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Antenna System

NOKIA antenna theory 1

Antenna Theory Contents
• Day 1 • Day 2
• Antenna theory • Nokia Antenna line
• VSWR • Nokia Indoor system
• Antenna type • Nokia antenna
• Diversity Techniques connection

• Down tilting the antenna • Nokia 4 way diversity

• Link budget • DE34 & Ultrasite co-site

• Reflection installation

• Indoor system

NOKIA antenna theory 2

Antenna Theory

NOKIA antenna theory 3

What is an antenna
What is an antenna ?
- An antenna is the converter (转化器) between two
kinds of electromagnetic waves (电磁波):
cable bounded waves  free space waves

Energy Converter (能量转化器)

What is an antenna ?
- Antennas are the transition point in the
communication chain, where the signal changes from a
"wireline"signal to radio wave propagating signal and

NOKIA antenna theory 4

Why Base Station Antennas ?
Antenna System
The BTS antennas are
- the sending element when
talking about the down link
Downlink signal (BTS to Mobile)
- the receiving element when
talking about the uplink
signal (Mobile to BTS)
- an important part of the
whole communication chain
and therefore only Nokia
Mobile approved antennas should
Base Station (BTS) be used

NOKIA antenna theory 5

Antenna Basics / Theory
• Categorizing RF components into dual-pole

dual-pole (one termination) or

quad-pole (two terminations)

• example for a dual-pole device :

50 Ohm () load terminator (负

• examples for a quad-pole device :

amplifier (放大器), filter (滤波器)

• the antenna is a quad-pole (四端磁

极) device with the second Coaxial cable

termination connected to free



NOKIA antenna theory 6

Antenna Basics / Theory

• antenna principle (天线原理) shown by

bending a coax cable open
• the pulsing (振动)electrical field, created by
the transmitter‘s high frequency power,
cannot leave the cable
• the field lines become longer and are
orthogonal (直角) to the wires
• the field lines have reached the maximum
length and allow a wave to free itself from
the cable
 basic radiating element : /2 dipole

NOKIA antenna theory 7

Antenna Basics / Theory

• The resonance frequency (频率共振) of a dipole is determined by its

mechanical length, which is half of the corresponding wave length (/2)

 m 
• Relation between frequency and wave length :
f MHz 

• Example : f =935 MHz   = 0.32 m  dipole length ~ 160 mm

NOKIA antenna theory 8

Antenna Basics / Theory
Transport mechanism(运输途径)
electromagnetic energy (电磁体的能量) is transported by constant
exchange between electrical and magnetic field : “E-wave” and “H-

NOKIA antenna theory 9

Antenna Basics / Near-Far Field
• No reliable signal measurements are possible at distance less than
“far field distance” (远端距离) since EM wave is not stable at that state
• far-field (F) :
• small antennas (dimensions below one wave length) :
F [m ]  10 Reference Point
• bigger antennas :

2 L²
F [m ]  Near field Far field

position position
L=largest antenna dimension
•Example : 900 MHz Omni
L = 2,8m
 = 0,325m F
F = 48,25m

NOKIA antenna theory 10

Coupling Losses
• Difference between signal power
measured at reference point (参考点)
and signal input to antenna is
termed coupling loss (耦合亏损) EIRP level

• Received energy is only a fraction of coupling loss

= L0
radiated energy
• Received energy is measurable only distance
in a “reference distance” from 20 dB/dec
antenna (far field distance)
40 dB/dec 30 dB/dec
• Coupling losses (L0) are ~ 50 ... 60 dB
for first few meters, then “free-space 0,1km 1km 10km
propagation” (自由空间传播 ) losses
can be assumed

