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Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in coffee , bread and

ripe fruit , and it’s produced from plants. Other names


are Acetic aldehyde , Ethyl aldehyde.
• USES :
• Acetaldehyde is an important precursor to
pyridine derivatives , pentaerythritol, and
crotonaldehyde.
• Urea + acetaldehyde = Resin
• Precursor to polyvinylacetate
• Precursor to acetic acid ( Declained app.)

• Note :
• a thing that comes before another of the
same kind or forerunner.
• Physical properties:
1.Colour less
2.pungent suffocating odor . When diluted
It gives a pleasant fruity order.
Properties Values
Formula weight 44.053

Melting point -123.5

Boiling point at 101.3 20.16 in Celsius

Flash point , closed cup -38 in Celsius

Ignition temperature in air 165 in Celsius

Explosive limits of mixtures with air , vol 4.5 – 60.5


%
Acetaldehyde
Refractive index 1.33113

Vapor density 1.52


• Chemical properties :
Acetaldehyde is soluble in water , ethanol ,
benzene , acetone and slightly soluble in chloroform.
Acetaldehyde decomposes at temp. above
400 C, Forming principally methane and carbon
monoxide.
Acetaldehyde is readily oxidized with
oxygen or air to acetic acid, acetic anhydride , and per
acetic acid.
Acetic acid produced by the liquid phase
oxidation of acetaldehyde at 65 C .
• VARIOUS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
1. Acetaldehyde from ethanol process
2. Acetaldehyde from hydration of acetylene

HYDRATION OF ACETYLENE :
In the process, acetylene of high purity ispassed
under a pressure of 103.4 kPa (15 Psi) into a vertical
reactor containing a mercury catalyst dissolved in 18-
25% sulfuric acid at 70-900C.

C2H2 + H2O CH3CHO

The main drawback of this process is the high raw


material (acetylene) costs.
SELECTION OF PROCESS
Ethanol dehydrogenation process
The process was introduced starting from lower cost
ethanol as raw material thereby producing acetaldehyde at a
lower cost. The yield is very high - about 94%.
Overall reaction:
C2H5OH CH3CHO + H2

1.This process is a huge economic success. It


quickly replaced the old process.
2.we also get 98% pure hydrogen in this process.
MATERIAL BALANCE
BASIS :

• Amount of acetaldehyde
to be produced = 150 TPD = 6250 kg/hr
• Molecular weight of ethanol =46 kg/kmol
• Molecular weight of acetaldehyde = 44kg/kmol
• Molecular weight of hydrogen =2kg/kmol
• Therefore, amount of acetaldehyde
to be produced = 142.04 kmol/hr.
Let conversion be 94% ,

Taking into account the losses let,


the acetaldehyde produced to be some extra.

Let,
Acetaldehyde to be produced = 6500 kg/hr
Amount of ethanol required for
100% conversion = 6795.45kg/hr
Therefore, ethanol required for
94% conversion =7229.2 kg/hr


MATERIAL BALANCE FOR REACTOR
The reaction in the reactor :
C2H5OH CH3CHO + H2
Optimum reaction temperature = 3100C
Conversion = 94%
From material balance,
• Amount of
acetaldehyde produced = 0.94 * 44 * 7229.2 /46 = 6500 kg
• Amount of
hydrogen produced = 0.94 *2 * 7229.2 / 46 = 295.45 kg
• Amount of
ethanol un reacted = 7229.2 – (6500 + 295.45 ) = 433.74 kg
Acetaldehyde
( 6500 Kg/hr )

Ethanol
( 7229.2 Kg/hr ) REACTOR

• Unreacted Ethanol ( 433.74Kg/hr)


• H2 ( 295.45 Kg/hr )
Table : Summary of Material Balance for Reactor

INPUT (Kg/hr) OUTPUT (Kg/hr)

Ethanol 7229.2 Acetaldehyde 6500

Hydrogen 295.45

Ethanol (unreacted) 433.74

Total 7229.2 Total 7229.2


MATERIAL BALANCE FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN
D = 6372.56 Kg.
Xd = 0.99
E = 433.78 Kg
A = 6308.196 Kg
Total feed = F = 6741.976 Kg
Xf = 0.93
W = 369.416
Xw = 0.06
Assume 99% acetaldehyde recovery in overhead product.
Assume xd = 0.99
In overhead :
Acetaldehyde = 6245.11 Kg
Ethanol = 127.45 Kg
Total D = 6372.56 Kg
In bottom :
Acetaldehyde = 22.165 Kg
Ethanol = 306.334 Kg
Total W = 369.416 Kg
F = D+W
F*xf = D * Xd + W * Xw
Therefore,
Xw = (F * xf – D * xd) / W * xw
Xw =
(6741.976 * 0.93 – 6372.56 * 0.99) / 369.416
= 0.06 //
Table : Summary of material balance for Distillation column

INPUT (Kg) OUTPUT (Kg)

Feed 6741.976 Distillate


Acetaldehyde 6245.11
Ethanol 127.45
Total 6372.56

Bottom
Acetaldehyde 22.165
Ethanol 306.334
Total 369.416
Distillate Acetaldehyde – 6245.11
Ethanol - 127.45

FEED
( 6741.976 Kg/hr ) Distillaton
column

Bottom Acetaldehyde - 22.165


Ethanol - 306.334
Kinetics and Mechanistic investigation of Environmental benign Nano
catalyst for the Degradation of Anthropogenic Pollutants

• Introduction :

• Dyes and aromatic compounds discharged from industries such as
leather, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and textiles are recognized to be
hazardous pollutants and their prolonged exposure into the environment
is associated with cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity to
humans. Conventional methods such as osmosis, adsorption, and
flocculation have been employed for the removal of aforesaid dyes .