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Panduan Self-Seleksi

Masyarakat
Muhammad Iqbal Novanta – 15717009
Roselina Yolanda - 15717023
Pokok Bahasan

1 Pendahuluan dan pengertiian Rapid Participatory Assesment

2 Tujuan Rapid Participatory Assesment

3 Partisipan Rapid Participatory Assesment

4 Teknik Rapid Participatory Assesment


Pokok Bahasan

5 Skema Penerapan Teknik Rapid Participatory Assesment

6 Variabel dan Indikator Rapid Participatory Assesment

Penetapan Skor dan Pembobotan dalam Rapid Participatory


7 Assesment

8 Analisis dan Hasil Rapid Participatory Assesment


Pokok Bahasan
Fasilitator Teknik Rapid Participatory Assesment
9

Penentuan Waktu dan Tempat Teknik Rapid Participatory


10
Assesment

Bahan yang Perlu Disiapkan dalam Rapid Participatory


11 Assesment

8
Pengertian Rapid
Participatory
Assesment
Pengertian Rapid Participatory Assesment

Dalam proses penetapan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat, diperlukan proses seleksi


masyarakat dalam proyek Sanitasi Oleh Masyarakat/SANIMAS. Proses seleksi ini
dilakukan sendiri oleh masyarakat berdasarkan keputusan mereka sendiri secara
demokratis dan terbuka. Orang luar hanya bertindak sebagai fasilitator.

Metode seleksi menggunakan Rapid Participatory Assesment/RPA yakni seperangkat


alat yang berbasis pada Method for Participatory Assesment/MPA yang digunakan untuk
melakukan penentuan kondisi sanitasi masyarakat, masalah yang mereka hadapi serta
kebutuhan untuk memcahkan masalah sanitasi secara cepat dan dilakukan secara
partisipatif.
Rapid Participatory Assesment
Alasan penggunaan metode ini antara lain :

1. Posisi Masyarakat
Pendekatan ini memposisikan
masyarakat sebagai subyek.

2. Ruang terhadap Msyarakat 3. Media Pemberdayaan


Pendekatan ini lebih dapat 1. Pendekatan ini merupakan
memberikan ruang kepada salah satu media
masyarakat dan berbagai status pemberdayaan masyarakat
sosial untuk menyampaikan pada tingkat bawah
aspirasi dan keinginannya.
Rapid Participatory Assesment
Tujuan Rapid
Participatory
Assesment
Tujuan Rapid Participatory Assesment

Teridentifikasinya Teridentifikasinya Teridentifikasinya Teridentifikasinya


pengalaman pengalaman masalah dan kesanggupan Terseleksinya
masyarakat dalam masyarakat dalam kebutuhan atau masyarakat untuk kampung atau
kegiatan/proyek melakukan gotong rencana berkontribusi banjar yang paling
perbaikan sanitasi. royong pekerjaan masyarakat untuk dalam perbaikan siap untuk
fisik memecahkan sanitasi implementasi
masalah sanitasi SANIMAS
Partisipan Rapid
Participatory
Assesment
Partisipan Rapid Participatory Assesment

Komponen Anak-anak Elemen kaya- Tokoh Formal da


Masyarakat miskin di n Informal
di suatu
Laki-laki dan Suatu di suatu
perkampungan
Perempuan perkampungan perkampungan
di suatu
perkampungan
Teknik Rapid
Participatory
Assesment
Teknik Rapid Participatory Assesment

1. Timeline; adalah alat (teknik atau cara) untuk mengenali dan mengkaji pengalaman
masyarakat dalam pembangunan sanitasi kampung yang pernah dilaksanakan,
sekaligus mengetahui kapan dilakukan, siapa inisiator kegiatan tersebut dan
darimana sumber dananya dan berapa besarnya.

2. Ladder I; adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengenali dan mengkaji tentang
manfaat dan nilai iuran yang dirasakan oleh masyarakat dalam kegiatan
pembangunan sarana sanitasi kampung. Apakah manfaat yang diperoleh lebih besar
atau lebih kecil dari nilai iuran yang dikeluarkan oleh masyarakat. Alat ini juga
sekaligus akan digunakan untuk menilai sebesar apa masyarakat siap untuk
berkontribusi dalam pembangunan infrastruktur sanitasi.
Teknik Rapid Participatory Assesment

3. Transect Walk; adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengenali dan mengkaji kondisi
sarana/fasilitas sanitasi kampung yang sudah ada dengan melakukan observasi
langsung. Alat ini juga sekaligus digunakan untuk menilai tingkat kepuasan masyarakat
terhadap fasilitas sanitasi yang ada, serta menilai tingkat kelayakan
teknis sebagai prasyarat pembangunan insfrastruktur sanitasi yang direncanakan.