NOKIA antenna theory 11

Power in dB
• dB is derived from decibel, power or
voltage measured in dB is way of -30 dBm = 1 W
expressing power or voltage levels as -20 dBm = 10 W
a ratio, I.e .one value relative to -10 dBm = 100 W
another, using log functions to base -7 dBm = 200 W
10. -3 dBm = 500 W
0 dBm = 1 mW
• Power in dB= 10 log 10 (P2/P1) dB +3 dBm = 2 mW
• Voltage in dB= 20 log 10 (V2/V1) dB +7 dBm = 5 mW
+10 dBm = 10 mW
+13 dBm = 20 mW
Example: P1=1 Watts P2=1000 Watts, +20 dBm = 100mW
power in dB =10 Log 10 (1000/1) dB +30 dBm = 1 W
= +30dB
If P1=1000 Watts P2=1 Watts, +40 dBm = 10W
power in dB =10 Log 10 (1/1000) dB +50 dBm = 100W
= -30dB

NOKIA antenna theory 12


• Calculations in dB (deci-Bel)
• Logarithmic (对数), relative scale (对比)
• Always with respect to a reference
dBW : dB above Watt
dBm : dB above mWatt
dBi : dB above isotropic
dBd : dB above dipole
dBV/m: dB above V/m

rule-of-thumb: +3dB = factor 2

+7 dB = factor 5
+10 dB = factor 10

NOKIA antenna theory 13

Conversion from dB
• Power  P P ( dB )
dB  10 log   [ Plin . ]  10 10
 P0 

• Voltages 
 E
dB 20 log   [ E lin. ]  10
E ( dB )
 E0 

Conversion factor (转换法)

E(dBV/m) = P(dBm) + 107 + antenna factor(dB) + cable_loss(dB)

antenna factor = 20 log(f [MHz]) -29,8 – Receiver_ant_gain(dB)

NOKIA antenna theory 14

Power in dBm

• dBm is derived from decibel relative to 1 milliwatt , power

measured in dBm is power measured relative to 1 milliwatt.
• Power in dBm= 10 log 10 ( P1/ 1mW) dBm

Example: P1=10 Watts

Therefore, power in dBm =10 Log 10 (10000mW/1mW ) dBm
= +40dBm

 P1 is =+40 dBm or +40dB greater than 1mW

1mW = 0 dBm

NOKIA antenna theory 15

Power in dBW
• dBW is derived from decibel relative to 1 Watt , power
measured in dBW is power measured relative to 1 Watt.
• Power in dBW= 10 log 10 ( P1/ 1W) dBW
• Since the basic unit of power is Watt, to be easier, dB is
understood to be relative to 1W.

Example: P1=100 Watts

Therefore, power in dBW =10 Log 10 (100W/1W ) dBW
= +20dBW

 P1 is =+20 dBW or +20dB greater than 1W

1W = 0 dBW
1W = 30 dBm

NOKIA antenna theory 16

Insertion Loss
• Insertion loss is defined as the difference between the 'power
input' and the 'power output ' from a device (e,g, transmission
line ,filter, attenuator (衰减器) etc.)

• insertion loss = 10 log 10 ( Pout / Pin ) dB

Pin Pout
50 ohm transmission line

- x dB

NOKIA antenna theory 17

Return Loss
• Return loss ,in transmission line term, is a way of expressing the
'quality' of an impedance mismatch, return loss is s measure of
the reflected power from the 'impedance mismatch' relative to
the forward or transmitted power.
• Return loss = 10 log 10 ( Pref / Pin)
= 20 log 10 ( VSWR -1 / VSWR +1)

50 ohm transmission line


NOKIA antenna theory 18

• EIRP is short for Effective Isotropic Radiated Power. EIRP is a
measure of the antenna transmitted RF power.
• EIRP=(TRX Tx Power)- (Combiner loss)-(Feeder Cable Loss)+
(Antenna Gain)

Example: TRX Tx Power=30 W Antenna=16dBi Combiner loss=3.5dB

Feeder cable loss=3dB

Then EIRP = +44.77dBm -3.5dB -3.0dB +16dBi

= 54.27dBm
= 267375mW
~ 267 Watts

NOKIA antenna theory 19

Antenna Gain in dBi
• Antenna gain expressed in dBi defines the Maximum radiated
power of the antenna compared with that of an “ideal" (完美)
Isotropic antenna (point source), when both antennas are fed
with equal power.

