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ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION

Angeles City
GRADUATE SCHOOL
SY 2 0 1 7 – 2 0 1 8

LEARNING
DOMAINS
AICAN JOSE M. NASH, RN, MAN
 The cognitive domain is known
THE as the “thinking” domain.
COGNITIVE
DOMAIN  Learning involves the
acquiring of information and
refers to the learner’s
intellectual abilities, mental
capacities, and thinking
process.
THE
COGNITIVE
DOMAIN  Objectives -- divided into SIX
LEVELS, ranging from the
simple (knowledge) to the
more complex (evaluation)
listed by Bloom et al., 1956.
LEVELS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR
1. KNOWLEDGE: Ability of the learner to memorize, recall,
define, recognize, identify specific information, such
as facts, rules, principles, terms etc. presented during
instruction.
2. COMPREHENSION: Ability of the learner to demonstrate
an understanding of information such as grasping an
idea by defining it or summarizing it in his own words.
3. APPLICATION: Ability of the learner to use ideas,
principles, abstractions, or theories in particular and
concrete situations, such as figuring, writing, reading,
or handling equipment.
LEVELS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR
4. ANALYSIS: Ability of the learner to recognize and
structure information by breaking it down into
smaller parts and specifying the relationship
between the parts.
5. SYNTHESIS: Ability of the learner to put together
parts and elements by creating a unique product
that is written, oral, pictorial etc.
6. EVALUATION: Ability of the learner to judge the
value of something, such as essay, design, or action,
by applying appropriate standards.
 Analysis Level: “After reading handouts
by provided by the nurse, the family
Examples of member will calculate the correct
number of total grams of protein
Behavioral included on average per day in the
Objectives: family diet. “
 Synthesis Level: “Given a sample list of
foods, the patient will write a menu
include foods from the four food
groups (dairy, meat, vegetables and
fruits, and grains) in the recommended
amounts for daily intake.”
Teaching  Cognitive domain learning is the
in the traditional focus of most
teaching. In education of patients
Cognitive and their family members (as well
as nursing staff and nursing
Domain students), emphasis remains on
the sharing of facts, ideas, and
concepts.
THE  The affective domain is known as the
“feeling” domain.
AFFECTIVE Learning involves influencing feelings
DOMAIN attitudes, values, and appreciations.
expressed as emotions, interests,

 Although nurses recognize the need for


individuals to learn in the affective
domain, the learner’s attitudes, beliefs
and values cannot be directly
observed, but can only be inferred
from words and actions (Maier-
Lorentz, 1999).
THE
AFFECTIVE
 Behavior in the affective domain is
DOMAIN guided by notions held by
individuals and society as to what
is considered good and right,
which involves moral reasoning
and ethical decision making.
LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR
1. Receiving. Ability of the learner to show awareness
of an idea or fact or a consciousness of a situation
or event in the environment.
2. Responding. Ability of the learner to respond to an
experience, at first obediently and later willingly
and with satisfaction.
3. Valuing. Ability of the learner to accept the worth of
a theory, idea, or event, demonstrating
commitment to an experience believed as having
value.
LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE
BEHAVIOUR
4. Organization: Ability of the learner to
organize, classify, and prioritize values by
integrating a new value into a general set of
values.
5. Characterization. Ability of the learner to
integrate values into a total philosophy or
world view.
Examples of
 Receiving Level: “During a group
Behavioral discussion, the patient will admit to
Objectives any fears he may have about needing
to undergo a repeat angioplasty.”
 Responding Level: “At the end of
one-to-one instruction, the child will
verbalize feelings of confidence in
managing her asthma using the Peak
Flow Tracking Chart.”
Examples of
Behavioral  Characterization Level:
Objectives “Following a series of in-service
education sessions, the staff nurse will
display consistent interest in
maintaining strict hand-washing
technique to control the spread of
nosocomial infections to patients in the
hospital.”
 The psychomotor domain is
known as the “skills” domain.
 Learning involves acquiring
THE fine and gross motor
PSYCHOMOTOR abilities such as walking,
handwriting, handling
DOMAIN equipment, or carrying out a
procedure.
 For development of psychomotor
skills to take place, there must be
integration of the other two
THE domains of learning as well.
 The affective component conveys
PSYCHOMOTOR recognition of the value or worth

DOMAIN of the skill being learned. The


cognitive component relates to
knowing the principles,
relationships, and processes in
carrying out the physical
movement.
LEVELS OF PSYCHOMOTOR
BEHAVIOR
 Perception: Ability of the client to show sensory
awareness of objects or cues associated with some
task to be performed. This level involves reading
directions or observing a process with attention to
steps or techniques involved in doing a task.
 Set: Ability of the learner to exhibit readiness to take a
particular kind of action, such as following directions,
through expressions of willingness, sensory
attending, or body language favorable to performing a
motor act.
LEVELS OF PSYCHOMOTOR
BEHAVIOR

 Guided Response: Ability of the learner to


exert effort under the guidance of an
instructor to imitate an observed behavior
with conscious awareness of effort.
LEVELS OF PSYCHOMOTOR
BEHAVIOR
 Mechanism: Ability of the learner to repeatedly perform
steps of a desired skill with a certain degree of confidence,
indicating mastery to the extent that some or all aspects of the
process become habitual.
 Complex Overt Response: Ability of the learner to
automatically perform a complex motor act with
independence and a high degree of skill, without hesitation
and with minimum expenditure of time and energy.
LEVELS OF PSYCHOMOTOR
BEHAVIOR
 Adaptation: Ability of the learner to modify or adapt
a motor skill to suit the individual or various
situations, indicating mastery of highly developed
movements that can be applied to a variety of
conditions.
 Origination: Ability of the learner to create a new
motor acts, such as novel ways of manipulating
objects or materials, as a result of an understanding
and ability to perform skills
 In psychomotor skill development, the ability
to perform a skill is not equivalent to
learning a skill.
 Performance is a transitory action, whereas
learning is more permanent behavior that
follows from repeated practice and
experience (Oermann, 1990).
 The actual learning of a skill requires practice to
allow the individual to repeat the performance with
accuracy and coordination, and out of habit.
Practice does make perfect, and so repetition
leads to perfection and reinforcement of the
behavior.
Transfer
of
Learning The effects of learning one skill on
the subsequent performance of
another related skill.
FACTORS THAT AFFECTING PSYCHOMOTOR LEARNING

 Environmental stimuli : Depending on the type and


level of stimuli, distractions in the immediate
surroundings may interfere with acquiring a skill.
 Anxiety level : It is important to reassure learners that
they are not necessarily being “tested” during
psychomotor skill performance.
 Developmental Stage : A young child’s fine and gross
motor skills as well as cognitive abilities are at a
different level than those of an adult.
 Practice session length : during the beginning stages
of learning a motor skill, short and carefully planned
practice sessions and frequent rest periods will help
increase the rate and success of learning.
 Another hallmark of psychomotor learning is the
type and timing of the feedback given to the
learners. During skill practice, learners receive
intrinsic feedback that is generated from within the
self, giving them a feedback for how they have
performed.
 In addition, the teacher has the opportunity to
provide augmented feedback by sharing with
learners an opinion or conveying a message
through body language about how well they
performed (Oermann, 1990).
 Performance checklists, which can serve as
guides for teaching and learning are also effective
tools for evaluating the level of skill
performance.
 An important point to remember is that it is all right
to make mistakes in the process of teaching or
learning a psychomotor skill.
Conclusion:
 Learning is a very complex phenomenon. It is clear that the
cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains, although
representing separate behaviors, are to some extent
interrelated.

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