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How do we
write an
Purpose of writing an essay
• An essay can have many purposes,
- writing an essay to argue for a particular
point of view or
- writing to explain a process of
making a kite.
• …. but the basic structure is the same no
matter what. (same basic format)
• An essay consists of a number of paragraphs
– 5 paragraphs
- 7 paragraphs
What is a paragraph?
• It is a group of RELATED sentences
• Expressing one central idea
• Consists of several sentences
• Part of a composition
Elements of a good paragraph
• A topic sentence
• Development
• Logical Order
• Closing
Topic Sentence -
• Introduces the main idea or topic of the
• A general idea
• Indicate what the paragraph is about
• Eg.
• There are many benefits of reading
• Many students are very keen on computer games. What
makes these games so popular.
Development / Supporting details
• Develop and support the main idea
• Describe and give more details about the
main idea
• Use example/ illustrations
• Give facts, statistic ,evidence
• Use an anecdote/ story
• Define terms
• Compare/contrast
• Evaluate cause/ reasons
• Examine effects & consequences
Logical Order
• The sentences have to be put together in
a way that makes sense.
• You also have to make sure all the
sentences are about the main idea.
• This is where your reader reads a
conclusion or ending to your main idea
Supporting Details - story
Topic sentence Elaboration
• My friends and I • My friends and I
arrived in Pulau arrived in Pulau
Langkawi Langkawi at 3 pm.

• (give more details – time

• Even though we
of arrival)
• feelings
felt tired after the
long journey, we
were very excited
about the trip.
Topic sentence Elaboration

• Cigarette smoking • This is because it

is hazardous to causes many types
your health. of cancer and heart
• Give one reason why
smoking is hazardous to
your health,
Topic sentence Elaboration

• There are many • For example,

types of exercises jogging
which are strengthens the leg
beneficial to our muscles and
health. improves
• Give examples functions.
• Write a good paragraph with the folowing
topic sentences .
• Add 3 or 4 more sentences.

• Example
• I like hot and spicy dish. (Give examples
and a reason)
Topic Sentence Elaboration
• I like hot and spicy dishes
• I like hot and spicy
dishes. (Give examples such as asam laksa and
chicken curry.
and a reason)
• I also cannot resist a bowl
of hot tomyam, a sweet
and sour dish.
• These dishes never fail to
lift up a dull and boring
Further Practice
1. Playing computer games is a
good pastime ( explain or give
2. Homework is a waste of time
3. School life can sometimes be
very boring. (give examples)
Extra exercise
4. Cigarette smoking is hazardous to health
(give facts)
5. Boys should learn how to cook (give
6. I dislike people who cannot keep a secret
(describe or give examples)
7. There are many benefits of reading.
Writing Good Paragraphs

• P1 focus on main idea, topic sentence, or thesis

• P2 major supporting ideas (describe P1)
• P3 details, elaboration, examples (describe P2)
How do I write
a good
• First, second , third , lastly, finally,
• another , moreover, in addition, in my opinion,
• besides, apart from that, next
• for example , for instance , in such cases,
• in other words, because of…
• In conclusion, In summary,
• These are the reasons..
Example 1
• P1 • Smoking is harmful to our health
• P2 • The first reason is because it causes
lung cancer.
• P3 • For example, cigarette smoke
contains 4000 chemicals which will
destroy our lungs.
• P4 • So, stay away from cigarettes
Example 1
• P1 • There are many benefits of reading.
• P2 • The first benefit is that it improves
the command of your language.
• P3 • For example, if you read a lot of
English story books, you will
definitely enrich your vocabulary as
• P4 well as improve your essay writing.
• (No P4… why?)
• P1 • The second benefit of reading is….

• P2 • For Instance, ….

• P1 • Another benefit of reading is…

• P2 • In such cases,…..

• P4 • Thus, we can see that reading indeed

brings a lot of benefits.
Complete this essay
The Benefits of Co-curricular Activities.
• Co-curricular activities bring a lot of benefits.
• First and foremost, the activities keep us
healthy. (P2)
• For example, when we play hockey, we keep
ourselves fit. (p3)

• Besides that, co-curricular activities help to

develop our leadership abilities..(P…)
• In many cases, many successful leaders
nowadays are actually leaders themselves at
school level. (P….)
Sample Essay 2
• There are many school rules and
regulations which you have to obey.
• P1 • Firstly, we must wear the school
• P2 uniform. The length of the pinafore
should be two inches below the knees.

• P1
• Besides , only black ribbons are
• P2
allowed. You are not allowed to….
Use this organizer !
• Page 29, Complete writing guide for PMR,
Arah Pendidikan.
The End
Thank You!!!