Isotropic Radiated Power


16dBi antenna pattern

Isotropic antenna (各向同性的天线) point source

NOKIA antenna theory 20

Antenna Characteristics (天线性质) - Gain
• Antenna gain (天线增益)
the measure for the antenna´s
capability (能力) to transmit / extract
energy to/ from the propagation
medium (air) microwave ant. : w ~ 50 .. 60%

•dB over isotropic antenna (dBi) optical ant. : w ~ 80 .. 85%

•dB over Hertz dipole (dBd)

dBi = dBd + 2.15
Antenna gain :

• Antenna gain depends on 4

•mechanical size : A
G Ae , Ae  A.w
•Efficiency, w
 2

•frequency band
•effective antenna aperture
NOKIA antenna theory 21
Vertical (垂直) beamwidth and Gain

• to concentrate the radiated

power into the area around
the horizon, half wave dipoles
are arranged vertically
• with every doubling of the
dipoles number
- the half power beamwidth
approximately halves
- the gain increases by 3 dB
in the main direction

NOKIA antenna theory 22

Antenna Gain

• accordingly also in the

horizontal plane (水平面)
a beam can be created
• with each halving of the
beam width the gain is
increased by 3 dB (the
shown patterns are
• the resulting gain of an
antenna is the sum of the
„vertical“ and „horizontal“

NOKIA antenna theory 23

Antenna Characteristics
• Lobes
main lobes (主波瓣) H- plane E- plane
side / back lobes (次/后波瓣)
front-to-back ratio

• Halfpower beam-width
(3 dB- beam width) Input 7 /16” female
Connector position bottom
• Antenna downtilting Frequency range
870 - 960 MHz
< 1,3
Gain 15,5 dBi
• Polarisation (极化) Impedance
50 Ohm
Front-to-back-ratio > 25 dB
• Antenna impedance Half-power beam width H-plane: 65° / E-plane: 13°

Max. power 500 Watt (50 °C ambient temp.)

• Mechanical size Weight
Wind load frontal :
6 kg
220 N (at 150 km/h)

• wind load
lateral: 140 N (at 150 km/h)
Max. wind velocity rear : 490 N (at 150 km/h)
Packing size 1410 x 270 x 140 mm
Height / width / depth 1290 / 255 / 105 mm

NOKIA antenna theory 24

Radiation Pattern

Horizontal pattern

NOKIA antenna theory 25

Vertical Pattern Side view

NOKIA antenna theory 26

Antenna Technical Sheet (天线技术内容)

NOKIA antenna theory 27

Antenna Basics / Impedance (阻抗 )

• For an optimized system performance,

all components (单元) have to be
impedance matching
• professional applications use a
nominal impedance of 50 Ohms
• Impedance value specified on
component is only true for one
frequency; over the operating band
deviations from 50 Ohms are specified
by the VSWR

NOKIA antenna theory 28

Coupling between antennas (天线的接合)
• Horizontal separation (水平 main lobe

• needs approx. 5 ....10
distance for sufficient decoupling
• antenna patterns superimposed if
distance too close

5 .. 10

• Vertical separation (垂直的间

隔) 1
• distance of 1provides good
decoupling values
• good for RX /TX decoupling

Note: The concept of coupling and space diversity are different

NOKIA antenna theory 29

Voltage Standing Wave
Ratio (驻波比)

NOKIA antenna theory 30

Reflection Coefficient (反射系数)
• The transmission line system is designed to have "balanced
impedance" where the transmission line characteristic
impedance Zo,load impedance ZL and source impedance Zs are
all equal.
• Where the load termination is not a perfect impedance match
there will be some voltage reflected from the load, the
reflection coefficient is defined as:-
• Reflectioon Coefficient x= Vref / Vi
(Vref:reflected voltage Vi: incident voltage)

Vref Vi
50 ohm transmission Line load

voltage reflected
NOKIA antenna theory 31
VSWR-Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

• Voltage reflections on the transmission line from a voltage

standing wave on the transmission line
• VSWR = (Vi + Vref) / (Vi – Vref)
= (1+ I I) / (1- I  I)
I  I: Magnitude of the Voltage reflection coefficient

