixtures of either ethylene - or propylene-glycol
and high-quality water shall be used for
proper cooling and freeze /boilprotection.

Coolant should be replaced after 6000 hrs of


operation or after Two years.
Coolant
Level Inspection
Cap

Conti….
Stand by Generator sets may be required to start
and come in service in 10 sec or less.

These engines are equipped with engine coolant


heaters capable of maintaining coolant
temperatureataminimum of 380C.

Grill type of ventilation


is provided for proper
exhaust
Diesel Engine – Exhaust system
Exhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just like
exhaust from any other diesel or gasolineengine
and contain highly toxic chemicals that need to be
properly managed.
Exhaust pipes are usually attached to the engine
using flexible connectors to minimize vibrations
and prevent damage to the generator’s exhaust
system.

An outdoor weather protective housing supplied


by a generator set manufacturer usually will have
various “muffler” options and usually with the
muffler mountedontheroof.
Typical exhaust system
Diesel Engine – Lubrication system
The lubricating oil used in a engine must be
multifunctional. It will perform the following.

Lubrication by providing a film between the


moving partsto reducewearandfriction.

Cooling by serving as a heat transfer media to carry


heat away fromcritical areas.

Sealing by filling in the uneven surfaces in the


cylinder wall, valve stems and turbo charger oil
seals.

Conti….
Cleaning by holding contaminants in suspension to
prevent a build up of deposits on the engine surfaces.
Dampening and cushioning of components that
operateunderhigh stress, such asgears and push tubes

Protectionfromoxidation andcorrosion.

Lube Oil Filters Lube Oil By pass Filters


Large capacity gear pump provides
pressure lubrication to all bearing and oil
supply for piston
cooling.
All pressure lines are internal drilled passages in
cylinder block and heads.
Oil cooler, full flow filters and by pass filters
maintain oil quality.
Diesel Engine – Lubrication system

Priming Pump
Discharge

Lube oil level


Checking dip stick

Lube oil Sump

Priming Pump
Diesel Engine – Battery and Charger
Starter Motor:-
The starter motor is a necessity for internal-combustion
engines, because the Otto cycle requires the pistons already
to be in motionbefore the ignition phase of the cycle.

This means that the engine must be started in motion by an


outside force,before it canpower itself.

The battery is used for the starter motor.


If you remove the battery while the engine is running, the
engine continues to run.

Once the diesel engine is started it will run until you stop
the fuel flow orblock off the airintake.
Diesel Engine – Battery and Charger
Battery starting systems for generator sets are
usually 24volts.

Batteries must have enough capacity (CCA, Cold


Cranking Amps) to provide the cranking motor
current.

24V Battery
The starter motor converts electrical energy to mechanical
energy.
It is mounted on the cylinder block in a position to engage a
ring gear on the engine flywheel.
The starter motor is powered by the battery. It is designed to
have high turning effort at low speeds.
During engine cranking excessive current draw will lead to
the cables becoming hot and a drop in batteryvoltage.
Staring Motor (24V, 11 KW)
Battery sizing requirements
The following information is required for sizing of thebattery

Engine Manufacturer &


Model.
Cubic Inch displacement
of Engine.
Battery SystemVoltage.
Min Battery electrolyte
temperature.
Number of 10 second
cranking cycles.
Fly wheel
The flywheel is located on one end of the crankshaft
and serves three purposes.
First, through its inertia, it reduces vibrations by
smoothing out the power stroke aseachcylinder fires.
• Second, it is the mounting surface
used to bolt the engine up to its load.
• Third, on some diesels, the fly wheel
has gear teeth around its perimeter
that allow the starting motors to
engage and crankthe diesel.
How the potential energy of diesel A turbocharger makes use of
fuel is released in a diesel engine. rejected heat by compressing
the intake airforced into the
engine cylinders, thereby
increasing the thermal
efficiency of the engine.
The potential energy of the
fuel (100%) is released in a
typical diesel engine:
33% is converted into useful
mechanical energy delivered
to the fly wheel.
The rejected heat is dispersed
as radiated heat (7%) to
engine coolant (30%), and
into the exhaust(30%).
ALTERNATOR
Make Jyothi Ltd NGEF Ltd Stomford. UK
Model -- --- PI734C2
Rated KVA 625 KVA 750 KVA 1500 KVA
Rated Terminal 415 V
voltage
Rated over load 110% for 1 Hr. in every 12 Hrs
capacity
Excitation Power 38V, 169A 2.6A, 57VDC 10.3 KVA
rating
Type of exciter With brushes Brushless Brushless
and slip rings
Type of voltage Manual voltage Automatic Automatic
regulator regulator

