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Government BRANCH

Autonomous Regional Governor Regional Legislative

Regions Assembly

Province Governor Sangguniang


Cities Mayor Sangguniang


Municipalities Mayor Sangguniang Bayan
Have more powers than other LGUs

Other regions are not considered

LGUs since they do not have political
Currently, only one autonomous region
exists: the Autonomous Region in
Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

A 1998 plebiscite for the creation of a "Cordillera Autonomous

Region" was only approved by the voters of Apayao; as a result of an
earlier rejection in a 1990 plebiscite where only Ifugao province
and Baguio City were in favor, the Supreme Court (Ordillo vs.
Comelec; G.R. No. 93054) ruled that a region must be composed of
more than one province.
The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao

• has a unicameral Regional Legislative Assembly headed by a

• composed of three members for every congressional district.

The current membership is 24, where

6 are from Lanao del Sur including Marawi City,

6 from Maguindanao,

6 from Sulu,

3 from Basilan and 3 from Tawi-Tawi

the primary political and administrative divisions of the
There are 81 provinces at present
subdivided into component
cities and municipalities
Each province is governed by an elected legislature called
the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor
grouped into 18 regions based on geographical, cultural, and
ethnological characteristics.
Fifteen of these regions are designated with numbers
corresponding to their geographic location
Provincial governor is chief executive and head of each

Elected to a term of three years and limited to three

consecutive terms, he or she appoints the directors
of each provincial department which include the
office of administration, engineering office,
information office, legal office, and treasury office.

"enact ordinances, approve resolutions and appropriate funds for the
general welfare of the province and its inhabitants... in the proper exercise
of the corporate powers of the province."

• "Approve ordinances and pass resolutions necessary for an efficient

and effective provincial government,"
• "Generate and maximize the use of resources and revenues for the
development plans, program objectives and priorities of the province...
with particular attention to agro-industrial development and country-
wide growth and progress and relative thereto,"
• "Grant franchises, approve the issuance of permits or licenses, or enact
ordinances levying taxes, fees and charges upon such conditions and
for such purposes,"
• "Approve ordinances which shall ensure the efficient and effective
delivery of basic services and facilities"
• "Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and

functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance"
one of the local governments in
the Philippines.

Local Government Code of 1991, which

specifies their administrative structure and
powers. As of December 31, 2013, there are
144 cities.

Cities are entitled to at least one representative in

the Philippine House of Representatives if its population

reaches 250,000.
The Local Government Code of 1991 (Republic Act
No. 7160) classifies all cities into one of three

• Highly Urbanized Independent Cities

• Component Cities

• Independent Component Cities

Cities are classified according to average annual income based on
the previous four calendar years. Effective July 28, 2008 the
thresholds for the income classes for cities are:

Average annual income

(₱ million)
First 400 or more
Second 320 or more but less than 400
Third 240 or more but less than 320
Fourth 160 or more but less than 240

Fifth 80 or more but less than 160
Sixth Below 80
Elected officials
All elected officials have 3-year
terms, and can only serve a
maximum of three consecutive terms
before being ineligible for reelection.
LGU Official/Legislature Minimum age (18 is th

Regional governor 35 years old on election day[

mous region Regional vice governor Same as regional governor

Regional legislative assembly member 21 years old on election day[

Governor 23 years old on election day[

ces Vice governor Same as governor
Sangguniang Panlalawigan member Same as governor
Mayor Same as governor
Vice mayor Same as governor
urbanized cities
Sangguniang Panlungsod member (Councilor) Same as governor

Mayor 21 years old on election day

Same as independent compon
Vice mayor
ndent component and component cities city mayor[6]
Same as independent compon
Sangguniang Panlungsod member (Councilor)
city mayor
Same as independent compon
city mayor
Same as independent compon
palities Vice mayor
city mayor
Same as independent compon
Sangguniang Bayan member (Councilor)
city mayor
Barangay captain 18 years old on election day
The city vice mayor serves as the presiding
officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod.

The members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod,
often referred to as councillors are either elected
or ex-officio.

composed of ten elected councilors

Municipalities have some autonomy from the National
Government of the Republic of the Philippines under
the Local Government Code of 1991.

The National Government assists and supervises the

local government to make sure that they do not
violate national law.

The municipal vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of
the Sagguniang Bayan, who has no voting privilege except
in cases to break a deadlock.
All municipalities in the Philippines, with the exception
of Pateros in Metro Manila, have eight regular members
or councillors elected at-large.
In the case of Pateros, its Sangguniang Bayan is
composed of twelve elected councilors, wherein six
are elected from each of the two districts Pateros is
divided into

There are also three ex officio councilors

The modern barangay is headed by elected officials, the
topmost being the Punong Barangay or the Barangay
The Kapitan is aided by theSangguniang
Barangay (Barangay Council) whose members, called
Barangay Kagawad ("Councilors"), are also elected.
The council is considered to be a Local Government
Unit (LGU), similar to the Provincial and the Municipal
Government. The officials that make up the council are
the Punong Barangay, seven Barangay Councillors,
and the chairman of Youth Council or Sangguniang
Kabataan (SK). Thus, there are eight (8) members of
the Legislative Council in a barangay.
The Sangguniang Barangay known commonly as
the Barangay Council, and formerly as the Rural
Council and then the Barrio Council, is
the legislative body of a barangay, the lowest
elected government in the Philippines.

Tagalog words "sanggunian" and"baranggay" whic

h means "barangay advisory council".