Vref Vi
50 ohm transmission Line load

NOKIA antenna theory 32

Antenna Basics / VSWR

UR s  1
• Reflection coefficient r  
UV s  1
s = VSWR
UR=Reflected voltage
UV=Incident voltage

• Return loss attenuation

ar[dB]  20 log r  {20 log UR  20 log UV }

• Reflected power PR
[%]  100r ²

NOKIA antenna theory 33

Antenna Basics / VSWR

• comparison of measurements
directly at the antenna and at the
end of the feeder cable

• improvement of VSWR and return

loss by the feeder cable
(providing an ideally matched
cable with VSWR = 1)

NOKIA antenna theory 34

Antenna Basics / VSWR

NOKIA antenna theory 35

Antenna Type

NOKIA antenna theory 36

Antenna Categories (天线类型)
• Omnidirectional antennas (全向天线)
•same radiation patterns in all directions
•useful in flat rural areas.
• Directional antennas (定向天线)
•concentrate main energy into certain direction
•easier to control interference (干扰)
•higher gain
•useful in cities, urban areas, sectorised sites

NOKIA antenna theory 37

Antenna Types Overview
• Dipoles (双极)
• Simple design, low gain, omnidirectional

• Arrays
• combinations of many smaller elements
• high gains with customized radiation patterns,
• “phased array” antennas ( ---> smart antennas )

• Yagi
• very common, high gain, directional passive
• often used as TV- antennas
• Parabolic (碟状)
• very high gain, extremely narrow beamwidth
• commonly used in line-of-sight paths (satellites,
microwave link...)
NOKIA antenna theory 38
Omni Antenna pattern

• Standard omni gain antenna for cellular application

(gain 11dBi / ~9 dBd)
• Horizontal half power beam width of 360º
• Vertical half power beam width of 7º

Horizontal pattern Vertical pattern

NOKIA antenna theory 39

Antenna Basics / Polarization

• The polarization is defined as the direction

of oscillation of the electrical field vector
• dipole orientation vertical :
vertical polarization  mainly used for
mobile communication
• dipole orientation horizontal :
horizontal polarization  mainly used for
broadcasting (广播)
• dipole orientation +/-45° slanted :
cross polarization  used polarization
diversity to achieve diversity gain (分集接收

NOKIA antenna theory 40

Diversity Result -> example

Weak Strong Mobile telephone

Strong Weak Mobile telephone

NOKIA antenna theory 41

Panel Antenna

• Standard directional panel antenna

for cellular networks
65° / 15.5 dBi
• gain benefit from both planes

Horizontal pattern Vertical pattern

NOKIA antenna theory 42

Panel Construction

正面 侧面

Halfpower beam width Halfpower beam width

65° 90°

NOKIA antenna theory 43

V-pol design

• Vertical polarized antenna

- one feeder connector per antenna

NOKIA antenna theory 44

X-pol design

X polarized antenna
- dipoles slanted +/- 45°  X shape
- two feeder connectors per antenna
NOKIA antenna theory 45
Horizontal beam width

• The comparision between different

antenna horizontal beam widths
105° 3dB
360° (Omni)
• The beam width for antennas are
given as the “half-power beam
width“, the 3dB point

NOKIA antenna theory 46

Cellular Networks / Beam width

• Antennas with the same vertical

length but different horizontal half
power beam width differ in the
overall gain value

• example : 900 MHz / 1.3m length

65° 15.5 dBi
90° 14.0 dBi
105° 13.5 dBi
120° 13.0 dBi

• result : no significant difference

between 90°, 105° and 120°

NOKIA antenna theory 47

The benefit using Dual and Triple Band

Instead of mounting three or two antennas,

only one antenna radome is required, per

NOKIA antenna theory 48

BTS Antennas in the Nokia portfolio

• Antennas for the following cellular systems

• Main types available are 33° ,45°,65° & 90° Panel
antennas with adjustable electrical down tilt and
Omni antennas
• All main types with a selection of 2-4 different
gain versions
• Antennas for Single, Dual or Triple Band use
• Smart Radio Concept (SRC) antennas

NOKIA antenna theory 49

Antenna Cables
• Cable types
• coaxial cables : 1/2”, 7/8”, 1 5/8”
• losses approx. 4 .. 10 dB/ 100m
(2 m)
==> power dissipation is exponential with cable length ! !

