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INTRODUCTION

• Using of concrete as a structural material has


been increased in recent years.
• Even structures constructed high performance
concrete, start to deteriorate long before
reaching their designed service life
• Expansive cement is a cement that when
mixed with water produces a paste that after
setting increases in volume to a greater degree
than does portland-cement paste.
Literature
Title Authors Year Observations
Expansive S. Nagataki & 1998, Properties of expansive cement. Kinds
admixtures (mainly H. Gem Elsevier Ltd. of expansive cement.
ettringite)

Expansive Cement SHU -T’IEN LI The Uses of self stressing cement.


Concrete Aberdeen
Group
Slight-expansive Bingliu Zhang, Uses of expansive cement as binder
road base course Weiguo Shen, coarse.
binder: Properties, Jing Wang
hydration
and performance

Application of the Reza Mechanical properties of polymer


polymer concrete Allahvirdizade concrete and applications in repair.
in repair of h & R.
concrete Rashetnia
structures
TYPES
• Type K expansive cement : A mixture of
Portland cement, Anhydrous Tetracalcium
Trialuminate sulfate (C4A3S), Calcium sulfate
(CaSO4), and Lime (CaO).
• Type M expansive cement : Portland cement
and calcium sulfate.
• Type S expansive cement : a portland cement
containing a high computed tricalcium
aluminate (C3A) and calcium sulfate
• The hydration chemistry of expansive cements
is described with emphasis on the
components for formation of ettringites.
• Expansive cement concrete as ‘shrinkage-
compensating concrete’ or ‘chemical
prestressing concrete ’ is applied to many
kinds of concrete construction.
• Shrinkage-compensating concrete is an
expansive cement concrete in which
expansion if restrained induces compressive
stresses which approximately offset tensile
stresses in the concrete induced by drying.
• Self-stressing concrete is an expansive cement
concrete in which expansion, if restrained,
induces compressive stresses of a high enough
magnitude to result in significant compression
in the concrete after drying shrinkage and
creep has occurred.
• Formation of pores in the hardened structure
or formation of gel state hydrates with low
density is required for the expansion to coexist
with chemical shrinkage.
Advantages
• The use of expansive concrete in place of reinforced
concrete slab of highway steel bridge may have
effect on diminishing of crack due to the
introduction of chemical pre-stress and shrinkage
decreasing effect.
• The concept originally advanced was that if the
ends of the pavement could be restrained while the
concrete was curing and tending to expand, a
compressive stress would be built up within the
concrete itself.
• Compression was to be obtained not by squeezing
the ends of the pavement, but rather by simply
restraining the ends as the concrete expanded
• The important factor in expansion is not
merely the hydration of expansive ingredients,
but the formation of surrounding hydrates
which the compressive force produced from
the expansive ingredients are transmitted to.
• As for durability, the expansive concrete given
long time water curing does not change the
expansive rate after it has reached a settled
value.
Polymer concrete(PC)
• PC is composite material in which binder is
synthetic organic polymer.
• Long chain of monomers.
• Improvising mechanical properties of the
concrete.
• Durability of the concrete.
Types of polymer concrete
(a) Polymer-Portland Cement Concrete (PPCC)
(b) Polymer impregnated Concrete (PIC)
(c) Polymer Concrete (PC).
• PPCC : Polymer is incorporated into a
Portland cement mix and a polymer network
formed in situ during curing of the concrete.

• PIC : Precast conventional concrete is cured


and monomer is diffused through open cell and
polymerized using chemical method.
• PC : Resin concrete
Case Study
Application of the polymer concrete
in repair of concrete structures
• High sensitive to temperature.
• Exhibits brittle behaviour at room temperatures
• As temperature of test cycles increases, flexural
elasticity decreases and failure becomes more
ductile, making values of fracture toughness
higher.
• Decrease in mechanical strength.
A large copper mine and refinery in the western
united states had a dilemma. Their cell houses
had experienced severe corrosion and structural
degradation of the support columns for the
tanks, each holding gallons of electrolyte. The
refinery’s standard repair procedures was to
remove corrosion products from the concrete
and steel and then to top them with a polymer-
modified Portland cement mortar.
This standard repair method requires two to three
days per column, and although temporarily
effective, did not meet the company’s desire for a
long-term solution. They decided upon a new
approach using a polymer concrete, which is
bisphenol A based-epoxy. This material is designed
for maximum flowability, mechanical properties and
chemical resistance. The cost of maintenance for
polymer concretes per year of service life is
significantly less than that of concrete with applied
barrier coating, which may require multiple re-
applications over the same number of years of
service