P=Power Generation, I= Industrial, 7= Framesize, 3= Excitation system


(series-3), 4= No. of poles, C= Core length, 2= No. of Bearings

Conti….
Diesel Engine – Alternator (Stage – I )
Alternator is salient pole type, self excited and self
regulated by anexcitation unit.
The excitation unit consists of choke, CT, Diodes
and Condenser.
Voltage is adjustable to within +/-2.5% of the
nominal voltage from no load to full load at rated
PF.
The choke is meant for adjusting the teriminal
voltage atno load.

The CT is meantfor adjusting the terminalvoltage


at loadconditions. Conti….
Diesel Engine – Alternator
The Alternator is self excited due to residual flux.
Once the alternator is run to rated speed at no load
the residual voltage appearing the terminals, is
getting rectified by a 3- FW bridge rectifier and is
fed to the field winding through brushes and slip
rings.
Thus the alternator builds up voltage by itself and
reaches a steady value depending on the choke air
gap.
With the help of MVR, the voltage can be adjusted
when the machineis running with or without
load. Conti….
The advantage of a self-excitedsystem:
Self-excited system is inherently self protecting under
symmetrical short circuit conditions because the field
“collapses".
Because of this, a main line circuit breaker for protecting
the generator and the conductors to the first level of
distribution may not be considered necessary, further
reducing the installed costof the system.
The disadvantages of a self excited system are:
• It might be necessary to select a larger generator in order to
provide acceptable motor starting performance.

• Self-excited machines rely on residual magnetism to


energize the field. If residual magnetism is not sufficient,
it will be necessary to “flash" the field with a DC power
source.
Self Excited Generator

Conti….
Alternator (Stage – I I & I I I )
• They are “Separately excited” by the Permanent
Magnet Generator (PMG).

• This is a shaft mounted, high frequency, pilot exciter


which provides a constant supply of clean power via
the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) to the main
exciter.

• The main exciter output is fed to the main rotor,


through a full wave bridge rectifier, protected by
surge suppression.

Conti….
The excitation system of a separately - excited
generator is similar to that of a self - excited
generator except that a separate permanent magnet
generator (PMG) located.
Is a separate source of power, the excitation circuit is
not affected by the loads on the generator. The
generator is capable of sustaining two to three times
ratedcurrentfor approximately ten seconds.
For these reasons, separately - excited generator
excitation systems arerecommendedfor applications
where enhanced motor starting capability, good
performance with non-linear loads or extended
duration shortcircuit performance are necessary.
Separately Excited Generators

Conti….
Diesel Engine – AMF (Automatic Mains
Fail) panel
This is the user interface of the
generator and contains provisions
for

a) Electric start and shut-down.


b) Engine gauges.
c) Generator gauges.
d) Other controls–Phase selector
switch, frequency switch, and
engine control switch (manual
mode, auto mode) among others.
Diesel Generator – Routine checks
Ensure Engine oil, Governing oil and Coolant levels arenormal.

Check for fuel oil, engine oil, coolant and exhaust for any
leakages.

Lube oil priming to be done if engine is idle for long time or after
filter or oil replacement.

After DG set is started, check for exhaust. A smoky exhaust may be


due to poor grade of oil, dirty air cleaner, over fueling or poor
mechanical conditions.

Visually check for belts looseness.


Check for battery and battery charger for any abnormality.

Check the air filter gauge for proper airintake.

Conti….
Diesel Generator – Start Permissives
No Electrical fault is persisting.
Engine oil Temperature is not high.
No over speed relay is dropped.
Lube oil pressure is adequate.
EPB is in released condition.
Fail to start is not persisting. Alternator
breaker is in OFFcondition.
Diesel Generator – Causes for Trip

Lube oil pressure low (<1Ksc).


Engine over speed (1650 rpm for 10 sec).
Coolant temperature is high (> 950C).
Low coolant level (Level below sensor).
Electrical fault.
Lack offuel.
FromEmergency Pushbutton.
Diesel Generator – Do’s & Don’ts
It is important to idle the engine “3-5 minutes”
before shutting it down to allow the lubricating
oil and water to carry heat away from the
combustion chamber, bearings, shaft etc., This is
especially important for Turbo chargerengines.