• Connector losses approx. 1 dB per

connection (jumper cables etc...)
• Thick antenna cables

40 .. 70m
lower losses per length
large bending radii
much more expensive

(2 m)

Keep antenna cables short

NOKIA antenna theory 50

Distributed Antennas (分布式的天线)
• Leaky feeders (漏缆)
cables with very high loss per length unit
==> “distributed antenna”
formerly often used for tunnel coverage
very expensive

typ. losses: 10 ... 40 dB/100m

coupling loss: ~ 60 dB (at 1m dist.)

50 Ohm
Or Antenna
• Fiber-optic distribution (光纤电缆)
distribute RF signal via (very thin) fiber-optic cables
radiate from discrete antenna points at remote locations

NOKIA antenna theory 51

Antenna Feeders

RFX 1/2"-50 RF 7/8"-50

Cable Antenna Feeder Cable
RFF 1/2"-50
SuperFlexible RFX 7/8"-50
Cable Antenna

Leaky feeders

NOKIA antenna theory 52

Repeater (直放站)
• Use of repeaters to relay signal into shadowed areas :
• behind hills
• into valleys
• into buildings

• Needs a “donor” cell (host cell)

• Channel selective repeater or wide-band repeater

decoupling ~40 dB or more is needed

NOKIA antenna theory 53

Diversity Technique

NOKIA antenna theory 54

Diversity Techniques (分集接收技术)

• Time diversity t interleaving

• Frequency diversity f frequency hopping

• Space diversity multiple antennas

• Polarisation diversity crosspolar antennas

• Multipath diversity equaliser,

rake receiver

NOKIA antenna theory 55

Diversity Reception
Space or Polarization combining methods :
• Selection Combining
The best signal branch in terms of C/I and BER is selected
after demodulation

• Maximum ratio combining

• Amplify signals C/N Phase

• Vector addition on signals
measuring measuring

in correct phases G2 2
• Signal demodulation and
further processing
G3 3

NOKIA antenna theory 56

Coverage Improvement?
• Diversity gain depends on environment
• Is there coverage improvement by diversity ?
• antenna diversity
• equivalent to 5dB more signal strength
• more path loss acceptable in link budget
• higher coverage range

A 1,7 A ??
R(div) ~ 1,3 R 70% more coverage per cell ??
needs less cells in total ??

True only (in theory)

if environment is infinitely large and flat

NOKIA antenna theory 57

Down tilting
the Antenna

NOKIA antenna theory 58

Down tilting the Antenna
• as a standard the vertical beam is
pointing to the horizon
• downtilting of the pattern provides the
following benefits
- the majority of the radiated power is
concentrated within the sector. This can
control the cell radius
- the reduction of the power towards
the horizon avoids interference
Horizon problems of overshooting
• selected downtilt angle depends on the
vertical half power beam width

NOKIA antenna theory 59

Mechanical down tilt
• No “real“ maximum tilt angle
• Mechanical down tilt causes deformation in the
horizontal pattern
• For a complete installation, clamps or a clamp
set is required

Down tilt kit

Deformation of the
horizontal pattern
Clamp set

NOKIA antenna theory 60

Mechanical downtilt
• Mechanical- main lobe will be
deformed and back lobe uptilted
• Same signal level at the +/-90o
will cause undesired signal to
interference each other
• Mechanical downtilt reduces
signal coverage at the boresight
5..10 degree

NOKIA antenna theory 61

Vertical angle
Mechanical Downtilt Mechanical Uptilt

NOKIA antenna theory 62

Adjustable Electrical Down Tilt
• The Adjustable EDT antennas can be adjusted manually or remotely
• Phase shifters provides variable phase distribution which in turn keeps the
pattern shape constant
• Maximum Adjustable EDT range approx. 0-14° (normally 0-8°)
• For a higher downtilt angle a combination of the Mechanical DT and the
Adjustable EDT is recommended

Manual use Remote use

Horizontal pattern
remains constant

NOKIA antenna theory 63

Electrical Downtilt
• Perform through internal slight
phase shift

• Both main beam and back lobe

are downtilted. Sidelobe do not
maintain as in mechanical
downtilt case.

