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Gene and its

expressions
A. Zulfa Juniarto
The Gene
 A functional and inheritable element in the
genome is referred to as a gene and
usually codes for a protein.
 In some cases genes also code for RNA
molecules that are not translated to protein,
e.g. ribosomal RNA.

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 The gene regulatory segment, of which the
proximal part is referred to as the promoter,
usually consists of many different DNA
segments defined by their particular base
pair sequences

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 Each individual segment, usually
involving about 6-12 base pairs of
DNA, serves as a binding target for a
DNA binding protein which functions
as a transcription factor

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 Furthermore, the DNA binding
capacity of various transcription
factors is usually regulated via
cellular signals through extracellular
hormones and receptor pathways or
via cell interactions with the
environment.

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 Inthis way a particular stimulus in the
surrounding of a cell will trigger the
binding of a set of transcription
factors to a certain set of genes,

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RNA
 Like DNA, the RNA molecule, is built up by
nucleotides linked together in a chain.
 There are some differences though :
 The RNA molecule is single stranded
 The four bases in the DNA nucleotides are
adenine, guanine, thymidine and cytosine. In
RNA thymidine is replaced by uracil.
 The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. In RNA it is
ribose.

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There are three major types
of RNA: 1) mRNA,
messenger-RNA, which
transfer the information about
the aminoacid sequence from
the DNA to the protein
synthesis. 2) rRNA,
ribosomal-RNA, which builds
up the ribosome together with
proteins. 3) tRNA, transfer-
RNA, which transfer
aminoacids to the ribosome
for protein synthesis.

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Transcription

 Aftertranscription has been initiated


RNA polymerase II, together with the
necessary transcription elongation
factors, travels along the DNA
template and polymerizes
ribonucleotides into an RNA copy of
the gene

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 The polymerase moves at a regular
speed (approximately 30 nucleotides
per second) and holds on to the DNA
template efficiently, even if the gene
is very long

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RNA Processing
 Theprimary transcription product of a
gene is therefore called a precursor
of mRNA, pre-mRNA.

 Bothends of the pre-mRNA are


modified. An additional nucleotide, a
7-methylguanosine is added to the 5'-
end to form a cap-structure. This
process is called capping.

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 The 3'-end of the pre-mRNA is cleaved
and polyadenylated. The pre-mRNA is cut
at a specific site and 150-200 adenylate
residues are added to the 3'-end to form a
poly(A)-tail. The third major modification is
splicing.

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Translation
 Translation is the actual synthesis of
a protein under the direction of
mRNA
 the ribosome, provides the basic
machinery for the translation process.

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 The major role of the ribosome is to
catalyse coupling of amino acids into
protein according to the sequence
specified by the mRNA.
 The amino acids are brought to the
ribosome by tRNA (transfer RNA)
molecules.

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Initiation
 formation of the initiation complex
between mRNA, charged tRNA and the
ribosome
 translation begins at a specific codon,
the initiation codon (AUG)

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Elongation
 the growing polypeptide chain is
attached to an amino acid in the P
site
 the next codon to be read is
present beneath the A site
 the tRNA bearing the next amino
acid to be inserted enters the A
site

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 a peptide bond is formed between the
new amino acid and the growing chain,
transfering the chain to the tRNA in the
A site
 the ribosome moves down one codon
moving the peptide-tRNA to the P site
and the cycle repeats

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Termination
 translation of a particular protein ends
when the ribosome encounters one of
three termination codons (UAG, UAA or
UGA)

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Regulasi Ekspresi Gen
(Regulasi Gen)
Mekanisme yang digunakan oleh sel
untuk meningkatkan maupun
menurunkan produksi gen yang spesifik
(protein atau RNA)

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 Munculnya ekspresi gen dipengaruhi oleh
faktor penentu pertumbuhan (yg dibawa),
respon pengaruh lingkungan dan adaptasi
makanan.
 Regulasi gen mengatur diferensiasi sel dan
morfogenesis (sesuai dg genotype yg
memiliki sekuen genome tertentu)

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Regulasi Ekspresi Gen
(Regulasi Gen)
 Up-regulation 

proses yg terjadi di dalam sel yg dipandu


oleh sinyal (dari dalam maupun luar sel)
peningkatan ekspresi satu/lebih gen
sehingga mengakibatkan peningkatan protein
produk dari gen2 tsb
 Down-regulation

proses yg menghasilkan penurunan ekspresi


gen dan protein

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Kontrol Ekspresi Gen

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