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Model Based Robust Fault

Detection in Networked
Student: Supervisor:
1 Syed Muhammad Zulqarnain Shah Dr. Abdul Qayyum Khan
MS Systems Engineering (2017-2019)
Dr. Muhammad Abid
2 Introduction

 Networked Control Systems (NCSs) are in general distributed control systems

in which sensors, actuators and digital computer/microprocessors are
connected through a shared medium (communication network).
3 Advantages of Networked Control
Systems (NCSs)
 NCSs have several advantages over conventional control systems such as:
 they can facilitate remote data transmission
 Less complexity in wiring
 Cost of media is reduced
 System diagnosis and maintenance is easier
4 Problem Statement

 NCSs are becoming more and more popular with the rapid advancement
in industry and are used in a lot of areas such as satellite constellations,
micro-grid, unmanned ground vehicle navigation and mobile robots.
 System reliability is a major concern in all industrial and safety critical
systems, especially in NCSs in which if a node becomes faulty, the overall
system performance suffers a severe undesirable impact.
 That is why, the problem of FD for networked systems has attracted
considerable interest over the recent decades.
5 Objectives

 The basic aim of the research is the extension of model based fault
detection techniques to robust detection of faults in NCSs in order to
decouple the disturbances from faults.
 The final software package will be able to address the challenges of fault
detection and disturbance decoupling in networked systems from locally
available data and effects of network or neighboring nodes.
6 Importance of Fault Detection

 Fault detection is important because different faults, depending upon their

nature and time of occurrence, can affect:
 Efficiency,
 Availability or
 Stability of the system
 Faults in systems can:
 Cause economic loss
 Compromise the safety of process or environment
7 Literature Review

 PhD Theses:
 Li, Wei. Observer-based fault detection of technical systems over networks. VDI-
Verlag, 2009. (Introduction and Chapter I done, currently studying Chapter II)
 Al-Salami, Ibrahim. Observer Based Fault Detection in Networked Control
Systems. VDI-Verlag, 2008. (Introduction and Chapter I done)
 Research Articles:
 Fang, Huajing, Hao Ye, and Maiying Zhong. "Fault diagnosis of networked control
systems." Annual reviews in control 31.1 (2007): 55-68. (done)
 Yan, Huaicheng, et al. " H∞ Fault Detection for Networked Mechanical Spring-
Mass Systems With Incomplete Information." IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics 63.9 (2016): 5622-5631. (done)
8 Literature Review
 Research Articles:
 Peng, Tao, et al. "A parity space approach to fault detection for networked control
system via optimal measurement selection." Proceedings of the 48h IEEE Conference
on Decision and Control (CDC) held jointly with 2009 28th Chinese Control
Conference. IEEE, 2009. (currently studying)
 Survey Papers:
 Z. Gao, C. Cecati and S. X. Ding, "A Survey of Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant
Techniques—Part I: Fault Diagnosis With Model-Based and Signal-Based Approaches,"
in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 3757-3767, June 2015.
 Books:
 Ding, Steven X. Model-based fault diagnosis techniques: design schemes, algorithms,
and tools. Springer Science & Business Media, 2008. (currently studying)
9 Fault Detection– Definitions

 Fault: “An un-permitted deviation of at least one characteristic property or

parameter of a system from the standard condition”
 Failure: “A permanent interruption of a systems ability to perform a required
function under specified operating conditions”
 Fault detection: “The process of determining the fault in the process and its
time of occurrence”. It is used to make a binary decision- either that
something has gone wrong or everything is fine
 Fault Detectability: “A fault is detectable if its occurrence, independent of
its size and type, would cause a change in the nominal behavior of the
system output”. Ding, Steven X., (2008)
10 Faults in NCSs

 NCSs are more vulnerable to faults because of network-induced effects as

faults may occur in:
 Sensors
 Actuators
 Process
 Network links

Image source: Ding, Steven X., (2008)

11 Model Based Fault Detection

 In model based FD, process model runs in parallel to the process and be
driven by the same process inputs.
 In fault-free scenario process variables reconstructed by process model well
follow the corresponding real process variables and show a significant
deviation in case of a fault.
 The difference between the measured process variables and their
estimates is called a residual.
 If residual is zero then there is no fault, whereas, a non-zero residual
indicates a fault has occurred.
12 Model Based Fault Detection
13 Model Based FD techniques

 Parity space approach

 Observer-based FD scheme
 Parameter identification approach
14 Robustness in Fault Detection

 In real systems there are always:

 Modelling uncertainties
 Process disturbances
 Measurement noise
 All these unknown inputs cause the residual signal to be non-zero, even in
fault free case
 This problem is catered for by using robust fault detection techniques that
decouple the effect of unknown inputs from residual.
15 Robustness in Fault Detection
 Robust fault detection schemes include:
 Unknown Input Decoupling Observer (UIDO)
 Optimal fault detection
 LMI aided design
16 Network Induced Effects

 Digital and shared medium of communication with limited bandwidth

 Random time-varying transmission delays
 Packet dropouts
 Quantization errors
 Bit errors
 These factors lead to increasing interest in developing new structures and
design schemes for Fault Detection of technical systems over networks
17 Random time-varying transmission
18 Packet dropouts

 The packet dropout is a typical feature of network communications. Such

packet dropouts can result in losses of process inputs or process outputs
 The simple and popular method to model packet dropout behavior is using
the i.i.d. Bernoulli model or the Gilber-Elliott model.
 A Bernoulli random variable αk indicates whether the packet at the k-th
time step is successfully received or not.
 Pr{αk = 1} = λ, Pr{αk = 0} = 1− λ, λ ∈ [0, 1].
19 Quantization errors

 The dictionary definition of

quantization is the division of a
quantity into a discrete number of
small parts.
 In digital control systems, the
quantization is usually understood as
an analog to digital (A/D)
conversion with a limited resolution.
 The quantization error is defined as
the difference between the real
values and the quantized values
20 Bit Errors

 In a communication network the

received bit can be different from
the transmitted one with a
probability pb, where pb is called
the bit error rate (BER).
 Bit errors in different positions of
the code-word are independent.
 That means if an n-bit code-word
is transmitted, each bit can be
incorrectly received with the
probability pb.
21 Project Timeline for 4th Semester

Project Timeline (Tentative)

1st Week 2nd Week 3rd Week 4th Week 5th Week 6th Week 7th Week 8th Week 9th Week 10th Week 11th Week 12th Week 13th Week 14th Week 15th Week 16th Week 17th Week

Collection of Literature

Study of the Literature

Comparison of Model Based Fault Detection Schemes

Comparative Study of Robust Fault Detection Techniques

Modelling of Networked Control System

Simulations of Networked Control System

23 Conclusion

 NCSs are getting more and more popular in industry due to their obvious
advantages over conventional control systems but introduction of digital
medium of communication in technical systems causes some problems
due to its limited bandwidth and shared sources.
 These network induced effects make NCSs more vulnerable to faults that
can compromise the performance or availability of the system.
 Therefore, a robust fault detection scheme should be developed for NCSs
so that, faults are timely detected and system failures may be avoided.