• electrical downtilt provides

much better interference
suppression and controlled
handoff zones in networks

• Electrical- preferred choice as

the antenna patterns can be
better control.

NOKIA antenna theory 64

Antenna Cables

• Typical values for antenna cables

Type diameter 900MHz 1800MHz
(mm) dB/100m dB/100m

3/8” 10 10 14
5/8” 17 6 9
7/8” 25 4 6
1 5/8” 47 2 3

NOKIA antenna theory 65

Link budget

NOKIA antenna theory 66

Link Budget

• Why a “link budget”?

• “How far can we get with our signal?”
• Two-way communication needed
• other than radio or TV-stations
• link usually limited by mobile power
• Field strength is reciprocal : downlink = uplink

Link Budget must

be balanced

NOKIA antenna theory 67

Link Budget: Uplink
Gain = 16
- 101 dBm Gain = 4

- 121 dBm

Feeder path loss = 154 dB

Loss = 3 dB

33 dBm
- 104 dBm
TX Power
33 dBm (2W)
Rx Sensitivity
-104 dB

WLL subscribers

NOKIA antenna theory 68

Link Budget: Downlink
Gain = 16
36 dBm

52 dBm
path loss = 154 dB
Loss = 3 dB
- 102 dBm
39 dBm
Rx Sensitivity
combiner - 102 dBm
loss = 4
WLL subscribers
TX Power
43 dBm (20W)

NOKIA antenna theory 69


NOKIA antenna theory 70

Radio Channel
• Multipath propagation

• Shadowing

• Terrain structures

• Reflections

• Diffractions

NOKIA antenna theory 71

• Strong echos can cause excessive propagation delay
• Uncritical, if within equaliser (均衡器) window
• Can cause severe (self-) interference if out of
equaliser window

weak direct signal

strong reflected signal

amplitude long echos, out of equaliser window:

==> interference contributions

delay time
equaliser window 16 s

NOKIA antenna theory 72

Radio Channel
• Reciprocal (in field strength)
• Dispersive
• In time (echos, multipath propagation)

“Echos” due to multipath propagation-> time dispersive

1 s ~ 300 m path difference
GSM : Equaliser up to 16 s (~ 5km path difference)

direct path


delay time
equaliser window 16 s

NOKIA antenna theory 73

Reflections / Basics

• vertical and horizontal radiation patterns given in data sheets apply only to
a reflection-free environment (free-space propagation)
• reflections from obstructions create additional signals with different phases
(according to the additional distance)
• the original radiation pattern is deformed in terms of amplitude and phases

NOKIA antenna theory 74

Reflections / Side Mounted Omni

• significant influence on omni antenna patterns if there exists any side

• ideal omni pattern only on top of masts
• tower side mounting of omni antennas results in strong pattern
• patterns on cylindrical masts (圆筒状的天线杆) can be predicted and may
be useful for network planning Omni
• resulting patterns depends on the mast
diameter (天线杆的直径) and the spacing Spacing
between antenna - mast
• patterns on lattice towers are Mast-
hard to predict

NOKIA antenna theory 75

Reflections / Side Mounted Omni
• Spacing 0.25  : offset (抵消) pattern
• main radiation in direction of the line mast - antenna
• gain increase by approx. 2 dB

M = 0.4  M = 0.6 

0.25 


NOKIA antenna theory 76

Reflections / Side Mounted Omni
• Spacing 0.5  : bi-directional pattern
• main beams perpendicular to the line mast - antenna
• gain increase by 2-3 dB
• application : coverage of highways or railroad lines

