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The Grammar-

Translation Method

PRINCIPLES AND
TECHNIQUES
IN LANGUAGE TEACHING
Ten Important Questions: Qualifying Criteria

 Learning Goals?

 Role of the teacher?

 Characteristics of teaching/learning process?

 Nature of teacher/learner, learner/learner


interaction?

 Dealing with affective factor? (feelings of learners)


Questions Continued……

 Connection b/w language and culture?

 Which areas of language/skills are emphasized?

 Role of L1? (L1 influence)

 Method for evaluation?

 Teacher’s response to student errors?


GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
“Some Facts”

 ”To know everything about something rather than


the thing itself” (W.H.D Rouse)
 Dominated from 1840’s to 1940’s.
 Propaganda against it was initiated by the group in
favor of German and French (non-classical
languages)
 GT was first known in the U.S as Prussian Method,
alternatively called The Classical Method due to its
connection with classical Languages.
PRINCIPLES OF GTM

 Reading : Literary language > Spoken language

 Translate: 2nd Important goal of learning

 Instructions in L1: Oral proficiency not the goal

 Written answers: Develop Reading and Writing

 Role of teacher: Authoritative, students remain


Passive.
Principles Continued…….
 L2 regresses to L1: Use of supplementary words
from L1

 Similarities b/w L1 & L2: Matching structures in L1/L2

 Grammar rules : Form of the target lang. is Important

 Applying lang. rules on examples: Deductive/Explicit


approach

 Memorization: Language learning is a mental exercise,


(memorizing vocab/grammatical rules)
TECHNIQUES
Translation Fill In The Blanks

Reading Comprehension Memorization

Antonyms/Synonyms Use words in Sentences

Cognates Composition

Deductive Application of
Rule
THE DIRECT METHOD

 Came up as a reaction to GTM.

 Goal is to enable learners to communicate in L2.

 Opposition to translation is a primary rule.


PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT METHOD
 Reading: Speaking > Writing

 Visual Aid: Use of Charts/Pictures/ … Realia

 Instructions in L2: use of L1 is avoided

 Demonstrate : use of blackboard/ examples for


answering queries

 Thinking in L2: Students answer using L2 only

 Purpose of Learning: Communication in target lang

 Pronunciation: Emphasis on pronunciation


Principles Continued…….
 Error Correction: Self-correction facilitated

 Type of activities: Conversational (teacher/student,


Student/student i-e contextual use)

 Grammar teaching: Strictly Inductive (implicit)

 Writing: Important, Developed from beginning

 Syllabus type: Situational, not linguistically oriented

 Culture: culture associated with L2 also taught


TECHNIQUES

Reading aloud Fill in the blank


exercises
Question & answer Dictation
exercise
Facilitating Self- Map Drawing
Correction
Conversation Practice Paragraph Writing