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Medical Presentation

Group 7 - YK
HYPERTENSION
INTRODUCTION
Hypertension affects approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide.

At least 9.4 million people die because of hypertension each year.


The overall average prevalence of hypertension in the
world was estimated at 35%

37% 31%
Hypertension is a major health problem in Vietnam

91000 deaths per year


21% of all deaths
The proportion of treated and controlled patient
s is rather low
DEFINITION

What is blood pressure?


 
Systolic pressure
when the heart mm Hg
muscle contracts

millimeters mercury

Diastolic pressure
when the heart rests
between beats & is
refilled with blood
CAUSES
 
Hypertension

Primary Secondary
hypertension hypertension
Primary hypertension

k n o w n c a u s e *
*n o

m o st c o mm on
the
type
(90-95%)
Secondary hypertension

10 *cause known*
%

appear
suddenly
Various conditions and medications can lead to secon
dary hypertension
Obstructive sleep apnea

Nose Mouth
Tongue

Air completely blocked


Kidney problems
Adrenal gland tumors
Congenital cardiovascular defects
Medications
Illegal drugs

cocaine amphetamines
High blood pressure becomes
more common

after age 65 after age 45


Hypertension is more common in African Americans
develop high blood pressure
at younger ages

more likely to develop serious


complications
Hypertension

Family history

high risk
The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply
Lack of physical activity
Chewing tobacco

Smoking tobacco
Too much salt

Too little potassium


Drinking too much alcohol
Stress
Certain chronic conditions

Diabetes

Kidney disease

Sleep apnea
Pregnancy can contributes to
high blood pressure
Poor lifestyle habits in kids
SIGNS AND
SYMTOMPS
High blood pressure and brain symptoms

Dizziness

Headache
Nausea and vomiting

Blurred vision
High blood pressure and heart symptoms

Shortness of breath

Chest pain
Nausea and vomiting

Weakness
Chronic high blood pressure

Heart attack Claudication


Stroke
Malignant hypertension
or

Hypertensive emergency
COMPLICATION
The higher your The longer it goes
blood pressure uncontrolled

the greater the damage


Loss of vision
Stroke

Heart attack

Kidney failure

Atherosclerosis
Metabolic syndrome
Dementia
DIAGNOSIS
Doctor may ask questions about

- past medical history

- family history

- medication use
Physical examination
Eye examination
Blood tests
Kidney ultrasound
Abdominal CT scan
Other studies

Electrocardiogram
Echocardiogram
Doppler ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound
“White coat hypertension”
TREATMENT
NON-PHAMACOLOGICAL THERAPY
SODIUM RESTRICTION

will lower blood pressure by

12 mm Hg systolic
6 mm Hg diastolic
REDUCTION OF WEIGHT
78% of hypertension in men

65% of hypertension in women

is attributable to obesity
ALCOHOL RESTRICTION
PHYSICAL EXCERCISE
HEALTHY DIET

prevent and control high blood pressure


Water mimosa Heartleaf

Foods that help lower blood pressure


Garlic and herbs

Foods that help lower blood pressure


Foods that help lower blood pressure
Relaxation
PHARMACOLOGICAl THERAPY
Thiazide diuretics

Chlorthalidone Microzide
ACE inhibitors

Zestril Lotensin
(ARBs)
relax the muscles of your blood vessels
Alpha blockers

Cardura Prazosin
Alpha-beta blockers

Coreg

Trandate
Aldosterone antagonists

Spironolactone Eplerenone
Renin inhibitors

Vasodilators
Central-acting agents
PREVENTION
Prevention is better than cure
Focus on the risk factors that you can change
Maintain a healthy weight
Talk with your doctor about
the best weight for you
Eat a balanced diet
A diet full of wholesome, nutritious foods
Cut back on salt
No more than 6g of salt a day
Exercise regularly
The more exercise you
get, the better chance to
control blood pressure
Limit the alcohol
Only 1 drink a day
Monitor your blood pressure
Measure your blood pressu
re regularly
Do not take hypertension for granted
REFERENCES
1. https
://www.health24.com/Medical/Hypertension/About-hypertension/13-hypertensi
on-facts-20130731

2.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/symptoms
-causes/syc-20373410

3. https://www.everydayhealth.com/hypertension/preventing.aspx
4. https://www.emedicinehealth.com/high_blood_pressure/article_em.htm
5.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/diagnosis
-treatment/drc-20373417

6.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/h
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QUESTION 1
What diet is suitable to prevent hypertension
in these diets below?
A. Eating more of foods that are high in saturated fat and
cholesterol, such as fried foods.
B. Eating foods with high sodium.
C. Eating foods that are high in potassium and calcium.
D. Eating more fruits, vegetables, and high-fat dairy foods.
QUESTION 2
Select the true statement from the following:
A. Hypertension shows symptoms in most people.
B. Sea salt contains lots of mineral so it is good for hypertension.
C. Being overweight is not related to hypertension.
D. The older we get, the greater is our risk to develop high
blood pressure.
QUESTION 3
What organs are not affected by high blood pressure?
A. Eyes
B. Stomach
C. Brain
D. Heart
QUESTION 4
The risk of developing high blood pressure can be
reduced by:
A. Reducing salt intake.
B. Taking regular physical activity.
C. Avoiding tobacco use.
D. All are correct.
QUESTION 5
At what point is blood pressure considered "high"?
A. 120 over 80
B. 130 over 80
C. 140 over 90
D. 210 over 120
1. If your mother or father has hypertension, then you will also develop
hypertension.
2. If you have 4 siblings and if two of them have hypertension, you need to pay
more attention to your health.
3. ACE inhibitors help relax blood vessels by blocking the action of a natural
chemical that narrows blood vessels.

4. Primary (essential) hypertension tends to appear suddenly.

5. It is necessary to measure your blood pressure at different times to make


the diagnosis of hypertension.
D
Thank yo
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