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Corrosion

 Corrosion is the destruction of metal through


electrochemical action between metal and its
environment.
 Corrosion can be costly in terms of damage to pipe and
well parts and can even result in the loss of an entire
well.
 About 75 to 85 percent of drillpipe loss can be attributed
to corrosion.
 Other areas affected by corrosion include pump parts,
bits, and casing.
Factors Affecting Corrosion

 Factors affecting corrosion include:


 –Temperature. Generally, corrosion rates double with every 55°F
(31°C) increase in temperature.
 –Velocity. The higher the mud velocity, the higher the rate of
corrosion due to film erosion (oxide, oil, amine, etc.).
 –Solids. Abrasive solids remove protective films and cause increased
corrosive attack.
 –Metallurgical factors. Mill scale and heat treatment of pipe can
cause localized corrosion.
 –Corrosive agents. Corrosive agents such as oxygen, carbon
dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide can increase corrosion and lead to
pipe failure
Types of Corrosion

Types of Corrosion
 –Uniform corrosion
Even corrosion pattern over surfaces
 –Localized corrosion
like corrosion pattern over surfaces
 –Pitting
Highly localized corrosion that results in the deep penetration of
surfaces
Types of Corrosion Agents

Corrosive agents found in drilling fluids include:


 Oxygen
 Hydrogen sulfide
 Carbon dioxide
 Bacteria
 Dissolved salts
 Mineral scale
Corrosion-Oxygen

 Oxygen causes a major portion of corrosion damage to drilling


equipment.
 Oxygen acts by removing protective films; this action causes
accelerated corrosion and increased pitting under deposits.
 The four primary sources of oxygen are:
 –Water additions
 –Actions of mixing and solids-control equipment
 –Aerated drilling fluids
 –The atmosphere
Prevention of O2 corrosion

 If oxygen corrosion is suspected treatment would include adding an


oxygen scavengers
 Many types of oxygen scavengers exist
 Manufactures recommended treatment should be followed in this
case
Corrosion -Hydrogen sulfide

 Hydrogen sulfide can enter the mud system from:


 Formation fluids containing hydrogen sulfide
 Bacterial action on sulfur-containing compounds in drilling mud
 Thermal degradation of sulfur-containing drilling fluid additives
 Chemical reactions with tool-joint thread lubricants containing sulfur
 Hydrogen sulfide is soluble in water.
 Dissolved hydrogen sulfide behaves as a weak acid and causes
pitting.
 Hydrogen ions at the cathodic areas may enter the steel instead of
evolving from the surface as a gas.
 This process can result in hydrogen blistering in low-strength steels or
hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength steels.
 Both the hydrogen and sulfide components of hydrogen sulfide can
contribute to drillstring failures
Prevention of H2S corrosion

 Hydrogen sulfide corrosion is mitigated by increasing the pH to


above 9.5 and by using sulfide scavengers and film-forming
inhibitors.
 Sulfide scavengers include Zinc Carbonate, Zinc Oxide and other
specialty chemical products
 Most film forming inhibitors are amine inhibitors, many are available
Corrosion –Carbon Dioxide

 Carbon dioxide is found in natural gas in varying quantities.


 When combined with water, carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid
and decreases the water's pH, which increases the water's
corrosivity.
 While carbon dioxide is not as corrosive as oxygen, it can cause
pitting.
 Maintaining the correct pH is the primary treatment for carbon
dioxide contamination.
 Either lime or caustic soda can be used to maintain pH.
Corrosion –Bacteria

 Microorganisms can cause fermentation of organic mud additives,


changing viscosity and lowering pH.
 A sour odor and gas are other indicators that bacteria are present.
 Degradation of mud additives can result in increased maintenance
cost
 Microbiocides are used to control bacteria in drilling environments
Corrosion –Dissolved Salts

 Dissolved salts increase corrosion by decreasing the electrical


resistance of drilling fluids and increasing the solubility of corrosion
by-products.
 Some of these byproducts can cause a scale or film to form on the
surface of the metal.
 Amine filming agents added to the metal will aid in reducing
corrosion due to dissolved salts
Corrosion –Mineral Scale

 Mineral scale deposits set up conditions for local corrosion-cell


activity.
 The continuous addition of a scale inhibitor can control the
formation of scale deposits