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GROUP 4

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2
3
Contrasts Intensions

Causes Exceptions &


& results additions

Alternatives

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5
1. Contrasts

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 Although / though / even though

 However

 However / though

 Yet

 In spite of / despite

 While

 Whereas

 Even so / nevertheless

 On the other hand

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 Place: At the beginning of a
sentence or between two
clauses
 Usage: All have a similar
meaning, though is more Although she studies
hard, she gets bad
formal at the beginning of a marks.
sentence, but a little more
informal when used between
two clauses, eventhough is
more emphatic

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 Place: At the beginning of a
second sentence.

He is allergic to
shrimps. However,
he keeps eating it.

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 Place: At the end of the
second sentence, or
between two clauses of
a second sentence. His job is hard.
His salary is low
though.

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 Between two clause in
the same way as “but”
 It is emphatic for
suprising or unsual
contrasts

He is rich yet he is very mean.

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 At the beginning of the sentence or
between two clauses.  Do not use “in spite of /
 How to use: despite + subject + verb, etc”
o In spite of / despite + Noun / It is not correct to say
Pronoun
o In spite of/ despite + V-ing
“In spite of it takes her three
o In spite of/ despite the fact that hours … Despite it takes …”
+ subject + verb

• In spite of / Despite her good cooking, the food is still raw.


• In spite of / Despite being cooked so long, the food is still raw.
• In spite of / Despite the fact that it takes her three hours cooking the food, it is still raw.
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 To compare and  My brother is good at sciences
contrast facts. while I’m good at languages.
 Before a statement that
is true but is not as  While I understand your problem,
there is nothing I can do to help you.
important as the
statement that follows
it.

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 To compare and contrast
facts and emphasize the  Whereas I like
contrast between the sport, my friends
hate it
these facts, in the same
way as while.  I like sport,
whereas my friends
hate it.

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 In a second sentence, at the
beginning or end, with the  I know he has some bad
habits. Nevertheless you
meaning ‘although that is true’ or shouldn’t be so rude to
‘in spite of that’. him.
 For the emphasizing that the first
statement is true but it does not
prevent the second statement from  I know he has some bad
also being true. habits.You shouldn’t be so
rude to him, even so.

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 To introduce a fact or
opinion that contrasts Those clothes suits him well.
On the other hand, it’s
with the fact or opinion rather expensive.
before it

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 forms part of a single sentence  forms part of a second sentence

For example: For example:


Even though her Vietnamese is not really Her English is not really good. Even so, I can
good, I can understand what she is talking understand what she is talking about.
about.

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• Because & because of

• Since / as

• Due to / owing to / in view of / on account of

• So

• Therefore

• Then

• As a result

• Make

• Cause

• Result in

• Lead to

• (which) mean that 20


Because & because of

At the beginning of a sentence, or


between two clauses

Can you guess what the sentence is according to these pictures?

• Because + subject + verb, etc


• Because of + noun / pronoun
 Do not use “because of + subject + verb, etc”
Since / as
( = because) Can you guess what
the sentence is?
• When the cause produces an
obvious, logical or expected result.
• Often used at the beginning of a
sentence
Due to / owing to / in view
of / on account of

• = because of, in fairly formal contexts


• At the beginning of a sentence, or
between two clauses

Can you guess what the sentence is according to these pictures?

• Due to / owing to / in view of / on account of


+ noun / pronoun
• Due to / owing to / in view of / on account of
the fact that + subject + verb, etc.
 Do not use “due to / owing to / in view of / on
account of + subject + verb, etc”
so therefore
Similarity To introduce the result of something
• Used between • More formal than so
two clauses, after • Used at the beginning of a second
Difference a comma, or with sentence or between two clauses with and
and • At the beginning of a sentence often
followed by a comma

For example: The watch / not go off / Loey / late for school

Make a sentence using “so” or “therefore” according to these clues.