4. Venn Diagram; adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengenali dan mengkaji
keberadaan lembaga local yang ada dalam masyarakat, manfaat dan kedekatan
hubungan dengan masyarakat sendiri. Alat ini sekaligus juga digunakan untuk
menilai tingkat kesiapan masyarakat untuk mengelola sanitasi secara kelembagaan
lokal.
Teknik Rapid Participatory Assesment

5. Problem Trees; adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengenali dan mengkaji
masalah-masalah sanitasi masyarakat, dan juga hubungan sebab-akibat yang
ditimbulkan. Alat ini sekaligus juga digunakan untuk mengetahui prioritas
masyarakat untuk memecahkan masalah sanitasi..
Variabel dan
Indikator Rapid
Participatory
Assesment
Variabel dan Indikator Rapid Participatory Assesment

1. Kapasitas kelembagaan: Pengalaman membangun sarana sanitasi secara gotong


royong:

a. Tidak ada pengalaman / belum pernah dilakukan


b. Pernah dilakukan, berbentuk hibah / bantuan dari luar
c. Pernah dilakukan, masyarakat berkontribusi dalam bentuk tenaga+material
(in-kind)
d. Pernah dilakukan, masyarakat berkontribusi uang dan tenaga + material (inkind)
e. Pernah dilakukan, masyarakat berkontribusi uang dan tenaga + material (inkind),
badan pengelola yang dibentuk masih ada/aktif sampai sekarang.
Variabel dan Indikator Rapid Participatory Assesment

2. Kesediaan masyarakat berkontribusi:

a. Tidak bersedia memberikan kontribusi


b. Bersedia memberikan kontribusi hanya untuk biaya pembangunan toilet
c. Bersedia memberikan kontribusi untuk biaya pembangunan toilet, biaya
pengoperasian dan perawatan semua komponen
d. Bersedia memberikan kontribusi untuk biaya pembangunan toilet, biaya
pengoperasian dan perawatan semua komponen, dan sebagian dari biaya
pembangunan komponen lainnya
e. Bersedia memberikan kontribusi untuk biaya pembangunan toilet, biaya
pengoperasian dan perawatan semua komponen, dan seluruh biaya
pembangunan komponen-komponen lainnya
Variabel dan Indikator Rapid Participatory Assesment

3. Kelayakan teknis untuk infrastruktur sanitasi:

a. Tidak tersedia lahan yang siap pakai/bangun di dalam kampung


b. Tersedia lahan milik perorangan (100-200 m2) di dalam kampung dan harus
dibeli
c. Tersedia lahan milik negara (100-200m2) di dalam kampung tapi harus
minta surat ijin penggunaan
d. Tersedia lahan milik perorangan (100-200 m2) di dalam kampung yang siap
dibangun
e. Tersedia lahan milik negara (100-200 meter persegi) di dalam kampung
yang siap dibangun
Variabel dan Indikator Rapid Participatory Assesment
4. Kapasitas kelembagaan: Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat/KSM:

a. Tidak ada KSM yang penting/bermanfaat bagi warga masyarakat


b. Ada KSM tapi semuanya tidak penting/bermanfaat bagi masyarakat
c. Ada KSM yang penting/bermanfaat tapi hubungannya jauh dari masyarakat
d. Ada KSM yang penting/bermanfaat dan hubungannya dekat dengan
masyarakat
e. Semua KSM yang penting/bermanfaat mempunyai hubungan dekat dengan
masyarakat

5. Tingkat Prioritas Perbaikan Sanitasi:

a. Sanitasi tidak ada dalam analisis masyarakat


b. Sanitasi ada tapi tidak dibahas lebih lanjut dalam analisis
c. Sanitasi dan beberapa alternatif pemecahan dibahas dalam analisis
d. Sanitasi dan alternatif pemecahan diidentifikasi, tetapi tidak ada rencana
kerja yang khusus
e. Sanitasi dan alternatif pemecahan diidentifikasi, dan rencana kerja yang
khusus telah disusun oleh masyarakat.
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