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BIOMECHANICS OF BONES
Farhod Turaev Warsaw University of Technology
Contents
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 Introduction
 The Skeleton System
 Types of the Bones
 Composition of Bones
 Functions of Bones
 Bone Biomechanics
Introduction
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Bone tissue, or osseous tissue, - a type of connective


tissue used in forming bones.
Bones protect the vital organs and help support the
body.
Bone is composed mainly of collagen, or ossein,
fibers, and bone cells called osteocytes. There are two
types of bone tissue, referred to as cortical bone and
cancellous bone.
The Skeleton System
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 299 bones (baby), 209 bones (adults)


 4 basic shapes
Types of the Bones
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4 basic shapes:
 Long bones (femur)
Types of the Bones
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4 basic shapes:
 Short bones (wrist, ankle)
Types of the Bones
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4 basic shapes:
 Flat bones (skull, scapula)
Types of the Bones
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4 basic shapes:
 Irregular bones (vertebrae)
Composition of Bones
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Functions of Bones
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Mechanical properties of bone
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 Relatively hard;
 Lightweight;
 Composite material;
 high compressive strength of about
170 MPa (1800 kgf/cm²);
 poor tensile strength of 104–121 MPa;
 very low shear stress strength (51.6 MPa).
Basic Biomechanics

 Material Properties  Structural Properties


 Elastic-Plastic  Bending Stiffness
 Yield point  Torsional Stiffness

 Brittle-Ductile  Axial Stiffness

 Toughness  Depends on Shape


 Independent of and Material!
Shape!
Basic Biomechanics

Force, Displacement & Stiffness

Force

Slope Stiffness =
Force/Displacement

Displacement
Basic Biomechanics

Force
Area L

Stress = Force/Area Strain Change Height (L) /


Original Height(L0)
Basic Biomechanics
Stress-Strain & Elastic Modulus

Stress =
Force/Area
Elastic Modulus =
Stress/Strain

Strain =
Change in Length/Original Length (L/ L0)
Basic Biomechanics

 Elastic Modulus (GPa) of Common Materials


in Orthopaedics
 Stainless Steel 200
 Titanium 100
 Cortical Bone 7-21
 Bone Cement 2.5-3.5
 Cancellous Bone 0.7-4.9
 UHMW-PE 1.4-4.2
Basic Biomechanics

 Elastic Deformation Elastic Plastic

 Plastic Deformation
 Energy Force

Energy
Absorbed

Displacement
Basic Biomechanics

Elastic Plastic

Failure
• Stiffness-Flexibility Yield

• Yield Point
Force
• Failure Point
• Brittle-Ductile
Stiffness
• Toughness-Weakness

Displacement
Flexible
Brittle Flexible
Strong Ductile
Tough
Strong

Flexible Flexible
Stress Brittle Ductile
Weak Weak

Strain
Basic Biomechanics

 Load to Failure  Fatigue Failure


 Continuous application  Cyclical sub-threshold
of force until the loading may result in
material breaks failure due to fatigue.
(failure point at the  Common mode of
ultimate load). failure of orthopaedic
 Common mode of implants and fracture
failure of bone and fixation constructs.
reported in the implant
literature.
Basic Biomechanics

 Material properties of bones:

 Anisotropic  Viscoelastic
 Mechanical properties  Stress-Straincharacter
dependent upon dependent upon rate
direction of loading of applied strain (time
dependent).
Bone Biomechanics

 Bone is anisotropic - its modulus is dependent upon


the direction of loading.
 Bone is weakest in shear, then tension, then
compression.
 Ultimate Stress at Failure Cortical Bone
Compression < 212 N/m2
Tension < 146 N/m2
Shear < 82 N/m2
Bone Biomechanics

 Bone is viscoelastic: its force-


deformation characteristics are
dependent upon the rate of loading.
 Trabecular bone becomes stiffer in

compression the faster it is loaded.


Bone Mechanics

 Bone Density
 Subtle density
Cortical Bone
changes greatly
changes strength and
elastic modulus Trabecular Bone
 Density changes
 Normal aging
 Disease
 Use
Figure from: Browner et al: Skeletal Trauma
 Disuse 2nd Ed. Saunders, 1998.
Basic Biomechanics

 Bending
 Axial
Loading
 Tension

 Compression

 Torsion

Bending Compression Torsion


Fracture Mechanics

Figure from: Browner et al: Skeletal Trauma 2nd Ed, Saunders, 1998.
Fracture Mechanics

 Bending load:
 Compression strength
greater than
tensile strength
 Fails in tension

Figure from: Tencer. Biomechanics in Orthopaedic


Trauma, Lippincott, 1994.
Fracture Mechanics

 Torsion
 The diagonal in the direction of the applied force is in
tension – cracks perpendicular to this tension diagonal
 Spiral fracture 45º to the long axis

Figures from: Tencer. Biomechanics in Orthopaedic


Trauma, Lippincott, 1994.
Fracture Mechanics

 Combined bending
& axial load
 Oblique fracture
 Butterfly fragment

Figure from: Tencer. Biomechanics in Orthopaedic


Trauma, Lippincott, 1994.
Conclusion
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• Stress-Strain-Strength properties;
• Elastic Deformation Analyses;
• Plastic Deformation Analyses;
• Hardness of the parts;
• Resistance of bones.
THANKS !!!
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