( this is Loey >< )


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then
• to respond to something with what the A: There are no buses at this time.
speaker believes to be the result of it B: Then we’ll have to get the bus.
• used at the beginning or end of the
response

 Do not use then to link a cause and a


result in a single sentence
AS A RESULT

As a result of + -ing

As a result + subject As a result of + noun /


+ verb, etc. pronoun
MAKE
The film
Make was/ so
+ noun boring
pronoun
+that it made
infinitive without meto fall
asleep.
Links a cause and a result

Make
My mom+ it + adjective
made it easy+ for
for
me+tonoun / pronoun
do the washing+up
infinitive with to
Often used with the adjective
easy, difficult, possible, impossible

My mom’s
Make + nouncompliments
/ pronoun
+made me happy
adjective
Used with many adjectives
describing feelings, attitudes
and characteristics.
01
Cause + noun / pronoun (+infinitive)
What caused the problem? Result in + noun ( = have a result )

04 02 The bad weather resulted in in


increase in fruit and vegetable prices

(which) mean that + subject + verb, etc.


• Introduce a result that is certain 03
• With which links a causes with its result
 He has been absent for three days since the
beginning of the class, which means that he fell
the course. Lead to + noun / pronoun
Smoking can lead to heart diseases
Complete the sentence so that it means the same as the first.

1. It's raining so I can't go out today. (As a result of)

 As a result of the rain, I can’t go out today.

2. He was very lazy. He got bad mark. (lead to)

 His laziness lead to his bad mark.

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INSTEAD OF

To introduce a possibility, choice or


idea that is preferred to something also
mentioned

Can you guess what the sentence is according to these pictures?


• Instead of + -ing
When the subject of both verbs is the same
 Do not use “instead + infinitive”
• Instead of + noun / pronoun
(Why don’t we buy this red dress instead of that pink one?)
• Instead
= instead of something also mentioned
(I don’t feel like going out for dinner this evening. Let’s do it
tomorrow instead)
Rather than +
Rather than infinitive without to
Rather than waste
any more time, I gave
up

Rather than + -ing


Rather than standing
overthere, why don’t
To introduce a possibility , you help me?
choice or idea that is
preferred to something also
mentioned Rather than +
noun/pronoun
I bought the blue one
rather than the red one
Otherwise Else Or (else)
= if not, when talking • = different; more • To introduce an
about what will/would • Use in the following alternative
happen if another thing structures: • With else emphasizes
mentioned does not/did Something else, nothing that there will be a bad
not happen else, etc. result if the first thing
What else, where else, etc. mentioned doesn’t
• In questions and happen
statements
If I see her today I’ll tell Is there anything else you’d I’d better leave now or (else)
her.Otherwise, I’ll call her like to know? I’ll be late.
later.

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Whether
You’ll have to pay whether you like it or
not. 1. Whether … or (not)  to talk about two
possibilities
Whether I go away this weekend or I 2. Whether + subject + verb + or (+subject) +
stay here depends on how much money verb
I’ve got

Either
You either love her or you don’t
1. Either … or  to link two possibilities
2. Either + possibility A + or + possibility B Geogre can’t go and I can’t (go) either
3. Negative verb (+and + negative verb)
+ either ‘I can’t go on Friday.’ – ‘I can’t either’
4. Exceptions & additions
Firstly , let’s come to exceptions

Here are some exception


forms that we are going to
cover :
+ Apart from
+ Except / but
+ No choice / alternative /
option but
APART FROM
used to talk about the only ways , things ,
people ……. That are not included in the
meaning of a statement or a declaration

Common forms :

+ Apart from + v-ing


+ Apart from + noun/pronoun
+ Apart from the fact that + a
clause
Apart from + v-ing : only used when both verbs have
the same subjects

Ex : Apart from reading books , I don’t find any other


activities interesting .
Apart from + noun/pronoun

Ex : Apart from Aron and Danny , I didn’t know


anyone at the party last night
Apart from the fact that + a clause

Ex : Apart from the fact that she puts on some weights , her boy
friend still finds her very beautiful .
EXCEPT / BUT
like apart from , they are also used to talk about
the only ways , things , people ,… that are not
included in the meaning of a statement or a
declaration .