M = 0.4  M = 0.6 

0.5 


NOKIA antenna theory 77

Reflections / Side Mounted Omni

0.75 


M = 0.4  M = 0.6 

20 


NOKIA antenna theory 78

Reflections / Wall Mounted Directionals
• in spite of the relatively high front-to-back-ratio of directional antennas,
reflective building facades (建筑物的表面) behind the antenna influence the
• this effect is increased by rotating the antenna due to a higher radiation
towards the wall

NOKIA antenna theory 79

Reflections / Wall Mounted Directionals

S = 1cm

S = 15cm

S = 30cm

S = 60cm
65° Half power beam width 105°
NOKIA antenna theory 80
Reflections / Wall Mounted Directionals

S = 15cm

S = 30cm

S = 60cm
65° half power beam width 105°

NOKIA antenna theory 81

Reflections / Wall Mounted Directionals

S = 15cm

S = 30cm

S = 60cm
65° half power beam width 105°

NOKIA antenna theory 82

Reflections / Roof Mounted Directionals

• the recommended location for roof top mounted antennas is the roof‘s
• if the antenna system is mounted above the roof, reflections may influence
the vertical pattern and create an uptilt

NOKIA antenna theory 83

Reflections / Roof Mounted Directionals
• Rule of thumb :

The radiated power towards the roof should be decreased by

min. 10 dB referred to the main beam

• the required „free“ angle without any reflections is given by the

individual vertical pattern

NOKIA antenna theory 84

Reflections / Roof Mounted Directionals
• with this angle (e.g. 12 ° for an antenna with 13° half power beam width)
the required height with reference to the length of the roof in front of
the antenna can be calculated
• note for downtilted antennas :
the downtilt angle has to be added for the „free“ angle

Example for the above

antenna (CS72094) :
L = 14 m
H> 3m

NOKIA antenna theory 85

Indoor Systems

NOKIA antenna theory 86

Why Indoor Network?
• Cellular competition moves indoors
• Subscribers expect continuous coverage
and quality - good network reputation
• Outdoor cells do not provide sufficient
coverage indoors
• Too expensive to increase the indoor
location probability from outdoor sites
• Increasing the in-building quality

More profits for operators

NOKIA antenna theory 87
Indoor Systems / Indoor Environment

• modern buildings with aluminum facades and metallized windows

highly attenuate electromagnatic waves and prevent the inside coverage
from outside  indoor antenna system
• lots of reflections destroy the free space radiation pattern and the
corresponding gain

Typical room
2.5 m

NOKIA antenna theory 88

Indoor Coverage Solutions
• Small BTS
•PrimeSite, MetroSite, InSite

• Repeaters
•active, passive

• Antennas
•distributed antennas
•radiating cable
Unconscious placing of BTS:
• Signal distribution
hide antennas from public view!
•power splitters
•optical fiber

NOKIA antenna theory 89

Indoor Coverage Solutions
Direct connection
RF active
Indoor BTS Coaxial
RF repeater with optical interface
R F in
O p t Tx

O p t Rx
RF o u t
RF o u t
Directional antenna
A-bis / BSC RF o u t

Optical RF Distribution
Outdoor BTS (wall-mounted)
Distributed antenna system (RF signal
Outdoor cell splitters)
Distributed antenna system with
NOKIA antenna theory 90
The “Lightbulb Principle”

... is better than ...

several smaller sites provide more

indoor coverage area than a single
large site

NOKIA antenna theory 91

Indoor RF Transmission Media
• Distributed Antenna System (DAS)
• Advantage: low equipment price.
• Disadvantage : lack of control over antenna signal level, due
to the variation in size of distribution network.
• Use: shopping malls, airports, etc.