Long periods of idling are not good for an engine


because the combustion chamber temperatures
drops to low and fuel will not burn completely.
This will cause carbon to clog the injector spray
holes and piston rings and can result in stuck
valves.
Diesel Generator – Priming Pump
All diesel engines have a priming pump, to allow
for removing air from the fuel system. This is called
bleeding, orpriming.

Air can enter the system during filter replacement,


orwhen afuel line is disconnected.

Without a priming facility, the start motor would


have to crank the engine over, to bleed and prime
the system. Excessive use of the startermotorfor this
purpose would damage it, and it would soon
discharge thebattery.
Conti….
Cranking
To prevent permanent cranking motor damage, do
not crankengine for morethan 10 sec
continuously.

If the engine does not start after about three


repeated attempts, then the starter should not be
operated and the fuel system has to be checked for
anyfaults.

Engine oil pressure must be indicated on the gauge


within 15 sec after starting. If oil pressure is not
registered within 15 sec, shut off the engine
immediately to avoid engine damage.
Oil / Coolant Temperatures
The oil Temperature should be maintained
between 75 –1050Cunder loading conditions.

Any sudden increase in oil temperature, is a


warning of mechanical failure. Immediately Shut
off the engine to avoid enginedamage.

The coolant temperature of 75 to 950C is the best


assurance that working parts of the engine the
expanded evenly to the most favorable oil
clearances.

Note:- Continuous operation with low coolant temperature below 600C,


or high coolant Temperature above 1000C, can damage the engine.
Normal engine oil pressure at
(1050C)should be between 3-7
Kg/cm2 at rated speed and 1-2
Kg/cm2atlow idle speed.

A dipstick oil gauge is located


on the side of the engine. The
dip stick has an “H” (High)
and ‘L’ (Low) level mark to
indicate lubricating oil supply.

The dip stick must be kept


with the oil pan orengine.
• After DG starts, ensure the following parameters arewithin
the limit
Stage -III

Coolant
Temperature
Between
70to 950C

Engine RPM
Should be
At 1500
Engine oil
pressure Engine oil
Between Temperature
3to 7 Ksc Between
75 to1050C
Diesel Engine – Lubrication system
The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored
in asump (Approx. 200liters).
Ensure the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of
generator operation.
Also check for any leakages of lubricant and
change the lubricating oil every 500 hours of
generator operation.
Oil change periods, filter change periods, paying
attention about selecting the true type of oil
prolongs the life cost of the engine.
Probable reasons for Generators Fail toStart
Battery failure.
Battery charger failure.
Low coolant levels.
Oil, fuel or coolant leaks.
Controls not in auto.
Air in the fuel system.
Run out of fuel.
Restriction in air supply.
Restriction in fuel supply.
Starter motorfailure.
Engine Trouble shooting
The starter motor turns the engine too slowly:

Battery capacity to low. Bad electrical connection.


Faulty in startermotor. Wrong grade of lubricatingoil.

The engine does not start or difficult to start:

Starter motor turns engine too slowly. Fuel tank empty.


Faulty in fuel control solenoid. Restriction in a fuel pipe.
Faulty in fuel lift pump. Dirty fuel filter element.
Air in fuel system. Faulty in atomizers.
Cold start systems used incorrectly. Fault in cold start system
Restriction in fuel tank vent. Restriction in exh. pipe.
Wrong type or grade of fuelused.

Conti….
The engine temperature is too high:
Restriction air filter/cleaner or induction system.
Fault in atomizers or atomizers of an incorrect type.
Fault in cold start system.
Restriction in exhaust pipe.
Fan damaged.
Restriction in air or water passage of radiator.
Insufficient coolant system.
The pressure of the lubrication oil is too low:

Wrong grade of lubrication.


Not enough lubrication oil in sump.
Defective gauge.
Dirty lubrication oil filter element.
Starter
Contactor
Impulse
Timer
Impulse
Timer
Summation
Timer
Lube oil
Pr. Low

solenoi
To fuel
d BKR Contacts
Multiplication

Fuel solenoid
Energisation
Control

Control
supply

supply
+24VDC

-24VDC
Electrical
fault
Low level
Of oil in tank

High Water
Temperature

Over speed

Lack of fuel

DG set failed
To start

Reset circuit

Stop circuit

Engine stop
On fault
Engine
Starter
To
I/C from I/C from
415V DG Switchgear Unit Aux SWGR - 1A
DG- 1 DG- 2

