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UHF 6033: DYNAMICS OF LEADERSHIP

Contingency Leadership
Theories
Presented by: Group 4 members
1. Chin Hooi Ming (MPP181166)
2. Cha Shi Ping (MPP181167)
3. Syahidah binti Ghani (MPP171027)
4. Haslinda binti Jamaluddin (MPP171026)
5. Amir Faisal bin Noor Yakim (MPP183023)

Lecturer: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yusof Boon


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Learning Outcomes
■ Differences between behavioral and
contingency leadership theories.
■ Contingency leadership variables and
styles.
■ Leadership models:
– Contingency — Prescriptive
– Leadership continuum — Descriptive
– Path-goal — Substitutes
– Normative — Situational

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Differences between behavioral and
contingency leadership theories
Behavioral leadership Contingency leadership
theory theory
Leadership styles
1.University of Iowa: Means “it
1. Followers
Autocratic vs depends”
Democratic
2. The University of 2. Leader
Michigan:
Job Centered 3. Situation
Vs Employee Centered

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Contingency Leadership
Framework Variables

Behavioural
leadership theory

Leader
Followers Situation
Personality
Capability Task
traits
Motivation Structure
Behavior
Environment
Experience

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Contingency
Leadership Model
■ Used to determine if
one’s style is task or
relationship oriented
and if the situation
matches the leader’s
style to maximize
performance.

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The Contingency Leadership
Model Variables Within
The Contingency Leadership
Framework

Leader
Situation
Followers Leader-member relations
Leader/Member Task Structure
Relations Leadership Position Power
Styles
Task
Relationship
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Situation Favorableness
■ The degree a situation enables
the leader to exert influence
over the followers
■ More control ⇒ More favorable
situation

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Variables of Description How to have
situational more
favorableness favourable
situation?
1. Leader- Has greatest influence good
member relations over situational relations
favorableness
2. Task structure Leaders in most more
structured situation have structured task
greatest control

3. Position power • Least important greater


• Leaders with power to power position
assign work, reward,
punish, hire, fire, and
promote have greatest
position power 8
Are Is the
Is the Appropri
leader- task
leader’s ate style
followers repetitive
power situation
relationsh or for
strong or situation
ips good nonrepetit
weak?
or poor? ive?

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Determine theAresituationIsnumber
the with its corresponding appropriate
leader- leadership Isstyle.
task
the Appropri
Karen, thefollowers
manager, repetitive leader’s
is from corporate planning staff. Sheate
helps
style
power situation
relationsh
the other departments plan.
or Karen is viewed as being a dreamer. for
strong or situation
She doesn’t understand the variousweak?
ips good nonrepetit departments. Employees tend
or poor?
to be rude ive?
in their dealings with Karen.

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Determine the AresituationIsnumber
the withIsits
thecorresponding appropriate
Appropri
leader- task
leadershipleader’s
style.
followers repetitive ate style
Sonia, the principal of a school, assignspower teachers to classes for
situation and
relationsh or
has various duties. She strong
othernonrepetit
ips good
or decides on tenure
hires and situation
appointments.
or poor? The schoolweak?
ive? atmosphere is tense.

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Determine theAresituationIsnumber
the withIsits
thecorresponding appropriate
Appropri
leader- task
leadershipleader’s
style.
followers repetitive ate style
Saul, the manager, oversees the power assembly ofsituation
mass-produced for
relationsh or
containers. He hasnonrepetit
the power to strong or and punish. Saul
reward is
situation
ips good
viewed as weak?
or poor? ive?a hard-nosed manager.

