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E.C.

G MACHINE

By
Er.U.Karthik Premkumar,
H.O.D – Biomedical Engineering
Department.
Contents
 Aim
 Introduction
 History
 Anatomy and Physiology
 Principle
 Application
 Types Of ECG Machine
 Operation
 Safety Precautions
 Troubleshooting
Aims
 To provide basic
understanding on
the use of ECG
Machine
ECG MACHINE
*Introduction: What is an ECG?

An electrocardiogram or 'ECG' records


the electrical activity of the heart. The
heart produces tiny electrical impulses
which spread through the heart muscle
to make the heart contract.
ECG Machine…
 These impulses can be detected by the ECG
machine. You may have an ECG to help find
the cause of symptoms such as palpitations
or chest pain. Sometimes it is done as part of
routine tests, for example, before you have
an operation.

 The ECG test is painless and harmless. (The


ECG machine records electrical impulses
coming from your body - it does not put any
electricity into your body
Brief
History
- Willem Einthoven (a Dutch physiologist; 1860-1927)
made the first ECG recording in 1895.

- P, Q, R, S, T waves are also first defined by Willem


Einthoven in 1895.

- In 1905, Willem Einthoven recorded ECGs in his


laboratory which was located 1.5 km away from the
hospital.

- The patient was in the hospital while his ECG was being
recorded in the laboratory 1.5 km away.

- Willem Einthoven first published his normal and abnormal


ECG recordings in 1906.
Old string galvanometer electrocardiograph showing the big machine
with the patient rinsing his extremities in the cylindrical electrodes filled
with electrolyte solution.
Cont… History

- In 1924, Willem Einthoven received Nobel prize for his


invention of the ECG.

- Goldhammer ve Scherf were the first to suggest the use


of exercise ECG for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease
in 1932.

- Charles Wolferth ve Francis Wood were the first to report


the use of precordial electrodes in 1932.

- In 1942, Emanuel Goldberger adds the augmented limb


leads aVR, aVL and aVF to Einthoven's three limb leads and
the six chest leads making the 12-lead electrocardiogram
that is used today.
Chronology…
A 12-lead electrocardiogram
(ECG)
ECG is a graphic record of
electric currents that are
generated by the heart muscles.
Electrical impulses are picked up
by the surface electrode which
are placed at various points on
the body and connect the ECG
machine to the body.
Objectives
 To diagnose the presence of MI.
 To diagnose the presence of cardiac
dysrrhythmias.
 To diagnose the presence of cardiac
enlargement and size of cardiac
chambers.
 To detect the electrolyte
abnormalities especially K and Ca.
WHAT ARE ALL THE VARIOUS
ECG MACHINES AVAILABLE IN
PIMS?
LET ME TO U BEFORE YOU……
PHILIPS PAGE WRITER 100
PHILIPS PAGE WRITER TRIM 1
EDAN SE 1200
PHILIPS PAGE WRITER TC 20
PHILIPS C 3I
CONTEC
STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE TO
TAKE E.C.G
Determine that the client is able to tolerate a
supine position and that adequate exposure of
chest and limbs is possible for electrode
placement. Why supine position?
Correct sitting of electrodes is enhanced by
comfortable, stable position
Mid-Clavicular line
Each of the 12 leads represents a particular
orientation in space, as indicated below (RA =
right arm; LA = left arm, LF = left foot):
 Bipolar limb leads (frontal plane):
Lead I: RA (-) to LA (+) (Right Left, or lateral)

Lead II: RA (-) to LF (+) (Superior Inferior)

Lead III: LA (-) to LF (+) (Superior Inferior)


RIGHT ARM
LEFT ARM LEFT LEG
RIGHT LEG
ANY DOUBTS ?
DISCUSSIONS