625KVA Unit –1 - 415V Emergency MCC

I/C from I/C from


415V DG Bus 415V DG Switchgear Unit Aux SWGR - 2A

Unit –2- 415V Emergency MCC

I/C from I/C from


415V DG Switchgear Unit Aux SWGR - 3A

Unit –3- 415V Emergency MCC

I/C from
415V DG Switchgear SWYD SWYD
SER SER
Txfmr-1 Txfmr-2

Stage – I Units – SEC - A


B/C
SEC - B
Diesel Generator supply 415 V SWYD SERSWGR
Stage – I - AMF Panel
Engine out off service
DG ACB Closed
Mechanical fault
Electrical fault
Lamp testPB
Man VolRegulator Eng three attempts circuitreset

DG ACB Emergency off Engine Emergency Off


Fault circuit reset PB
Window Annunciations Governor –Local /Off /Remote
1) Low oil pressure
2) Gen set fail tostart Gov speed –Lower / Off /Rise
3) Engine over speed
4) Oil level low
5) Over load Engine –Local / Off /Remote
6) Over voltage
Engine –Out /Off /In

24VDC –ON /Off


Over current, Earth Battery Charger - DC
Fault, over load,
Restriction E/F, Engine manual start PB
Over voltage, and
Reverse powerrelays AC I/P Change over Switch

Battery charger AC ON
Stage – I I Units – Diesel Generator Supply
From UAT # A From UAT #B

UST # A 6.6KV/415V UST # B


1750KVA
USS SEC # A B /C USS SEC # B

STAND BY DG
1500 KVA
EMCC

ODG
I/C FROM
STAND BY
DG MCC
UNIT DIESEL TO TO
GENERATOR TVDC BVDC U #5 U#6 U#7
750 KVA U#4
Stage – I I I Unit – Diesel Generator Supply
From Unit Bus –7CA From Unit Bus –7CB

UST # A 6.6KV/415V UST # B


2MVA
B /C

UNIT SERVICE SWITCHGEAR # 7DA

EMCC STAND BY DG
1500 KVA

ODG

I/C FROM
STAND BY DG
MCC
UNIT DIESEL TO TO
GENERATOR TVDDC BVDDC U #4 U #5 U# 6
1500 KVA U#7
Recommendations of 11th Operation Meet
(Held at PMI from 21st to 23rd Nov 2012)
4.3.1 DG Set was not available during grid failure:
• Availability of DG set to be ensured.

4.3.2 DG Set tripped on temperature high due to cooling system problem.


• DG sets to be run for a minimum of 15-20 minutes during daily trial runs.
• Capability of DG Set to run continuously on load to be demonstrated and
recorded once in ayear.

4.3.4Ventilation of DG set room


• DG Set tripped on temperature high as ventilation was poor.
• Shutter of the DG set room shall be changed to grill type.
• All ventilation fans are to be maintained in healthy condition.
• Power supply source for ventilation fans are to be reviewed. Power supply is to be
taken from reliable source to take care of total black out condition.
4.3.5 DG Set did not start onauto
• DG sets are to be started without chargers (only on battery) apart from
routine testing in the presence of Operation and Electrical maintenance
representatives.
• Protocol is to be maintained for all such trials.
• An alarm for "DG chargers failure" to be provided in UCB to avoid
chance of charger remaining switched off.

4.3.6 Access to DG sets in the case of emergency:


• Easy access to DG set room shall be ensured to curtail time taken to
restore emergency power in case of any station blackout.
• Practice of locking DG set rooms to bereviewed.

4.3.7 DG Set Diesel tank level:


• Adequate diesel level is to be ensured in DG Set fuel tank to meet any
emergency situation.
4.3.8 USS I/C to EMCC breaker status indication was not available
• Healthiness of all indications of breaker (On/Off) is to be ensured (Walk
down checklist to be prepared).

4.3.9 Automatic charging of EMCC


• In the event of total power failure, EMCC should get energized
automatically. Auto changeover of DG breaker to EMCC is to be explored
wherever it is not available.

4.3.10 DG Set load tests:


• DG Set Load tests to be carried out during overhauls. Such tests are to be
well documented and circulated as a controlled document.

4.7.3 Diesel fire water pump auto startfacility


• Auto start (on header pressure low) facility is to be provided for diesel fire
water pumps.

4.3.3 Auto staring of DG sets:


• As a part of regular testing, under voltage to be simulated to start DG sets
Overall Engine