Common forms :
+ Except for + v-ing
+ Except/but + noun / pronoun
+ Except/but + infinitive
Except for + v-ing : the same usage as apart from
+ v-ing

Ex: Except for playing soccer , I don’t like


any other sport activities.
Except/but + noun / pronoun

Ex : She loves him for nothing except/but his money


Except/but + infinitive

Ex : She has not done anything except/but work on her laptop all day
No choice/ alternative/ option but + to
infinitive
used to talk about the only possible
action

Ex: I have no choice/ alternative/ option but to try my best in the next exam.
A simple exercise to practice :
• Fill in the blank with a suitable answer:
………… , he didn’t do anything special on
his holidays .
A. Except hanging out with some friends
B. But to hang out with friends
C. Apart from hanging out with some friends
D. Apart from to drink beers with his friends

C is the right answer


1. Apart from / as well as + -
Apart from ing
 only when both verbs have the
/ as well as same subject
2. Apart from/ as
well as + noun/
To link two pronoun
statements which 3. Apart from the fact that + s
are true in order to ubject + verbs
emphasize that both For example: I’m not going to bu
things are true. y it. Apart from the fact
that it’s expensive, I don’t
really like it.
NOT As well as the fact that...
In addition to
= apart from / as well as , but more formal

In addition to + - In addition to +
01 02 03 In addition
ing noun / pronoun
Only used when both
When the verbs have = in addition to
verbs have the same
different subjects this/that
subject
In addition to running the You will require a work In addition to the fact that her
departmen, she has permit in addition to the work is good, she gets on very
resbonsibility for staff training. appropriate well with everyone else.
qualifications.
It has the meaning with

BESIDES  apart from/ as well as/ in


addition to (this/that)

Besides + -ing
01 When both verbs have the same subject

Besides eating too much, he gets fat too little exercise.

02 Besides + noun / pronoun


He has lots of other interest besides football
Subject (+
On top of + auxiliary / Not only... (but)
Also
noun/pronoun/ -ing modal) + also + also
verb
To link two statements that are • After and in a single Do not put also at the To emphasize that two
true in order to emphasize that sentence end of a sentence things are both true
thay are both true. • At the beginning of
a second sentence

On top of having to do a lot of I cooked the meal and She has computer skills I not only cooked the
school work, she also does a also I washed up and (also) she can meal (but) I also
lot of sport. afterwards. (also) speak/ she washed up afterwards
(also) speaks several
languages.
NOT and she speaks I
can speak several
languages also
Too / as well

• At the end of a sentence


in which two clauses are
linked by and
• At the end of a second
sentence
• Do not use too/ as well
at the beginning of a
sentence. I cooked the meal. I washed up afterwards, too / as well
Furthermor
e/ moreover
• to introduce another
comment or point in
addition to something
previously said.
• quite formal
• can be followed by a
comma

The room I was given at your hotel was


unsatisfactory. Furthermore / Moreover, the service
was very poor.
• Infinitive with to
• So as (not) to
• In order to
• So that
Infinitive with to
*Used to talk about action.
the purpose of action.
• Note: Do not use
negative infinitive
to express a
purpose.
• Note: Do not use Ex: I’m going to the shop to
buy a new skirt.
for to talk about the
purpose of an
So as (not) to

*Used to talk bout the purpose of an


action in more formal contexts or the
purpose is more difficult.

Ex: We had a meeting so


as to solve the problem.
In order to
• Used to explain the
purpose of an
action. (in formal
contexts)

Ex: I study English in order to


speak to my English friends.
So that
• Express any purpose
• Must be used if there
is a second subject.
• How to use:
* so (that) + second
subject + present simple/
will/can
* so (that) + second Ex: She has so many hats
subject + would/ could. that she spends much time
choosing the suitable one.
Ex: The food was so hot
that we couldn’t eat it.