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Chapter 2

Quantitative and Qualitative

Dr. William M. Bauer

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Key Ideas
 Configurations of research
 Development of quantitative research
 Development of qualitative research
 Definitions of qualitative and quantitative
 The relationship between the research
process and qualitative and quantitative
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Three Configurations of
Study A
Study C
Qualitative Qualitative
Characteristics Characteristics

Study B Research studies may

Quantitative include characteristics of
Characteristics both approaches, but they
Qualitative are weighted more heavily
Characteristics one way or the other.

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The Development of
Quantitative Research:
Historical Trends
 Statistical Procedures
 Test and Measurement Practices
 Research Designs

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Historical Trends: Statistical
 Correlational procedures
 Comparing groups
 Cause/Effect relationships

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Historical Trends: Testing and
 Testing mental abilities (late 19th century)
 Measuring achievement (e.g. SAT)
 Predicting achievement from standardized

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Historical Trends: Research
 Educational Surveys (late 19th century)
 Simple Experiments (early 20th century)
 Multiple groups and tests (by 1935)
 Longitudinal designs
 Books on research design (e.g. Kerlinger

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The Development of Qualitative
Research: Major Themes
 Philosophical Ideas
 Procedural Developments
 Advocacy Practices

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Qualitative Research:
Philosophical Ideas
 Naturalistic Inquiry or Constructivism
 consider the participants point of view
 describe participant’s view within a setting or
 This is an alternative perspective to
traditional research

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Qualitative Research:
Procedural Developments
 Central Phenomenon rather than research
question or hypothesis
 Methods such as interviews, observations
and interviews
 Designs such as case studies, grounded
theory and narrative

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Qualitative Research:
Advocacy Practices
 The qualitative researcher is not objective,
politically neutral observer
 The qualitative researcher is an observer
of the human condition
 The meaning of the research is plural,
political and open
 The project is collaborative and

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Characteristics of Quantitative and
Qualitative Research in the Process of
Quantitative Steps in the Qualitative
Characteristics Research Process Characteristics
Description of trends and Exploratory/ Understanding
Explanation Oriented
Identifying a Problem a Central Phenomenon
•Major Role •Minor Role
•Justify Problem Reviewing the Literature •Justify Problem
•Specific and Narrow •General and Broad
•Measurable/Observable Specifying a Purpose •Participants’ Experience
•Pre-determined Instruments •Emerging Protocols
•Numeric Data Collecting Data •Text or image data
•Large numbers •Small Number
•Statistical •Text Analysis
•Description of Trends Analyze and Interpret Data •Description/Themes
•Comparisons/Predictions •Larger meanings of findings
•Standard and Fixed Report and Evaluate •Flexible and Emerging
•Objective and Unbiased •Reflexive and Biased

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Definitions of Qualitative and
Quantitative Research
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research
Quantitative research is an inquiry Quantitative research is an inquiry
approach useful for describing trends approach useful for exploring and
and explaining the relationship understanding a central phenomenon.
among variables found in the To learn about this phenomenon, the
literature. To conduct this inquiry, inquirer asks participants broad, general
the investigator specifies narrow questions, collects the detailed views of
questions, locates or develops participants in the form of words or
instruments using statistics. From images, and analyzes the information for
the results of these analyzes, the description and themes. From this data,
researcher interprets the data using the researcher interprets the meaning of
prior predictions and research the information drawing on personal
studies. The final report, presented reflections and past research. The
in standard format, display structure of the final report is flexible,
researcher objectivity and lack of and it displays the researcher’s biases
bias. and thoughts.

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Characteristics of Quantitative and
Qualitative Research in the Process of
Steps in the Two Approaches Research Designs
Research Process
Identifying a Problem Qualitative
Reviewing the Literature Qualitative •Experimental
Quantitative •Correlational
Specifying a Purpose Qualitative •Survey

Collecting Data Qualitative
Quantitative •Action
Analyze and Interpret Data Qualitative •Ethnography
Quantitative Theory
Report and Evaluate Qualitative •Narrative

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Quantitative Designs and Uses
Intervention Non-Intervention
Research Research

Explaining whether an Associating or

intervention influences relating variables
an outcome for one in a predictable
group as opposed to pattern for one Describing trends for
another group group of the population of
individuals people

Experimental Correlational Survey

Research Research Research

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Qualitative Research Designs
and Uses

Exploring common
Exploring the shared Exploring individual
experiences of
culture of a people stories to describe
individuals to
group the lives of people
develop a theory

Ethnographic Grounded Theory Narrative

Research Research Research

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Combined Designs and Uses

Combining quantitative and Using quantitative

qualitative data to best and qualitative data
understand and explain a for individuals to
research problem. study problems that
they face in their

Mixed Method Action

Research Research

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