• Leaky Cable
• Benefit : evenly distributed coverage around the cable.
Provide coverage in areas where RF coverage would not be
possible otherwise.
• Disadvantage : relatively small coverage area.
• Use: tunnels

• Fibre Optical Distribution System (FODS)

• Benefit : easy installation due to use of thin optical fibre. Low
RF loss.
• Disadvantage : higher price
• Use: when the cable runs are too long for a DAS
NOKIA antenna theory 92
Distributed Antenna System (DAS)
• Indoor antennas are connected to base station via coaxial feeder cable.
• Choose antennas that match to the environment - i.e. hard to spot!
• Power splitter is used to distribute RF signals to different locations. This
increase signals loss.
• If network area to cover is too wide, this may cause great RF loss and DAS
system is not suitable to be used. Normally, a combination of DAS with
optical is a compromise solutions.

NOKIA antenna theory 93

Radiating Cable
• Coaxial cable with perforated leads ==> “energy leak”
• Radiating losses 10 ..40 dB per 100m
• coupling loss typ. 55 dB (at 1m ref. dist.)

• Produce constant field strengths around cable

• Operate in wide frequency range
• radiating losses become higher with frequency

• Very large bending radii

• Formerly often used for
tunnel coverage

NOKIA antenna theory 94

Fibre Optics System (FODS)
• RF signal is converted to optical signal and fed into the optical fibre.
• Conversion from optical signal to RF signal takes place at the antenna end.

Optical Optical
Downlink Converter Converter

Optical Optical
Converter Converter

NOKIA antenna theory 95

Optical Repeater
• Signal from in-building • Application examples
BTS • multi-level offices,

• Fibre optic distribution shops

• airport halls (large
• very low cabling losses
• industrial plants
(2 dB/ 1000m)
• more than 50 remote
antennas are possible
• signal amplification and
distribution at remote
Indoor BTS
Indoor Panel

end Antenna
Master Unit

• easy cabling (very thin Optical Fiber RF Cable

Remote Unit

NOKIA antenna theory 96

Indoor Coverage Examples
• With repeater
• relay outdoor signal into target building
• needs “donor” cell; adds coverage, no capacity

• With indoor BTS and distributed antennas

• Add capacity, need transmission, add cost

Outdoor Antenna
50m -50 dBm Gain: 18 dBi

1:1 4th floor

7/8'' Cable
1:1 50m
Loss: 4dB / 50m 4th Floor
1:1 3rd floor Cable length : 25m
50m 3rd Floor
1:1 50m

1:1 2nd floor 2nd Floor

50m 1st Floor

1:1:1 1:1 1st floor Ground Floor

Indoor Antenna
1:1 ground floor Gain: 9dBi

Target Indoor Coverage Building

NOKIA antenna theory 97

Indoor Systems / Indoor antennas

• Omni antenna for ceiling

mounting / 2 dBi gain

• extremely broadband :
824 - 2170 MHz

• applicable for AMPS, CDMA,

GSM900/1800, UMTS

NOKIA antenna theory 98

Indoor Systems / Indoor antennas

• Directional antenna for wall

mounting / 7 dBi gain

• broadband range :
824 - 1900 MHz

• suitable for AMPS, CDMA,


NOKIA antenna theory 99

Alternative - Repeater
• Passive repeater • Application examples
• needs strong external • places with coverage
signal need and little traffic
• useful only with very • remote valleys
short cables • tunnels
• seldomly used • underground coverage

• Active repeater (e.g. garages)

• amplifies and re-
transmits all received
• Wideband or narrowband decoupling > amplification


NOKIA antenna theory 100

Alternative - Mobile Base Station
• Cell that can move, mounted on the vehicle
• Also call Cell On Wheel (COW)
• Flexible and easy to deploy to cater for capacity and coverage
• Use microwave, fiber or VSAT transmission depends on
• Very useful for urgent capacity and coverage requirements
• Very useful for special events

NOKIA antenna theory 101

BTS vs. Repeater
BTS Repeater

Cost  Expensive  Cheap

Coverage  New Frequency  Easy Way to Expand

Expansion Allocation needed Coverage

Capacity  Increase capacity  No increase in capacity


RF  High C/I  Need decoupling

Characteristics  Higher O/P Power  Donor Antenna Required

Limitation  E1/T1 Required  No use in High Density

Traffic Areas

NOKIA antenna theory 102