• Adjective word order

• The use of adjectives is essential when trying to describe a noun or pronoun. Good writers and speakers are able to use
adjectives to create clear, mental images for the reader or listener. As you continue to work on your English, don’t be afraid to
use multiple adjectives to describe something. Using more than three physically descriptive type adjectives in sequence to
describe one noun or pronoun would sound a little awkward. When using multiple adjectives in a sequence, you must be
aware of the correct adjective order. The proper order of adjectives is listed below along with some examples for each
• Determiners – a, an, the, my, your, several, etc.
• Observations – lovely, boring, stimulating, etc.
• Size – tiny, small, huge, etc.
• Shape – round, square, rectangular, etc.
• Age – old, new, ancient, etc.
• Color – red, blue, green, etc.
• Origin – British, American, Mexican, etc.
• Material – gold, copper, silk, etc.
• Qualifier – limiters for compound nouns.
• Here are some examples:
• "The interesting, small, rectangular, blue car is parked in my space."
"I bought a beautiful, long, red, Italian, silk tie."
"My father lives in a lovely, gigantic, ancient, brick house."
"I have an annoying, small, circular, American, tin, alarm clock that wakes me up."
"Let’s order a delicious, huge, rectangular, pepperoni pizza."
"We all love our smart, petite, British teacher."
"They all received several dazzling, small, ancient, gold coins."
"She owns a stunning, large, old, brown dog named Boris."
Now, try writing an article
• How students can reduce the amount of
time they spend on computer
• I. Introduction
• A. Questions
• B. Dialogues
• C. Idioms
• D. Story
• II. Body
• A. Effects
• i. Study time is reduced
• Ii. Lack of exercise
• Iii. Health problems – backache, eye strain
• Iv. Social problems – less family interaction, fewer
• B. Suggestions
• i. Prepare timetable
• Ii. Allow time for study and recreation

• C. Benefits
• i. study time organized
• Ii. More time with family
• Iii. Have new hobbies
• Iv. Stay healthy and alert
III. Conclusions
• State the result if one reduce the amount of
time spent on computer.
Now try writing an essay entitled
“Benefits of co-curricular
Draw a mind map before writing
For the

Fulfill the
activities Keeps us
Bring a lot healthy
Enter local

• Vocabulary is a weak area for many
• Do this exercise in your journal to increase
your vocabulary.
• Complete the mind
map below with 10 sad

words that describe ing

feelings miserab

• Give 10 words that
describe size

size large


• List 9 words used to
link sentences also

together. moreover


As a
conseque and
• List 10 words to
describe a town
• List 10 words to
describe a person
• List 10 words to
describe a nice place
• List 10 words to
replace the word appalling




Vocabulary power
• If you follow a few simple steps, you will
find that the essay almost writes itself.
• You will be responsible only for supplying
ideas, which are the important part of the
essay anyway.
• Don't let the thought of putting pen to
paper daunt you.
• Get started!
• These simple steps will guide you through the essay
writing process:
• Decide on your topic.
• Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas.
• Write your thesis statement.
• Write the body.
• Write the main points.
• Write the subpoints.
• Elaborate on the subpoints.
• Write the introduction.
• Write the conclusion.
• Add the finishing touches.
• What is a good paragraph?
• It is a group of related sentences..
• .. expressing one central idea.
• It usually consists of several sentences
• It is a part of a composition.
A good paragraph usually contains
the following elements…
• A topic sentence
• Development
• Logical order
• closing
Topic sentence (P1)
• This is the main idea or
• Subject of the writing
• It usually appears at the beginning of the
Development (P2)
• These are the sentences that describe the
main idea; giving more details
• Elaboration of the topic sentence (P1)
Methods used to make sure your paragraph
is well-developed :
• Use examples and illustration
• Give facts, statistics,evidence, details
• Quotation of people
• Use anecdotes / story
• Define terms
• Compare and contrast
Methods used to make sure your paragraph
is well-developed :
• Evaluate cause and reasons
• Examine effects and consequences
• Analyse the topic
Logical order
• The sentences have to be put together in
a way to make sense
• All sentences have to be about the main
• The conclusion or ending to your idea
• Topic sentence:
• introduces the topic of your paragraph
• it introduces the main idea of the paragraph.
• To write a ts : just say something general about the
• Eg. Many students are very keen on computer games.
What makes these games so popular?
• Indicate to your reader what your paragraph will be
• Eg. There are many benefits of reading. ( are
indicating that you are going to write about the benefits
of reading)
What are supporting details?

Give details to develop and support the main

idea of the paragraph.
How to write supporting details:
(details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph)

• i. give details:
• Eg. my friends and I arrive in pulau
langkawi. Even though we felt tired after
the long journey, we were excited about
the trip.
• (give more details – time of arrival, your
How to write supporting details?
• (details that develop and support the main idea of the paragraph)

• ii. give reasons:

• cigarette smoking is hazardous to your
health. This is because it causes many
types of cancer and heart diseases.
How to write supporting details
• (Give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph)

• (give one reason why smoking is

• iii. Give examples: There are many types
of exercises which are beneficial to our
health. For example, jogging strengthens
the leg muscles and improves
cardiovascular functions.
• Exercise for you….
Practice 1
Continue writing the paragraphs below.

• Last week, we were busy preparing to

celebrate Teacher’s Day. Firstly, we…
• Smoking is harmful to our health.
• I like my English teacher.
• Playing games is good for health.