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Textile Finishing

Textile finishing is a very diversified sector due to the

processed raw materials, manufacturing techniques and
finalized products. In the textile industry , finishing is the
last step in fabric manufacturing and is when the final fabric
properties are developed.
Textile finishing gives its final commercial character with
regard to appearance , shine , handle , drape , fullness ,
usability etc.Nearly all textiles are finished. When finishing
takes place in a wet state, it is called wet finishing, and while
finishing in dry state is called dry finishing.
Textile finishing depends on
some factor which are given

1.The physical properties of fibre such as swelling capacity

and behaviour when pressure or friction is applied.
2.The type of fibre and its arrangement in yarn and fabric
3.The capacity of fibers to absorb chemicals.
Objective of Textile Finishing

 To change the surface characteristics of textile materials.

 To increase life and durability of textile material.
 To set the chemicals into textile materials.
 To impart new properties to the textile materials such as
flame retardant, water repellent or water proof finishes.
 To meet up specific end uses.
Classification Of Textile Finishes
Finishing Processes are so varied that is difficult to
classify them .For cotton several finishing processes
are used widely ,but they are so varied in technique
that it is difficult to group them together .The finishing
processes maybe broadly classified in two groups :
Chemical finishing and mechanical finishing.
Some of the Temporary
Finishes are:
Mechanical: calendar , schreinering , embossing, glazing ,
breaking , stretching etc.
Filling: starch , china clay and other mineral fillers .
Surface application: oil, different softners and other finishing
Some Of the durable finishes
Mechanical: compressive shrinkage, milling of wool ,
raising and cutting processes, permanent setting etc.
Deposition: synthetic resins-both internal and external
, rubber latex , laminating, etc
Chemical: mercerisation , perchmentising , cross-linking
agents , water repellent finish , fire- resistant and
fireproofing finishes , shrinkproofing of wool , etc.
Physical Finishing :
Physical finishing methods for textiles include optical
finishing , brushing and napping , softening, shearing and
compacting of the textile structure.

Optical Finishes:
Lusture maybe imparted to fabric by physical means. The
technique basically involves flattening or smoothing the
surface yarn using pressure.
Brushing and napping:
Physical delustring of a fabric as well as , bulking and
lofting of the fabric can be achieved by treatments which
roughen the fibre surface or raise fibres to the surface.
This process involves the use of wires or brushes which
catch yarn in the textile structure and pulls individual yarn
partly from the yarn structure.

During the fabric formation processes , tremendous
stresses are applied on the textile materials . Such stresses
can be controlled by drying the finished fabric with or
without tension on a stenter frame, which controls the
width of fabric and the tension of the fabric during the
drying process.
Functional Finishes:
Various functional fabric properties maybe increased
by using suitable chemical and/or physiochemical
techniques. The latter includes coating and exposure
to high-energy sources and are gradually superseding
conventional wet chemical methods.

Chemical Finishes:
When chemicals are used to change fabric properties,
they must be applied uniformly the fabrics and fibres.
Chemical finishing steps involve applying chemical solution
with a suitable applicator , removing water , and heating
the fabric to a temperature that activates the chemical.
Plasma Finishing:
The coupling of electromagnetic power into a process
gas volumes generates a plasma medium comprising a
dynamic mix of ions , electrons , neutrons , photons ,
free radicals, and polymeric fragments , with the system
overall being at the room temperature.
 Increasing concern over damage caused by
exposure to microbes, chemicals, pesticides, UV
light and pollutants in the last few years, has
heightened the demand for protective garments.
 Clothing today is expected to be waterproof , flame
resistant, self cleaning , insect repellant and
antimicrobial to protect human beings from
infection , UV light, chemical and biological agents ,
be warmer in winter and cooler in summer while at
the same time being light and less bulky than the
current solution.
Some of the recent developments in finishing
methods are-
 Enzymatic processes provide an effective
non polluting alternative to conventional
chemical finishing treatments because
they operate under mild conditions, are
substrate specific non toxic ,
biodegradable and donot produce any
harmful byproducts.
 The most commonly used conventional
methods of immobilisation of enzymes are
adsorption, covalent bonding, entrapment,
encapsulation and crosslinking .
Adsorption: This process consists of treating the
substrate with enzyme under suitable conditions of
pH8 and ionic strength , followed by incubation.
Though the process is quick, easy and cheap , it is not
suitable for apparel applications as the enzyme is
held on the textile only by weak forces of attraction
and will leach out as soon as it is put in water.

Covalent Bonding: In this process a covalent bond is

formed between an enzyme and textile. This process
is complex as several steps maybe involved in
forming a covalent bond. This method is most
appropriate for textile finishing as it is a strong
linkage that can provide a permanent bonding.
Entrapment: Enzyme can be trapped in the lattice
structure of a gel for immobilisation. The porosity of
the gel structure has to be controlled so as to
prevent enzyme leakage while allowing free activity
of enzyme. Entrapment as a method of enzyme
immobilisation provides gentle conditions in terms of
pH and temperature and enzymes remain stable for
longer periods of time.
Encapsulation: Enzymes can be encapsulated inside a
polymeric membrane, such as that made from nylon
or cellulose nitrate to form micro or nano capsules
which can then be applied to textile by a coating
method. Encapsulation is a preferred method of
applying special finishes to textiles.
Enzyme Cross linking: In this process, the enzyme
molecules are cross linked with each other to
form a large 3D complex structure which is
durably attached to the substrate.
 Layer by layer assembly method is a unique
technique developed for fabrication of thin
composite films on solid surfaces. It involves a
sequential adsorption of oppositely charged
polycations and and polyanions so as to build a
polyelectrolyte multilayer film on the substrate.
 Miniaturization to the nanometer scale has been one of the
most important trends in science and technology over the
last several years. Coating which are nano scaled or nano
structured can be used to coat individual monofilaments
with films which are as thin as 10nm in thickness. Such films
allow a much larger surface area to be created with
improved functionality and durability, without any adverse
effect on the fabric feel.
Use of plasma modification of textile surfaces has a history spanning
some 40 years, but its adoption by the textile industry at commercial
scale has been very slow. Ultra thin polymeric layers on textiles can
be developed by using plasma either in PVD or PECVD mode. In the
former method ,the vaporized with the help of plasma. The vapours
condense on the substrate to yield a thin, strong and continuous film.
In PECVD, the substrate is exposed to plasma to functionalise the
surface before CVD to accelerate the process of coating.