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■ serving as a director of
Case application Amazon, the largest
eCommerce business
■ ranked among the world's
100 most powerful women
■ Nooyi joined PepsiCo in
1994 and was named CEO
in 2001
■ She reclassified PepsiCo's
products into three
categories: "fun for you"
(such as potato chips and
regular soda), "better for
you" (diet or low-fat versions
of snacks and sodas), and
"good for you" (items such as
oatmeal). 13
Case application
What do colleagues say about Indra Nooyi’s
leadership- is it task or relationship?
■ Her colleagues say Indra Nooyi is intense, decisive, and
excellent negotiator, very open and very direct,
demanding, and she challenges you.
■ She is charismatic.
■ Although she is task oriented, she has strong
relationships with her colleagues. She insists that
everybody’s birthday is celebrated with a cake.
■ She is a karaoke fan, and her karaoke machine is the
ubiquitous party game at every PepsiCo gathering.

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CONTINGENCY
LEADERSHIP
THEORY AND
MODEL
by Haslinda binti Jamaluddin

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Developed by Robert House,
1971, based on an early
version of the theory by M.
G. Evans

Behavior of a leader
influences the performance
and satisfaction of the
followers / subordinates.

Use appropriate leadership


Robert House style (one of four)

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PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP
THEORY AND MODEL
Based on motivation theories of goal setting and
expectancy theory.
Attain personal
&
Motivation organizational
increased goals
Increasing
the
Clarify the rewards
follower’s Path clarification – identify and
path to the That the
learn the behaviors that will lead
available followers to successful task
rewards values and accomplishment and
desires organizational rewards.

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Path-Goal Leadership Model Variables Within
the Contigency Leadership Framework

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House Path-Goal Leadership Model

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Leadership Styles
Leadership Leader Follower Environment
Styles
Directive  High structure  Authority  Task complex
leadership  Strong
 External  Work group
 Low ability provide job
satisfaction

Supportive  High  Do not want  Task simple


consideration autocratic  Weak
 Internal  Work group
 High ability does not
provide job
satisfaction

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Leadership Leader Follower Environment
Styles
Participative  Employee in  Followers  Task complex
decision involved  Either strong
making  Internal or weak
 high ability  Job
satisfaction
either high or
low
Achieve-  Both high  Open to  Task simple
ment directive and autocratic  Strong
– Oriented high  External  Job
supportive  High ability satisfaction
behavior either high or
low

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House Path-Goal Leadership
Model

 Contributions
•Provide a conceptual Limitations
framework in identifying •More complex
potentially relevant
and specific
situational variables
•Criticized by
•Useful way to think
about motivating managers-difficult
followers. to know which
•Charismatic leadership style to when.
& Value-based
leadership theory

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NORMATIVE
LEADERSHIP
THEORY
AND
MODEL
by Haslinda binti Jamaluddin

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This model was originally
developed by Vroom and
Victor Vroom Yetton in 1973 to help the
managers decide when and
to what extent they should
involve the subordinates in
solving a problem.

Victor Vroom

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NORMATIVE LEADERSHIP
THEORY AND MODEL
Seven
questions Maximize
/
variables
decisions

Leadership
styles Time driven
(1 of 5)
&
Development-
driven decision

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Focuses on Provides a
Rules (norms) to
decision-making sequential set of
follow
styles questions

To use normative : -
Determine the • Specific decision to make
best styles for • Authority to make decision
the given • Specific potential followers
situation

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Normative Leadership Model
Variables within the Contingency
Leadership Framework

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Five leadership styles based on the level of
participation by the followers.

Decide Consult Individually


• Make decision alone and • Input from subordinates but
announces it leader makes decision

Consult Group Facilitate


• Consensus building / decision • Hold group meeting and act
making with group as a facilitator

Delegate
• Lets the group diagnose and
make decision

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Model questions to determine the
appropriate leadership style
A series of diagnostic questions based on
seven variables.

Decision Importance of Leader Likelihood of


Significance Commitment Expertise commitment

Group
Group Team
Support for
Expertise Competence
objectives

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Questions based on
seven variables

High (H) or low (L)


- skipping question when
not appropriate to the
question

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Selecting the Time-Driven or Development-
Driven Model for the Situation.

The Development-
The Time-Driven Model
Driven Model

• Focus • Focus
minimum cost. Maximum development of
• Value followers
Placed on time • Value
• Orientation Placed on follower
short-term horizon development
• Orientation
Long-term horizon

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